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/ the loeb classical library, ^ 


fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, ph.d., ix.d. fW. H. B. ROUSE, litt.d. 

. A. POST, m.a. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soc. 

c w c ) 














JSL a. 




MOMLVIII — ** >9 . 


President and Fellow* of Harvard College 1958 

■ printed in Great Britain 







BOOK I 13 


book ni 157 

BOOK IV 213 

book v 283 



Ninety-three years have elapsed since Aelian's De 
naiura animalium was edited for the Teubner series 
by Rudolf Hercher. His text was a revision of that 
which he had published six years earlier, in 1858, 
in the Didot series. Both these books have long 
been out of print and almost unobtainable. In one 
respect the Teubner edition is inferior to its pre- 
decessor, since the editor gives no more than a bare 
* Index mutationum praeter codices factarum ' 
without specifying which * codices * he has used, and 
those who are concerned to know how he explains 
or defends some of his frequent desertions of the 
manuscripts must still turn to the preface and the 
' Adnotatio critica ' of the Didot edition. It was 
Hercher 's service to have detected the prevalence 
of glosses and interpolations, although in expelling 
them he is conscious that some will think that he has 
exceeded all bounds (Didot ed., Praef. p. ii). The 
text here printed is substantially that of Hercher s 
edition of 1864, and divergences from it are shewn 
in the critical notes, which lay no claim to be ex- 
haustive. In 1902 E. L. De Stefani made a survey 
of the manuscripts in Continental libraries 1 and 

1 The British Museum Burney MS 80 contains only excerpts 
in a 16th-cent. hand ; there is no MS of the NA in Bodley or 
in the Cambridge University Library, and I have not sought 
, farther afield. 




«f Si,- D'Arcv Thompson, one of Greek Birds (2nd 

Aelian's animals, and perhaps I shall be blamed tor 
not following him more often than I have done. In 
deterSg the modem equivalents and the 
Sent™ ^ nomenclature of the fauna a,d flora of 
AnHpnt Greece the oracles do not always speaK 
t»h one voice, and the best that a layman can hope 
far is whe^two or more interpretations have 
pTesLSfthemselves, the result of his cho.ce may 

Professor W 7 I-^B. Beveridge Professor F E 

rt itMrVr'SSey 'Mr", f. it*™ 

But 2y hSvie.t obligations are^to Mr. A. S F Gow, 
whoS'onsiderable portions of ^STc^ 
typescript, saved me from more blunders than 1 care 



to think of, and besides improving my English offered 
a number of corrections to the Greek text which I 
have gladly and gratefully adopted. The Syndics of 
the Cambridge University Press have courteously 
allowed me to reproduce two passages from an edition 
of Nicander published by them in 1953. 

A. F.S. 





The life of Aelian has been sketched by his con- 
temporary Flavius Philostratus (2nd-3rd cent, a.d.) 
in his Lives of the Sophists (2. 31), and he is the 
subject of a brief notice in 4 Suidas/ Claudius 
Aelianus was born at Praeneste about the year 
a.d. 170. He came of libertus stock and assumed the 
name of Claudius. At Rome he studied under 
Pausanias of Caesarea, a noted rhetorician and pupil 
of Herodes Atticus for whom Aelian reserved his 
chief admiration. Although a Roman, as he himself 
is proud to assert (VH 12. 25; 14. 45), he obtained 
such a mastery of the Attic idiom that he came to be 
known as ' the honey-tongued or honey-voiced/ 
while his success as a declaimer was rewarded by 
the bestowal of the title of Sophist (By the end of 
the second century the term had ceased to bear any 
philosophical implications and had come to denote 
one who taught or practised rhetoric.) Neverthe- 
less, mistrusting, it may be, his ability to maintain 
his hold over pupils and audiences — for the demands 
on a successful rhetorician were heavy— he devoted 
himself to the writing of 1 history ' (r<p ^vyypa<j>eiv 
irreOero, Phil.). He held the office of apx^pevs 
presumably at Praeneste, but the greater part of 
his time must have been spent in Rome, where he 
had access to libraries and enjoyed the patronage of 



the empress Julia Domna, who had gathered around 
her on the Palatine a circle of learned men that 
included Oppian, Serenus Sammonicus, Galen, 
Sstratusfand others who figure in je^- 
sophists of Athenaeus.i it was hxs boast that he had 
rfever been outside Italy, had never been aboard a 
ST and knew nothing of the sea-statements 
which most readers will find no difficulty m _ accept- 
ing. 2 He was over sixty years of age when he died, 


Besides the Be natura animaUum (to give it the 
name by which it is commonly referred to) two 
Xr wSrks by Aelian have survived-'E^oAa, 
d YP oi«Ca h a literary exercise m the form of twenty- 
four letters, vignettes of life in the country, some 
with an erotic motive; and IWAr? ,aropia {Vana 
Mstoria) in fourteen books, beginning with some 
chapters on natural history, but consisting n the 
mam of anecdotes historical and biographical, with 
excursions into mythology, and a variety of other 
tonics. The greater part as we have it seems to be 
ffm tiie hand of alternator. It resembles the 
Be natura animaUum in its deliberate avoidance of 
any systematic order. Fragments of two treatises, 
nipt ipovoias and Uepl BeCwv ivapyuw have been 
i J. Bidez in Camb. Anc. Hist. 12. 613; see also Wellmann 

U m oZl in a chapter borrowed who%fromA P K>n and 
WeCaM (BM 1. 486) considers that Aehan !S smply tran- 
Stag his authority. M. Croiset (Hist, de laht. gr. 5. 774) 
St" this view; his explanation seems to me moon- 


preserved, most of them in * Suidas.' So far as we 
can judge they were collections of stories illustrating 
heaven's retribution on unbelievers. Aelian has some 
bitter words for the scepticism of the Epicureans^ 
A bare mention is enough for two sets of epigrams 
inscribed eW/c' AtXiavov, on * herms ' of Homer and 
Menander which are supposed to have stood in 
Aelian's house at Rome. 1 

The De natura animalmm is a miscellany of facts, 
genuine or supposed, gleaned by Aelian from earlier 
and contemporary Greek writers (no Latin writer 
is once named) and to a limited extent from his own 
observation to illustrate the habits of the animal 
world. We are of course prepared to encounter 
much that modern science rejects, but the general 
tone with its search . after the picturesque, the 
startling, even the miraculous, would justify us in 
ranking Aelian with the Paradoxographers rather 
than with the sober exponents of Natural History. 
Mythology, mariners' yams, vulgar superstitions, 
the ascertained facts of nature — all serve to adorn a 
tale and, on occasion, to point a moral. His religion 
is the popular Stoicism of the age : Aelian repeatedly 
affirms his belief in the gods and in divine Provi- 
dence; the wisdom and beneficence of Nature are 
held up to veneration; the folly and selfishness of 
man are contrasted with the untaught virtues of the 
animal world. Some animals, to be sure, have their 
failings, but he chooses rather to dwell upon their 
good qualities, devotion, courage, self-sacrifice, 
gratitude. Again, animals are guided by Reason, 
and from them we may learn contentment, control 

1 See G. Kaibel, ed.j EpigramTnata Qraeca ex lapidibus 
conlecta (Berol. 1878), nos. 1084-5. 



of the passions, and calm in the face of death 
WW eoe ; bdow the surface. His primary object 

3 .Cio» nature, a»d to . ™>pl« 

,Wt co-ordinated, sometime, parataetie, eUu.e«. 

resque, ai ^ technique while 

A the ^ndlm^arting a moral W to 
Ws m«atives may well have seemed to Aelian a 
Jure way of gaining a like popularity with educated 
TaZ^ Some nlffht find fault with his random 

well aware, and in the Epihgue he defends nimsell 
S the Plea that a frequent change of topic helps 
to maintL the reader's interest and saves him 
from boredom, But as to the perman. ,nt value o 
his work he has no misgivings, and since fhilo 
Satus informs us that his writings were much 
Staked we may assume that they appealed to 
Sated drcTes 7 in a way that the voluminous 
and possibly arid compilations of grammarians did 

i See W. Schffiid, Der Atticisms, 3. 7 ff . 




The principal sources of the De natura animalium 
have been investigated by Max Wellmann and Rudolf 
Keydell in a series of articles which appeared in the 
journal Hermes between the years 1891 and 1937. 
Here it will be enough to state their conclusions and 
to indicate some of the reasons for them. 

That the name of Aristotle should occur over fifty 
times in a work professing to deal with animals will 
surprise no one. Yet it is certain that Aelian knew 
Aristotle only at second hand through the epitome 
of his zoological works made by Aristophanes of 
Byzantium (3rd/2nd cent. B.C.). Even so there is 
little enough of genuine descriptive zoology, and it 
was not in any purely zoological work that Aelian 
found his chief inspiration and guide. It is notice- 
able how often his statements regarding the names, 
habits, and characteristics of animals reflect in their 
manner of presentation, their content and style, the 
comments of scholiasts and writers like Athenaeus, 
Clement of Alexandria, and Pollux, who took their 
materials from grammarians. It became a manner- 
ism with the scholars of Alexandria to cite Homer 
whenever it was possible, and Aelian follows the 
fashion, less (so it would seem) with an aim to estab- 
lishing some fact of natural history than to proving 
Homer's knowledge of the science. Specimens of 
grammarian's lore meet us in the excursions into 
etymology and lexicography, in the myths and pro- 
verbs relating to animals, with their illustrations 
from dramatists and poets, and in a wealth of other 
matter which a professed zoologist would disregard 
as being irrelevant. Aelian is not, like Athenaeus, 



scrupulous in always naming his authorities, as we 
3 see later, but from parallel passages m other 
Sers rangTng from Plutarch and Athenaeus down 
to the (5th cent, a.d.) in which Paniphito 
is exwesslV named as being the source, Wellmann 
"Xdes that the pattern ed the ^chief source for 
Aelian was Pamphihis of Alexandria. He in his 
tn hadTased his work upon that most 
of grammarians Didymus, nicknamed X^«™£* 
excepting and abridging into one work a number 
of separate treatises by his forerunner. The title 
% th? work is given by ' Suidas ' as Aeipvv, and he 

r^kcellanv of ample scope embracing mythology, 
naCal Story, and paJoxa or ' tales of wonder, 

earlier Greek literature. In a number ot places 
A™ has grouped together, more or less closely, 
copters d Jved P from one and the same authority : 
thus, 12. 16-20 come o from Democritus; 4 19, 21, 

o« 7 ^9 W 41 46, 52 from Ctesias ; lt>. irom 

it would seem that his exemplar was arranged partly 
by animals and partly by authors hundred 

Aelian has given us accounts of over one nunorea 
accounts correspond with those 
wh£h weH in Athenaeus ((9. 387f-397c), but smce 
Aelian is generally more detailed, the resemblances 
^e "be faced Jthe use of a common source % For 
Athenaeus the principal authority on birds was that 
besT of ^ all anLnt ornithologists, Alexander the 

i WeUmaxm detects a hidden allnsion^to its title income 
voids ofAelian's ^-it^^"!' ^ 



Myndian,' 1 whom he cites more often than any 
other writer on natural history, Aristotle alone 
excepted, viz. thirteen times in Book IX and four 
times elsewhere. Photius describes him as having 
collected * a multitude of marvellous, even incredible, 
tales from earlier writers touching animals, trees, 
places, rivers, plants, and the like. 1 2 Aelian names 
him five times, and in a chapter (3. 23) relating to 
storks and their transformation into human beings 
takes occasion to praise his knowledge and to express 
his own belief in the story. It is not stretching 
probability to see in Alexander the source for Aelian's 
accounts of similar transformations (e.g. 1.1; 5. 1 ; 
15. 29), and for much besides, whether of fact or 
fable, regarding birds, their assignment to special 
gods (1. 48; 2. 32; 4. 29; 10. 34-5; 12. 4; and cp. 
Ath. 9.388a), their significance as omens (3. 9 ; 10. 
34, 37 ; and cp. Plut. Marius 17, Artem. Oneir. 2. 66). 
Nevertheless since Athenaeus and Aelian concur in 
misrepresenting him on the spelling of ctkcqi/j, it may 
be questioned whether they had direct access to his 
writings and whether their common error is not due 
to Pamphilus; see note oh Ael. 15. 28. In his 
description of the KardyfiXeTrov (7. 5) Aelian differs 
from the account given by Alexander in Ath. 5. 

Among ancient writers who treated of poisons 
and their antidotes the principal authority was 
Apollodorus (3rd cent. B.C.). Two of his works, or 
the essence of them, survive in the poems of Nicander. 
But though Aelian on seven occasions adduces 
Nicander as witness, there are discrepancies which 

1 D. W. Thompson, Glossary of Greek birds, p. vi. 

2 Fragments collected by Wellmann in Hermes 26. 546-55. 



preclude the idea of a direct use of the poet. There 
are however indications that Aelian and the scholia 
to Nicander drew from a common source. Aelian 
states (9. 26) that the Agnus-castus, an antidote to 
snakebites, was used at the Thesmophoria to ensure 
chastity : the same note occurs m 2 Nic. Ih 71. In 
9. 20 Aelian states on the authority of Aristotle 
(Mirab. 841 a 27) that the 1 Pontic stone if burnt ex- 
pels snakes : 2 Nic. Th. 45 cite the same passage In 
§ 51 ' Sostratus,' we are told, ' describes the Dipsas 
as white: Here Aelian has forsaken Apollodorus- 
Nicander, who had written (TO 387) f™%+°«™ 
ae\alvera h and he then proceeds to tell the myth 
of the Dipsas and the Ass, adding that it has been 
treated by Sophocles (and other poets] :^ S Nic. Ih. 
343 state specifically ' Sophocles ev (Clearly 
I did not borrow from Aelian.) The story of the 
Beaver and its self-mutilation is told by Aelian (6. 
S) ; it is mentioned in 2 Nic. Th. 565, and Sostratus 
is named as the authority for it. From AeL 4. 51 
and 6. 37 we learn the &£ e ™ 
and according to S Ap. Bh. 1. 1265 and S 

Theoc 6 28 the distinction was first noted by. 
Sostratus, though Aelian is the first to mention it. 
It seems then that Sostratus in his two works llepi 
BXnrwv koX SaKerwv and Ilepc Cwcov treated of 
insects as well as the lower animals and snakes As 
a zoologist his reputation stood next to Aristotle, 
and we are justified in assuming that both for Aelian 
and for the scholiast on Nicander he was the source 
for more than they have openly acknowledged, m 
the case of Aelian for 1. 20-22; 6. 36-8; 9. 39; 

^tlianhas much to tell us of elephants, both 


those of Libya and of India. Like Pliny (HN 8. 
1-34) before him and like Plutarch in his De 
solleriia animalium, Aelian has drawn extensively 
upon Juba II, King of Mauretania (c. 50 b.c.-c. 
a.d. 23). He was the first to maintain that the 
elephant's tusks are horns and not teeth, and Aelian 
follows him (8. 10 ; 11. 15 ; 14. 5). And since we learn 
from Pliny (HN 5. 16) that he wrote about the Atlas 
mountains and their forests, he is a likely source for 
all that Aelian relates touching Mauretania, its 
people, and its animals. The chapters on pearls 
(15. 8) and on Indian ants (16. 15) are to be traced 
to Juba's work De expeditione AraUca. 

The knowledge which Aelian displays of Egypt and 
its topography, its local traditions, customs, and 
religious beliefs, especially those relating to birds 
and animals, can come only from a writer well 
acquainted with the land and its people. We are 
given mystical and mythological reasons for the 
reverence or detestation in which certain creatures 
are held (10. 19, 21, 46) ; there are tales of wonder 
ranging from the merely curious to the impossible ; 
quotations from Homer are introduced into chapters 
on Egyptian religion. The pattern fits Apion (1st 
cent. a.d.). Born in the Great Oasis, he became head 
of the Alexandrian school, was a Homeric scholar 
and a pretender to omniscience. His Aegyptiaca 
was a compilation dealing with the history and the 
marvels of Egypt and was based upon earlier writers 
with additions from his own experience. One such 
there is which * every schoolboy knows,' the story of 
Androcles and the Lion (AeL 7. 48). 1 Chapters on 

1 A. Gellius 5. 14 [Apion] Hoc ... ipsum sese in urbe Eorm 
vidisse oculis suis conjvrmaU 



* ft l Q OK 

depth of the sea 

Opp. 1. 83-92 

Aei. w. »>o 

fish in the depths 












1 1 

Q A.1 





Octopus and fruit-trees 





7 SI 



/• Ol 

Q Oi. 






1 ^ 



1 • OO 

9. 50 

Sea-calf, Whale, Sea 



Flying fishes 



fish gregarious 



fish in winter and spring 

f 446-72 


generation of fish 

' 473-501 

6. 28 

generation of Octopus 


9. 66 

Moray and Viper 



period of procreation 



migration to the Euxh* 

s 598-611 


Dolphin and young 



Dog-fish and young 



' Blue-fish 5 and young 


2. 22 


In three of the above passages there can be little 
doubt that Aelian has paraphrased Oppian : compare 

OS ;; 

In both we find the same fishes in the same order, 
and, what is most significant, since a P^-wnt- - 
not bound by the exigences of met re, the sam us 
now of the singular, now of the plural. These three 
Iters cannot be separated from the other four- 
teen so that it is at least likely that they too are 
paraphrases of Oppian. Of the remammg rune 



passages some may have been derived from Oppian, 
others more probably from a common source. 

One such source was Leonidas of Byzantium. 1 
From him Aelian derived the story of the friendship 
between a boy and a dolphin at Poroselene (2. 6), 
which recurs in Oppian (5. 448-518). In 2. 8 Aelian 
tells how dolphins help men in the catching of other 
fish, and a similar account is given by Oppian (5. 425- 
47) : it is probable that both drew upon Leonidas. 
A comparison of Aelian s two chapters on poisonous 
fishes, 2. 44 and 50 (where Leonidas is named), 
with Opp. 2. 422-505 points certainly to him as their 
common source. Other passages indicate despite 
differences that both made use of the same authority, 
whether Leonidas or some other: compare 

Ael. 1. 4 with Opp. 3. 323-6 

5 (rpcoKrns) „ 144-8 (a/xia) 

19 „ 2. 141-66 

27 „ 241-6 

30 „ 128-40. 

The researches of Leonidas extended as far as the 
Red Sea (Ael. 3. 18). For information on fishes in 
western waters Aelian relied upon one Demostratus, 
who differs from Leonidas in being independent of 
any Aristotelian tradition and in concentrating upon 
paradoxa. To him Wellmann would attribute the 
accounts contained in Ael. 13. 23; 15. 9, 12; per- 

i Keydell (Hermes 72. 430 ff.) put9 the date of Leonidas in 
the 2nd cent, a.d, Leonidas is reported as having himself 
seen the boy and dolphin; Pausanias (3. 25. 7) also was a 
witness, and Oppian says that the memory of the event is still 
fresh, for it happened ' not long ago but in our own generation,' 
the last quarter of the 2nd century. Granting that it is 
incredible that the boy rode upon the dolphin, the rest of the 
tale may well be true. 



S Vindobonensis med. gr. 7 s. xv 

V Parisiensis suppl. gr. 352 

[formerly 997] s. xui 

W Vindobonensis med. gr. 51 s. xiv 
From these De Stefani selected seven only as possess- 
ing: value for the constitution of the text, viz. A, * , 
H?L, P, V, and W, the remainder being copies oi one 
or other of those seven. 


1556 C. Gesner (Zurich F°). Ed. pr. 

1611 P. Gillius and C. Gesner (Geneva, 16 ). 

1744 Abraham Gronovius (London, 4°). 

1784 J. E. G. Schneider (Leipzig, 8°). 

1832 C. F. W. Jacobs (Jena, 8°). 

1858 R. Hercher (Didot, Paris, la. 8 ). 

1864 B. Hercher (Teubner, Leipzig, 8 ). 
Gesner provided a parallel Latin translation which 
was later revised by A. Gronovius and was repnnted 
in all editions down to 1858. The only translation 
into a modern language that I know <*JM£"*£ 
seen) is the German version by Jacobs (Stuttgart;, 
1839-42). Gossen in 1935 announced that he had 
ready for press a fresh translation equipped with fall 
notes, indexes, etc., but I have not been able to 
trace it. 


Cobet (C. G.). Novae lectiones (p. 780). Leyden, 

VariJe'lectiones, ed.2 (pp. 131, 209, 341). .Ib., 



Cobet (C. G.). Aeliani locus [NA 1. 30] correctus. 
Mnemos. 7 (1858) 340. 
De locis nonnullis apud A. Ib. N.S. 12 (1884) 433. 
Baehrens (W. A.). Vermischte Bemerkungen zur gr. 

u. lat. Sprache [NA 7. 8], Gloita 9 (1918) 171. 
De Stefani (E. L.). I manoscritti della Hist. Animal. 
di Eliano. Studi ital difihl class. 10 (1902) 175. 
Per Y Epitome Aristotelis De animalibus di Aristofane 
di Bizanzio. Ib. 12 (1904) 421. 
Goossens (R.). 1/ oSovrorvpawos, animal de 1' Inde, 
chez Palladius. [See NA 5. 3.] Byzaniion 4 
(1927-8) 34; 

Gossen (H.). Die Tiernamen in A's ... II. £. 

Quellen u. Stud. z. Gesch. d. Naturwissenschaften 

u. d. Medizin 4 (1935) 280. 
Grasberger (L.). Zur Kritik des A. Jb. f. class. 

PkiloL 95 (1867) 185. 
Haupt (M.). Conjectanea [NA 2. 22]. Hermes 

5 (1871) 321. 
Varia. 76.4 (1870)342. 
Hercher (R.). Zu A.'s Thiergeschichte. PhiloL 9 

(1854) 748. 

Zu A/s Thiergeschichte. Jb. f. class. PhiloL 71 

(1855) 450. 

Aeiian, etc. PhiloL 10 (1855) 344. 
Interpolationen bei A. Jb. f. class. PhiloL 72 

(1856) 177. 

Zu griech. Prosaikern. Hermes 11 (1876) 223. 
Kaibel (G.). [A. and Callimachus.] Hermes 28 
(1893) 54. 

Key dell (R.). Oppians Gedicht von der Fischerei u. 

A/s Tiergeschichte. Hermes 72 (1937) 411. 
Klein (J.). Zu A. [NA 6. 21, 46; 12. 33]. Rhein. 

Mus. N.F. 22 (1867) 308. 



Meineke (A.). Zu griech. Schriftstellem [NA A. 12]. 

Radermacher (L.)- vana * 

Zu fsyllos von Epidauros. [NA 13. 15-] «** 

(1929) 374. . y j 3. ^ ian . 

Thouvenm (P.). Untersuci *? /ifWfi 599. 

analyse des A. Hemes 26 (1891) 6£L. 
Alexander von Myndos 26. 481. . 

f^pfete. ». 51 (1916)1- 

uiaiBou to the work. -J i» «« Prrfta, I 

should mention: 


Aristotle. Historia animalium [trans.] by D. JF. 

Thompson, Oxf. 1910. 
Keller (O.). Dze aniike Tierweli. 2 vols. Leipz. 


Oppian . . . with an Engl, transl. by A. W. Mair. 

(Loeb CI. Lib.) Lond. 1928. 
Radcliffe (W.). Fishing from the earliest times. 

Lond. 1921. 

Saint-Denis (E. de). Vocabulaire des animaux 
marins en Latin classique. (fitudes et commen- 
taires, 11.) Paris, 1947. 

Abbreviations used in the critical notes. 
Cas[aubon, I.] Oud[endorp, F. van] 

Ges[ner, C] Schn[eider, J. G.] 

Gill[ius, P.] OSchn[eider, Otto] 

Gron[ovius, A.] Valck[enaer s L. K.] 

H[ercher 9 R.] Wytt[enbach, D.] 

Hemst[erhu$ius, T.] add[ed by]. 

Jac[obs, C. F. W.] conj[ectured by]. 

Mein[eke s A.] del[eted by], 

om\itted by]. 




VOL. I. 



Book I 

1 The Birds of Diomede 

2 The Parrot Wrasse 

3 The Mullet 

4 The 4 Anthias.' The Parrot 


5 The Gnawer and Dolphins 

6 Animals in love with hu- 

man beings 

7 The Jackal 

8 Nicias and his Hounds 

9 The Drone 

10 Servitors among Bees 

1 1 Bees, their ages and habits 

12 The Mullet, how caught 

13 The ' Etna-fish,' its con- 


14 The Wrasse, its paternal 


15 The Wrasse, how caught 

16 The * Blue-grey ' fish and 


17 The Dog-fish and young 

18 The Dolphin and young 

19 The Horned Ray 

20 The Cicada 

2 1 The Spider and its web 

22 Ants observe a day of rest 

23 The S argue, how caught 

24 Vipers and their mating 

25 The Hyena 

26 The Black Sea-bream 

27 The Octopus 

28 Wasps, how generated 

29 The Owl 

30 The Basse and the Prawn 

31 The Porcupine 

32 Mutual hostility of certain 


33 The Moray 

34 The Cuttlefish 

35 Birds use charms against 


36 The Torpedo. The Hal- 

cyon. Causes of numb- 

37 Protective and numbing 

powers of certain herbs 

38 (i) The Elephant, its love of 

beauty and perfumes 
(ii-iv) Various irritants 

39 The Sting -ray, how caught 

40 The Great Tunny 

41 The ' Melanurus ' 

42 The Eagle, its keen sight 

43 The Nightingale 

44 Cranes bring rain 

45 Vulture's feathers. The 


46 The Four-toothed Sparus 

47 The Raven's thirst 

48 The Raven in divination; 

its eggs 

49 The Bee-eater 

50 The Moray and the Viper 

51 Snakes generated from 

marrow of evil-doers 

52 The Swallow 

53 The Goat, its breathing 

54 Viper, Asp, etc., their bites 

55 Sharks and Dog-fish 

56 The Sting-ray 

57 The Cerastes and the Psylli 



58 The enemies of Bees 

59 A Bee-hive 

60 The King Bee 

Book II 

1 Cranes, their migration 

2 c Fixe -flies * 

3 The Swallow 

4 'Ephemera 1 

5 The Asp. The Basilisk 

6 Dolphin and boy at Poro- 


7 The Basilisk 

8 Dolphins help fishermen 

9 Deer and Snakes 

10 Mating of Mare and Ass 

1 1 Performing Elephants 

12 The Hare 

13 Fishes and their leaders 

14 The Chameleon 

15 The Pilot-fish 

16 The 'Tarandus' 

17 The Sucking-fish 

1 8 Medicine in the Heroic Age. 

Elephants and their 

19 The Bear and its cub 

20 Oxen of Erythrae 

21 Snakes of Ethiopia and 


22 The Sprat 

23 The Lizard, its vitality 

24 The Asp. Human spittle 

25 Ants store grain 

26 The Eagle and nestlings 

27 The Ostrich 

28 The Bustard and Horses 

29 The Fly 

30 The Cockerel, and how to 

keep him 

31 The Salamander 

32 The Swan and its song 

33 The Crocodile 

34 The Cinnamon bird 

35 The Ibis and clysters 

36 The Sting-ray 

37 The Shrew-mouse 

38 The Ibis 

39 The Golden Eagle 

40 The Eagle and its keepers 

41 The Red Mullet 

42 The Falcon 

43 The Kestrel. Hawks and 

their eyesight. Hawks 
of Egypt 

44 The Rainbow Wrasse 

45 The Sea-hare 

46 The Vulture. The 'Aegy- 


47 The Kite 

48 Ravens of Egypt, of Libya 

49 The Raven and its young 

50 Poisonous fishes 

51 The Raven, its daring, 

voice, and diet 

52 Viviparous animals 

53 Hornless Cattle. Bees m 


54 The Parrot Wrasse 

55 The Shark 

56 The Mouse and its liver. A 

shower of Mice, of Frogs 

57 The Ox, man's benefactor 

Book III 

1 Lions of Mauretania 

2 Horses of Libya. Hounds 

of Crete and elsewhere 

3 India devoid of Pigs 

4 Ants of India 

5 Tortoise and Snake. The 

Pigeon, its conjugal fid- 
elity. The Partridge, its 
amorous nature 

6 Wolves cross a river 

7 Animal antipathies 

8 Mares and foals 

9 The Crow, its conjugal 

fidelity. Owl and Crow 

10 The Hedgehog 

11 The Crocodile and Egyp- 

tian Plover 


12 Jackdaws and Locusts 

13 Cranes, their migration 

14 Cranes give warning of 


15 The Pigeon 

16 The Partridge and its 


17 Jealousy in animals 

18 The Inflater fish 

19 The Seal 

20 The Pelican. The Sea- 


21 A Bear and Lions 

22 Ichneumon and Asp 

23 Storks, their mutual affec- 

tion ; transformation in- 
to human beings 

24 The Swallow and its nest 

25 The Swallow and its young 

26 The Hoopoe 

27 No Lions in Peloponnese 

28 The Perseus fish 

29 The Pinna 

30 The Cuckoo 

31 The Cock feared by Basi- 

lisk and Lion 

32 Local peculiarities 

33 The Asp. Nile water pro- 

motes fertility in animals 

34 A wonderful Horn 

35 Partridges, their different 


36 The Grape-spider 

37 Frogs in Seriphus 

38 Local peculiarities 

39 The Goatsucker 

40 The Nightingale 

41 The Unicorn's horn 

42 The Purple Coot. The 


43 The Raven in old age 

44 Ringdoves, their conjugal 


45 Pigeons and young; and 

birds of prey 

46 An Elephant and its keeper 

47 Examples of incest 

Book IV 

1 The Partridge. Cretan 


2 The Pigeons of Aphrodite 
* at Eryx 

3 Lion and Lioness 

4 The Wolf 

5 Animal enmities 

6 The Horse 

7 Example of animal incest 

8 Groom in love with Mare 

9 Fish in the mating season 

10 Elephants worship the 


11 The Mare 

12 The Partridge, its young 

13 The Partridge : three kinds 

14 Marten and Snake 

15 The Wolf, when full-fed 

16 The Partridge as decoy 

17 The Hedgehog. The Lynx 

18 Objects poisonous to cer- 

tain animals 

19 The Indian Hound 

20 Peculiarities of various 


21 The Mantichore 

22 The power of human spittle 

23 The Willow. The Hem- 


24 The taming of Elephants 

25 Oxen treading out the corn 

26 Falconry in India 

27 The Gryphons and the gold 

of Bactria 

28 The Turtle and its eyes 

29 The Cock and its crowing 

30 The Jackdaw 

31 The Elephant, its anatomy 

and habits 

32 The Goats and Sheep of 


33 The Chameleon and Snakes 

34 The Lion 

35 The Ox and its memory 

36 The Purple Snake of India 



37 The Ostrich 

38 The Sparrow 

39 The Fox and Wasps 

40 The Dog 

41 The ' Dikairon ' 

42 The Francolin. The * 


43 The Ant. Greek festivals 

44 Animals remember kind 


45 The story of a Lion, a Bear, 

and a Dog 

46 (i) The Lac insect 
(ii) The Dog-heads 

47 The Golden Oriole 

48 How to check an angry Bull 

49 The Leopard 

50 The Horse, its eyelashes 

51 The Gadfly. The Horse-fly 

52 The Wild Ass of India 

53 A calculating animal 

54 Asp in love with a Goose - 


55 The Camel of Bactria 

56 Seal in love with a Diver 

57 The Water-snake, its bite 

58 The Rock-dove. The 

< Circe' 

59 The Blue -fowl 

60 The Chaffinch 

Book V 

1 The Ruff, the bird of Mem- 


2 Crete hostile to Owls and 


3 A monstrous Snake in the 


4 The Porpoise 

5 The victorious Hen 

6 A captured Dolphin 

7 Monkey and Cats 

8 Places hostile to certain 


9 The Cicadas of Locris and 


10 Bees and their King 

11 The King Bee. Character 

of the Bee 

12 The Bee, its industry 

13 The Bee, its skill, its 

colonies; as weather-pro- 
phet ; its love of song 

14 (i) Rats in Gyarus and 

(ii) Scorpions on mt Latmus 

15 The King Wasp 

16 The Wasp and its poison 

17 The Fly 

18 The Great Sea-perch 

19 Wolf and Bull 

20 The Hake 

21 The Peacock 

22 Mouse saved from drown- 


23 The Crocodile 

24 The Bustard 

25 The Lamb 

26 The Monkey 

27 Peculiarities of certain ani- 


28 The Purple Coot 

29 Geese in love with hu- 

man beings. Geese and 

30 The Egyptian Goose 

31 Anatomy of the Snake 

32 The Peacock 

33 The Duck 

34 The Swan and death 

35 The Heron and Oysters 

36 The 1 Asterias ' 

37 The Torpedo. The Great 


38 The Nightingale 

39 The Lion 

40 The Leopard 

41 Ruminants and their sto- 

machs. The Cuttle-fish 

42 Bees : various kinds. 

43 The ' Day-fly ' 

44 The Cuttle-fish . 

45 The Wild Boar 



46 Nature's medicines for ani- 


47 A Lizard regains its lost 


48 Animal friendships and 


49 Animals' dislike of dead 


50 (i) Confidence and fear in 


(ii) Animals suckling their 

51 Various sounds made by 


52 Reptiles foretell the Nile's 

< rise 

53 The Hippopotamus 

54 Leopard and Monkeys 

55 The Elephant 

56 Deer crossing the sea 




"Avdpamov pkv thai ao^ov /cat St'/catov Kal t&v 
olKetwv WSoyvrrpoyi^OiGTaTOV, teal t&v yewapdvwv 
TroieZadai ttjv irpooriKOVoav faovTiSa, Kal Tpojrqv 
iavrcp jxacnevew Kal impovXds ^vXdrreaOat /cat ra 
Xoma oca avTcp ovveon Bcbpa j>vo€Q>$, napdSogov 
laws oiSeV- /cat yap Xoyov ixerecXrjxev^dvdpcoTTO? 
rod rtdvTWV Tt/xta>raTOU 3 /cat Xoyiafiov ^iWat, 
oa-rrep odv eWt iroXvapKeararos re /cat ttoXvw- 
^eAe'araros- dAAa /cat Seovs alMaQai otSe /cat 
cre/ktv. to Se /cat rot? dXoyois fiereimi twos 
dpeTfjs /caret <£tW, x /cat -rroXXd twv dvBpwtrLvwv 
7rXeov€KT7]ixdTO)v kol 6avfxaaTa Zx €LV ovyKeKXrjpa)- 
piiva, tovto rjBrj fteya. /cat elSivai ye firj paOvjxws 
Ta TTpooovTa avTcov t8ta e/caara), /cat^ ottcqs 
iaTrovModrj ov /xetov rdV dvQpw-nwv Kal <rd> 2 
aAAcov etT? av rtvos TreTratSev/xevTj? <j>pevos 

Kal p,a8ovar}S 7roX\d. d)S p>ev ovv /cat jripois 
VTTep tovtwv iairovhaarai , KaX&s otBa * iyw Se 
[ejuavrai] 3 ratJTa ova olov tc rjv dOpotcras Kal 
ircptpaXwv avrois tt)v ovviqdrj Xigiv, Kei[ir}Xiov ovk 

1 <f>voiv Kal el pjr] koto. Tqv oUelav Kpiow. 





There is perhaps nothing extraordinary in the fact 
that man is wise and just, takes great care to provide 
for his own children, shows due consideration for his 
parents, seeks sustenance for himself, protects himself 
against plots, and possesses all the other gifts of 
nature which are his. For man has been endowed 
with speech, of all things the most precious, and has 
been granted reason, which is of the greatest help and 
use. Moreover, he knows how to reverence and wor- 
ship the gods. But that dumb animals should by- 
nature possess some good quality and should have 
many of man's amazing excellences assigned to them 
along with man, is indeed a remarkable fact. And to 
know accurately the special characteristics of each, 
and how living creatures also have been a source of 
interest no less than man, demands a trained in- 
telligence and much learning. Now I am well aware 
of the labour that others have expended on this 
subject, yet I have collected all the materials that I 
could ; I have clothed them in unteehnical language, 
and am persuaded that my achievement is a treasure 

<tc£> add. Jac. 

3 [e^aurtS] del. H. 



aorrovhavTov GKirovrjaai TrerrLarevKa. ^ el hi ro) ml 
cDtiai ^aveirat ravra XvaireXr), xpwflfti aVTOLS [ 
orwhe ov faveZrat, idrw rw war pi Bakrreiv re Kai 

7T€pL€7T€lV ' OV ydp TTIXVTO, TTaVl KoM^ OVOe a£ Wt 

§oK€l oirovBdoai <navi -rrdvra. el Be hri ttoXXoZs 
roZs Ttpcbrois koX oo$oZ$ yeyovapev, p\ earco 
fytLiaypa is 1 enaivov rj rov xP° vov « fi 'mi 

oLvrol GTrovBfjs a&ov pLdOrjfjLa irapexotiie8a koa rfj 
evpioet, rfj rrepirroripa koX rfj $<ovfj, 
1 eis mss always. 



far from negligible. So if anyone considers them 
profitable, let him make use of them; anyone who 
does not consider them so may give them to his father 
to keep and attend to. For not all things give 
pleasure to all men, nor do all men consider all 
subjects worthy of study. Although I was born later 
than many accomplished writers of an earlier day, the 
accident of date ought not to mulct me of praise, if 
I too produce a learned work whose ampler research 
and whose choice of language make it deserving of 
serious attention* 


1. KoAetrcu tls Aio/^Setct vrjaos, Kal ipwhtovs 
exet 7ToXkov$. o5rot, <£a<rt, tous fiapfidpovs ovre 
aBiKovaw ovre avrols itpoolaow * eav 8e "EAA^v 
Kardprj |eW, ot Se 0eia Ttvt Sajpea irpooiavi 
trripvyas iirXwaavres olovel xetpa? vivas es 
Se£iWiy re Kal TrepirrXoKas . fcai a-rrrofiivojv rcbv 
'EXXrjvcov U7ro<£ez;youor«>, <xAA' drpefiovat kol 
dvexovrah Kal Kadrjfievcov is rovs koXttovs Kara- 
Trerovrai, cknrep ovv i-rrl £evia 1 kAtj0€j/t€S. 
Xiyovrai ovv ovroi AtofjujBovs iratpot, etvai Kal 
ovv avrcp ra>v ottAcdv rwv i-rrl rrjv "IAtov \ier- 
eoxqKivai, elra rrjv TTporepav <j}vatv is to rcov op- 
vldcov fjuera^aXovres elSos, opais ert Kal vvv Zia$v- 
Xdrrew to etvai "EXArjves re Kal <S>iXeXXrjves* 

2. e OK&pos rroas liev BaXarrlas crirelrai Kal 
jSpua * Xayvlararos Se dpa IxOvcov ditdvraw fjv, 
Kal ^ ye irpos to OrjXv aKopearos imOvfila avrw 
dXcbcrecas atria ylverai. ravra odv avra} ovveyva>~ 
Kores ol cro<f>ol rwv dAieW, imrlQevrai oi rov 
rpoTrov rovrov. orav OrjXvv crvXAdfiwow, ivih-qaav 3 
opiua crrrdprov 7TeiT0i7jp,evrj Xeirrfj rod aroixaros 
aKpov, kol imvvpovot, 8ta rrjs daXdrnqs rov IxOvv 
£covra - laaai Be evvds re avrcbv kol 8iarpt,fid$ /cat 

1 Gron : 


8 ISijcrav, 


1. There is a certain island called Diomedea, 3 and ^j^ 3 of 
it is the home of many Shearwaters. These, it is said, 
neither harm the barbarians nor go near them. If 
however a stranger from Greece puts in to port, the 

birds by some divine dispensation approach, extend- 
ing their wings as though they were hands, to welcome 
and embrace the strangers. And if the Greeks stroke 
them, they do not ny away, but stay still and allow 
themselves to be touched ; and if the men sit down, 
the birds fly on to their lap as though they had been 
invited to a meal. They are said to be the com- 
panions of Diomedes b and to have taken part with 
him in the war against Ilium ; though their original 
form was afterwards changed into that of birds, they 
nevertheless still preserve their Greek nature and 
their love of Greece. 

2. The Parrot Wrasse feeds upon seaweed and ^^rot 
wrack, and is of all fishes the most lustful, and its in- 
satiable desire for the female is the reason why it gets 
caught. Now skilful anglers are aware of this, and 

they set upon it in this way. Whenever they capture 
a female, they fasten a fine line of esparto to its lip 
and trail the fish alive through the sea, knowing as 
they do where the fish lie, their haunts, and where 

8 Mod. San Domenico, one of the three * Isole di Tremiti/ 
about 15 mi. N of the ' spur ' of Italy. 

b King of Argos ; settled later in Daunia, where he died and 
was buried in Diomedea. 



ottov ovvayeXd&VTai. fioXvfiSos oi avrois TTtirouq- 
rai fiapvs rrjv oXktjv, TrepL^prjs to a^^a, Kal 
£X €i H-y K °s Tpuov &aKTv\a)v } Kal SielXrjrrrat e£ 
aKpcov oxoivq) } Kal imcnSpei, 1 rov redrjpapJvov. 
Kal Kvprov res rcov iv rfj 7Top6p,($i 7rapapT7]cra$ 
indyerai evpvv to arofjua, Kal is rov iaXwKora 
rirparrrai uKapov 6 Kvpros * fiapzirai ^ Se i\av xq 

OVTOS Xidcp {JL€p,€Tp7)tJL€VCp. OVKOVV oi dpp€VeS, 

cQCTTTep ovv vvfi<f>r}V (bpLK7]V 2 veavlai Oeaadfievoii 
olarpovvraL re Kal p,eradeovoi, Kal irrelyovrai 
</>6duai dXXos aXXov kol yeveadai rrXiqutov Kal 
Trapai/savaai, axnrep odv hvaepwres avdpamoi 
^[Xrjfxa rj Kvta/xa drfpcJopuevoi, rj n dXXo /cAe/x/xa 
ipwTLKov. 6 Tolvvv dyo>v rov drjXvv rjavxrj Kal 
Tre<$>eiGp,ev<x>s, Xox&v re Kal iirifiovXevaiv ev9v rod 
Kvprov ovv rfj ipa)fi4vrj, <$>aiy}$ dV, rovs ipaords 
ayei. yevop,ivu>v he opiov rep Kvprcp, rov [ikv 
pioXvfihov p,edf]K€V 6 drjparrjs is to loco 3 * o Se 
dpa ifJLmTTTcov avv rfj oppuq Karacnrq Kal rov 
QrjXvv, ovkovv ovveapevaavres eaXd)Kaai } kol Sc8o- 
aai olk7]v opfjirjs d<$>pooiotov ravrrjv oi aKapoi. 

3. f ix@vs 6 KefaXos rd>v iv rocs eXem 
pLovvroov iorl, Kal irerrLorevrai rrjs yaarpos 
Kpareiv Kal hacrdo-Qai Trdvv craxf>p6vQ)S- Jww 4 
fikv yap ovk iirirLQeTai, dXXd rrpos 7rdvras rovs 
1x9 vs evoiTOvhos etvai iri^vKev * orcp S* dv ivrvxTI 


avrov TrpocrdTTTerai, 7Tplv rj rfj ovpq Kivrjcrai. Kat 
drpefiovvros p<ev 6%et rrjv dypav, KivrjOivros oe 

1 iinavpGTai. 2 Jac: iptonfrfv. 



they assemble. They prepare a heavy leaden sinker 
round in shape and three fingers in length ; a cord is 
passed through both ends, and it trails the captured 
fish after it. One of the men in the boat attaches to 
the side a weel with a wide mouth ; the weel is then 
turned towards the captured Wrasse and slightly 
weighted with a stone of appropriate size. Where- 
upon the male Wrasses, like young men who have 
caught sight of a pretty girl, go in pursuit, mad with 
desire, each trying to outstrip the other and to reach 
her side and rub against her, just as love-sick men 
strive to kiss or tickle <a girl) or to play some other 
amorous trick. So then the man who is towing the 
female gently and slowly and planning to entrap <his 
fish), draws the lovers (as you might call them) with 
the loved one straight towards the weel. As soon as 
they come level with the weel, the angler lets the 
lead weight drop into it, and as it falls in it drags the 
female down with it by the line. And as the male 
Wrasses swim in with her, they are captured and pay 
the penalty for their erotic impulse. 

3. The Mullet is one of those fishes that live in Em Mullet 
pools and is believed to control its appetite and to 
lead a most temperate existence. For it never sets 
upon a living creature, but is naturally inclined to 
peaceful relations with all fish. If it comes across 
any dead fish, it makes its meal off that, but will not 
lay hold upon it until it has moved it with its tail : if 
the fish does not stir, it becomes the Mullet's prey ; 
but if it moves, the Mullet withdraws. 

slqw mss always. 

* Cobet : £<t><o H. 



4. Tt^o)pov<Jiv aAA^Aot? (bs dvdpo)7TOi moral Kal 
uvarpXiruorat hUaioi oi IxQves, ovairep odv dvBlas 
oi tt}? Oypas iirurrfjiioves rfs daXarrtas <f>iXovoiv 
dvo^ew, Svras ra yjOr] TteXaylovs. TOtW yovv 
Ikootoi, orav vorjaoxn re%>aff0at tov ovvvopov, 
<npooveovoiv Jjicwrra, eha is clvtov rd vwra 
drtepelhovai, Kal ifimmovres Kal (bOovfxevoi rfj 
Swa/xet kcoXvovctlv eXKeadai. 

Kal oi aK&poi he is rfv olKeiav dyeXrjv ^ elalv 
dya9ol rifUopoL rrpocrtaaL yovv, Kal t^v opfxtdv 
aTrorpayelv airevhovcriv , tva awaojoi tov ypyfievov 
Kal TToXXaKis puev drroKS^avres evwaav Kal d^rjKav 
iXevBepov, Kal ovk alrovai fajaypta- rroXXaKis ok 
ovk ervxov, dXX ypaprov p£v, to h' oSv iavr&v 

7T€7T0LrjKaOlV /XttAa TTpodvflOJS. 8e KOL €<? 

tov Kvprov tov GKapov ipbTreaetv $aoi Kal to 
ovpaiov iiipos tKfiaXelv, tovs he dOrjpdrovs Kal 
-rrepiveovTas ivhaKeiv Kal is to e£w tov iraZpov 
rrpoayayelv. el he itjelr] 1 to ar6>a, r&v rts oi 2 
ega> rrjv oipdv iraptopegev, 6 he ireptxavcbv rjKoXov- 
Orjvev. ovroi puev hrj ravra hp&oiv, a> 3 av9pa>Trot> 
fyiXelv ov fxaOovres, dXXa rre^vKores, 

5. '0 IxQvs 6 rpwKTTjs, tovtov }iev KarrjyopeZ 
<rqv <t>vcnv Kal to ovojua, TjSrj he^Kal to OTO><r 
ohovres he avTcp ovvex&$ re ip-Tre^vKaai /cat 
ttoAAoi, Kal irai? to iyL-rreaov hiarefxetv ev fidXa 
KaprepoL ovkovv dXovs dyKtarpq) p,6vos Ix^vcov is 

1 i&M Kara. 2 J™ : rig o. 3 Jac : J>s. 



4. As loyal men and true fellow-soldiers come to The 
one another's aid, so do the fish which men skilled in lAnttuas 
sea-fishing call Anthias; a and their haunts are the 

sea. For instance, directly they are aware that a 
mate has been hooked, they swim up with all possible 
speed ; then they set their back against him and by 
falling upon him and pushing with all their might 
try to stop him from being hauled in. 

Parrot Wrasses too are doughty champions of their The Parro 
own kin. At any rate they rush forward and make ^ rasse 
haste to bite through the line in order to rescue the 
one that has been caught. And many a time have * 
they cut the line and set him free, and they ask for no 
reward for life-saving. Many a time however they 
have not contrived to do this, but have failed in spite 
of having done all they could with the utmost zeal. 
And it has even happened, they say, that, when a 
Parrot Wrasse has fallen into the weel and has left 
his tail-part projecting, the others that are swimming 
around uncaught have fixed their teeth in him and 
have dragged their comrade out. If however his 
head was projecting, one of those outside offered his 
tail, which the captive grasped and followed. This, 
my fellow-men, is what these creatures do: their 
love is not taught, it is inborn. 

5. Of the fish known as the * Gnawer ' 6 its name ^ Gnawer 
and, what is more, its mouth declare its nature. Its 

teeth grow in an unbroken line and are numerous 
and so strong as to bite through anything that 
comes their way. Therefore, when taken with a 

* Unidentified. 

6 Perhaps the fox-shark; see Thompson, Oh. fishes, s.vv. 



to IfmaXw iavrov ovk i<rravdy€i, dXXd wOeirai 
rr)v opiiiav aTroOplcraL 1 Sii/jwv. oi hi dXiets aoc^Cov- 
rat rdvavrta- rds ydp roi rwv ayiclarpav Xafias^ 
X a\K€vovrai puaKpds. 6 hi (koi yap ttws jari /cat 
aArtKO? ) Kal virep ravras dvidope rroXXaKts k<xi 
rr)v rpi%o> rr]v dyovaav rc^a>v is i)Bt] ra rwv 
lydvcov ad8i$ amv7jx €Tal - oSr6$ TOi * al T 
Xwv rr)v avwofjiov TrapaXafiwv avv avrois €K€lvols 
ywpel Kal rols heXfaaiv 6>oW Kal ha diroKpi- 

Oivra TTOJS 7T€pi€\d6vT€S €ira €mTl'0€VT<U t£ %HO> 

Kaprep&s' boat, ydp Sri ra>v i£ avrwv hrjyadrcov 
ov paBip^s iira&i. oi uev ydp fyovrai avrov Kai 
adXa iyKparcos, 6 hi avairqda Kal Kvpicrra, Kat 
<L$ vrrd rrjs dhvvrjs orpefiXovrai hieXeyx^ar 
dTrpli; ydp ip,(f>vvres owetjaipovrai rrqh&vros. Kai 
6 aiv drroaetaaaBai Kal diroKpovaai arrevhei 
avrovs, oi hi ovk dvcaavv, dXXd ioBlovoi t&vra. 
dra pJvroi 6 n dv eWro<r p,£pos iKrpdyr), rovro 
i X cov aTraXXdrrerar Kal 6 heX&s dcxp,€Vtos 
d7TovrjX €Tai > hairvp,6vas, (hs dv elirois, aKXrjrovs 
ear ideas ovv rfj iavrov ohvvrj iKeCvovs* 

6. TXavK7]s aKova> rijs KtBapcphov ipaoBryai 
Kvva- oi hi ov KiSva, dXXd Kpiov dXXot hi yfiva. 
Kal iv SoAot? hi rrjs KaAikmw 4 ira&os, & ovopa 
r)v Eevo<j>&v 3 kvwv rjpdoBrj' dXXov Si 5 <hpaiov 
utipaKiov iv HirdprQ koXoios hrl rep etSei ivoarjvev. 

1 arroBepiaat. 

3 Jac : etra /xeVrot rovro on... 

4 rots KtAt/aW. 

5 /cat aAAou. 



hook, it is the only fish that does not attempt to 
withdraw, but presses on in its eagerness to cut the 
line. Fishermen however counter this by a device : 
they have their hooks forged with a long shank. 
But the Gnawer, being a powerful jumper in its way, 
often leaps above the shank, and cutting the hair-line 
that is drawing it, swims away again to the places 
where fish haunt. 

It also gathers round it a shoal of its fellows and 
with them also makes an attack upon the Dolphins, and 
And if one chance to get separated from the rest, Dol P hills 
the Gnawers surround it and then set upon the 
creature furiously, knowing as they do that the Dol- 
phin is by no means insensible to their bites. For 
the Gnawers cling most tenaciously to it, while the 
Dolphin leaps upwards and plunges ; and it shows 
how it is being tormented by the pain, for the 
Gnawers that have fastened upon it are lifted out of 
the water with it as it leaps. And while the Dolphin 
struggles to shake them loose and beat them off, 
they never relax their hold, but would eat it alive. 
Then however when each Gnawer has bitten away 
a piece, they go off with their mouthful, and the 
Dolphin is thankful to swim away after having fed 
its uninvited guests (if one may so call them) to its 
own pain. 

6. I am told that a dog fell in love with Glauce the-A^mai^a 
harpist. Some however assert that it was not a dog human 
but a ram, while others say it was a goose. And at bein s s 
Soli in Cilicia a dog loved a boy of the name of 
Xenophon; at Sparta another boy in the prime of 
life by reason of his beauty caused a j ackdaw to fall 
sick of love. 



7. Kiyovai tov Q&a to £6>ov faXavBpwTTOTaTOv 
etvat. Kal orav ttov ircpvrvxQ dv8pa>ir<p, 
e/croeWai avrov, olov alhovpevos- orav be 
doiKOvp,evov Ocdcqrai v*rf aXXov O-qplov, to <rqvi- 
KavTa €7rafJLVV€i avrw. 

8. Nt/a'as rts" t&v avyKW7]y€TOVvro)v 1 djrpoo- 
tttcds Trapafcpofievos 2 e? dv6paK€VTcov Kap,ivov 
KaryjvexOr], oi Se Kvves oi ovv ^ avra> rovro 
loovres ovk drriarrjaav, dXXa ra ^ /*ev w/wDra 
KW^wpuevoi irepl rrjv Kapivov Kal wpvojievoi Sterpt- 
£ov, ra Se reAevrata ' /xovovovx* tow irapiovras 
rjpepia Kal w^etofceW twv tpxriW Sa/c- 
vwrcy eEra elA/cov em to 7ra0o<r, olbv cwweorfjoow tw 
SeGTrorr) irapaKaXovvres robs dvdpw-irovs oi kvvcs. 
koX yovv ets opcbv to ytvopevov VTrwirrevae to 
ovfift&v, Kal r}KoXov9<r]G€ koi evpe tov Nifa'av eV rfj 
Kapulvw KaTa<f>Xex64vTa, £k t&v Aet?/rava>v ov^aXwv 
to yevopuevov . 

9. ( Kr}<f>rjv 6 iv fieXirrais yewcbfievos pcd* 
rjpuipav fjuev eV rots dvdpiqvlois KaraxiicpvirraA, 
vvKToyp Se, rjVLKa dv Trapa^Aaffl KaOevhovaas jas 
fxeXiTTas, iTTi<i>oiTa roi$ epyois avr&v Kal Au/zaive- 
rat rots aipfiXois- tovto e/cetvat Karapadovaai, at 
puev nXeforai twv ^Xlttwv Kadevoovaiv are neirov- 
Tj/cmat, oXlyai Se avTcov iXXox&aw. elra oVav 
eAcocrt tov tjiwpa, Tralovatv avrov Tre^eto-^eVcoff *at 
efaBovoi? Kal iKfidXXovai, <j>vydoa etvac. o Se 
ouS' ovtw TTCTTaloevrar >rre<j>VK€ yap Kal dpyos k<xi 
Xixvosy 8vo KaKcb. e£a> roLwv t&v Kiqplojv eavTOV 
amicpvirrei, elra orav em ras vofxds igoptifewaiv 



7. Men say that the Jackal is most friendly dis- The Jackal 
posed to man, and whenever it happens to encounter a 

man, it gets out of his way as though from deference ; 
but when it sees a man being injured by some other 
animal, it at once comes to his help. 

8. One Nicias unwittingly outdistanced his fellow 
huntsmen and fell into a charcoal-burners' furnace. 
But his hounds, which saw this happen, did not leave 
the spot, but at first remained whining and baying 
about the furnace, until at length, by just daring to 
bite the clothes of passers-by gently and cautiously, 
they tried to draw them to the scene of the mishap, 
as though the hounds were imploring the men to 
come to their master's help. One man at any rate 
seeing this, suspected what had occurred and fol- 
lowed. He found Nicias burned to death in the 
furnace, and from the remains he guessed the truth. 

9. The Drone, which is born among bees, hides The Drone 
itself among the combs during the day, but at night, 

when it observes that the bees are asleep, it invades 
their work and makes havoc in the hives. When the 
bees realise this (most of them are asleep, being 
thoroughly tired, though a few are lying in wait for 
the thief), directly they catch him they beat him, 
not violently, and thrust him out and cast him forth 
into exile. Yet even so the Drone has not learnt his 
lesson, for he is naturally slothful and greedy — two 
bad qualities ! So he secretes himself outside the 
combs and later, when the bees fly forth to their 

KVV7]y€T0VVT<A>V. 2 <f>€pOfl€VOS. 

8 e£ct>8ovoi rols rrrGpois. 



al [xeXirrai, 6 Be (hadfievos eaw to iavrov Spa, 
epL^opovpLevos Kal KepatCcDV €/cetvo? rov Brjaavpov 

TCOV fMtXlTTWV TOV yXvKVV. Kal €K€lv<U €K T7j$ 

vofxrjs VTrocrrpeifsacrac, orav avrtp 7r€pirvx w<Jt,v > ev~ 
ravOa puev ovKen Tre^eLcrfievcos avrov iralovaiv, 
ouS' oaov is <f>vyrjv rpei/jai, dAAa efi fidXa 1 /JiaiW 
epb-rreoovaai BiaXo&ot, rov Xrjarrjv /cat ov /^/XTrrqv 
vrroixdvas rrjv Ttftco/nW, virep rrjs yaarpcfxapylas 
Kal dBrj^aytas rfj foxS * enaev. fxeXirrovpyol 
Xeyovac ravra, Kal £p,€ ireLOovaiv. 

10. Etat Be rives Kal ev rats [leXlrrais apyol 
/xeAtrrat, ov p,rjv Krj(f>rjvd)Beis tov rpoirov^ ov yap 
Xvpiatvovrai rots Krjplois ovB 9 im^ovXevovac rai 
jaeAm affrat, aAAa rpifovrat, 3 €K rtbv av0eW *al 
afirai <rrerop,evat Kal cvvvofioi rats aAAats- ovaai. 
el Be Kal etW are^vot rrepl rrjv ipyacrlav Kal rrjv 
KOfjuBrjv rrjv rov fieXiros, aAAa yovv ovk elalv 
drrpaKrot Trdvrrj. at fxev yap avrcov vBcop ^rep 
fiaatXei KoplCovcri Kal rats vrpeofivrepaLS Be, alrrep 
odv 4 rq> paaiXet 7Tapap,evovat Kal is rrjv Bopv<j>o- 
plav direKpiQ^aav rrjv avrov* erepau 8e avrcov 5 
exovaiv eKelvo epyov, ras atroOvriGKOvaas rwv 
fieXirrcov e%a> cfrepovat,' Set yap avrats KaSapa 
thai rd K7)pta, Kal ovk ave^ovrat veKpdv^ eaw 
fieXirrav dXXat Be 6 vvKrcap <f>povpov<nv t warrep 
ovv ttoXlv puKpdv <j>vXdrrovuai rrjv rwv Krjplojv 
OLKoBop,lav eKeivat ye, 

11. MeAtTTcSv Be rjXiKiav Biayvolf] n$ dv rov 
rpoTTOV rovrov. at puev avroerels onXitvai re eiai 

1 e5 /aaAa rots Ktvrpois. 2 "jv ipvxn*- 


ON ANIMALS, I. 9-1 1 

feeding-grounds, pushes his way in and does what is 
natural to him, cramming himself and plundering the 
bees' treasure of honey. But they on returning from 
their pasturage, directly they encounter him, no 
longer beat him with moderation nor merely put him 
to flight, but fall upon him vigorously and make an 
end of the thief. The punishment which he suffers 
none can censure: he pays for his gluttony and 
voracity with his life. 
This is what bee-keepers say, and they convince me. 

10. Even among Bees there are some which are Bees and 
lazy, though they do not resemble drones in their duties™* 
habits, for they neither damage the combs nor have 
designs upon the honey, but feed themselves on the 
flowers, flying abroad and accompanying the others. 

But though they have no skill in the making and the 
gathering of honey, at any rate they are not com- 
pletely inactive,, for some fetch water for their king 
and for their elders, while the elders themselves 
attend upon the king and have been set apart to 
form his bodyguard. Meanwhile others of them have 
this for their task : they carry the dead bees out of 
the hive. For it is essential that their honeycombs 
should be clean, and they will not tolerate a dead 
bee in the hive. Others again keep watch by night, 
and their duty is to guard the fabric of honeycombs 
as though it were some tiny city. 

11. A man may tell the age of Bees in the follow- 

ing way. Those born in the current year are glisten- eir agea 

rpd<f>ovraL yt,4v. 

aXir<-p odv at irpeofivrepai Kal azSrat ru> jS, 

avrcov rcov aT€xy<av^ 6 QUI : dAAd Kal. 



Kal eoUaaiv eXaicp r^v xpoav x * at he irpeafivrepai 
rpax^at Kal Ihetv Kal rrpomfsavcrai 2 yCvovra^ 
pvaal he opcovrai hid to yrjpas* epjreiporepai he 
elaiv avrai Kal rexviKmrepai, iraihevoavros aura? 
rrjv em rep pueXin aofaav rov xpovov. expvai he 
Kal p,avTiKW$, ware Kal verwv Kal Kpvovs eTTihrjfiLav 
TTpofMadetv Kal orav rovraw to erepov Jq Kal 
d/x^oVepa eaeadat avp,pdXa>aiv, ovk irrl firjKiorov 
eKretvovai rrjv <Trrr)oiv? aAAa TTepirrorwvrai to£t 
apirjveai, Kal olovel rrepiQvpovaiv. €K hr) rourtov 01 
tieXtrrovpyol otajwadfievoi 7TpoXeyovai rots yewp- 
yois rrjv p,eXXovaav emhrjiiiav rov x^f vo f- 
hoiKaoi he apa ov roaovrov to Kpvos at jieXirrai, 
ooov rov opifipov rov rroXvv Kal rov vi<f>erov. evav- 
rlai he rroXXaKis rov irvevfiaros rrerovrai, Kal fipa- 
Xeiav Xidov ev rots rroal Kop,l£ovai Kal roaavrqv 
oarjv ev<j>opov avrais Treropievais elvai, Kal rporrov 
nva rovro eppa iavrats imrexvwvrai npos rov 
ifiTTLTrrovra dvepiov rd re dXXa Kal tva p,rj rrapar- 
pii/jrj rfjs ohov rj avpa avrds. 

12. "Epairos he laxvv Kal IxOvojv yevrj rroXXa 
eyvoy, rod roaovrov Oeov [Arjhe rovs Kara} Kal h> 
rep f$v9w 4 rrjs BaXdrrrjS vrrepihovros Kal aTt/xa- 
aavros. * Xarpevei yovv rathe rep halpovi^ Kal 
Ke<t>aXos, dXX* ov rras, eKeivos he ovrrep odv euro 
rov 6£eo$ rrpoacorrov KaXovaiv ol yevrj re /cat 
hiacf>opd$ IxBvwv KareyvatKores . dXiaKovrai he, to? 
aKOva), rrepl rov koXttov rov 'AxaiVov rroXXoi. ^ Kal 
rrjs p,ev Kar avrovs aXcoaeojs hia<j>opoTt}s earu* 
lidXiara he avrcov to Xvrrwhes to is rd dj>pohiaia 

1 xpotav. 2 Qron : fyaoBai. 3 irrrjaiv 4k t^s vo^s. 

ON ANIMALS, I. 11-12 

ing and are the colour of olive oil ; the older ones are 

rough to the eye and to the touch and appear 

wrinkled with age. They have however greater 

experience and skill, time having instructed them in 

the art of making honey. They have too the faculty prophets'*" 

of divination, so that they know in advance when rain 

and frost are coming. And whenever they reckon 

that either or both are on their way, they do not 

extend their flight very far, but fly round about their 

hives as though they would be close to the door. 

It is from these signs that bee-keepers augur the 

approach of stormy weather and warn the farmers. 

And yet Bees are not so afraid of frost as they are 

of heavy rain and snow. Often they fly against the 

wind, carrying between their feet a small pebble of 

such size as is easy to carry when on the wing. 

This is a device which they use to ballast themselves 

against a contrary wind, and particularly so that the 

breeze may not deflect them from their path. 

12. Even among fishes there are many kinds The Mullet 
which know how strong is love, for that god, powerful oS) 7a " 
as he is, has not ignored and disdained even the 
creatures that dwell below in the depths of the ocean. 
One at any rate that pays service to this god is the 
Mullet, but not every species, only that to which 
men who have observed the different species of fish 
have given a name derived from its sharp snout. 
These, I am told, are caught in great numbers round 
about the Gulf of Achaia, and there are various ways 
of catching them. But the following method of 
capture proves how madly amorous they are. 

iv t<5> Bv8q> Kal Kara). 6 Sai/xow'aj. 



Kar-qyopel rj$e rj ay pa. drjpdaas dvrjp dXtevs 
OrjXvv, 1 teal ivSrjoas 2 KaXdficp fiaKpcp rj arraproj 
kocI tovto) p,aKpcp, Kara ttjs yoyos fjavxrj fiahlfav 
Ttapavrtfp\k<iVQV tov IxOvv Kal darralpovra eircvvper 
Kar ix Via ^ oArov tis eWcu <f>£pa)v SIktvov^ Kal 
to peXAov ottyj re Kal ottcos aTTavr-qcreTai foXdrrei 
(^lXottovcos 6 SiKTVtvs ovtos . ovkovv r) fiev ayerai, 
orroooi Se av i'Stoat rebv dppivcov, ota^jov veavtai 
aKokaaroi fielpaKos Trapadeovarjs e$ pdXa wpwfjs 
i7TO(f>6aXpndaavT€S, levrai Kara \d£w 3 olarpoy^e- 


/cat TToXkdKis lyUw eveppCa irepirvyxdvei Trj jrjs 
iTTiBviilas opfijj Trpocrepxopwayv, Bel Se ra> irpdira^ 
dypaTfj ttjv alpeOelaav wpatav re etva^Kat ev 
yjicovaav aapK&v, ha Kal rrXdovs in avTTjv opfirjaco- 
viv, to Trjs copas tyoXKOv MXeap Xaf$6vT$$. f €L Se 
aaapKog eh), ol rroXXol wrep^povrjaavres q>X ov ™ 
dmoVre?- Saris Se avrchv ian hvaepws^ ovk 
aTraXXdrrerai, ov rfj wpa, /xa Ai'a, dXXd rq> rrjs 

13. ^Haav Be apa Kal cra)<j>pov€iv faBves ayaOoL 
6 yovv alrvaios ovra) Xeyopevos, irrav Trj iavrov 
ovwopicp olovel yafxerfj nvi avvBvavdeh KXypwar)- 
rai to 'Xexos, aXXrjs ox>x aTrrerdi, Kal ov Setrat 
avpbpoXalwv is ttIotw, ov rrpoiKos, ovoe prqv SeSowce 
KaKcbaews BUr]v 6 alrvaios y ovSe cu'SetTOU £dAa>va. 
ai vopuoi yevvaioL Kal TroXvaepivoi^ ots aKoXauroi 
dvdpco7TOL ovk alBovvrai p,r) TrelOeaOat. 

1 dijXvv €K T&vSe xtyaXov. 2 Meishe : 

3 Kara rrjv vrj£iv. 4 Mein : TroAeis ae/ivai. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 12-13 

A fisherman catches a female Mullet and fastens it how caught 
to a long rod or a cord (this too must be long) ; as he 
walks slowly along the sea-shore he draws the fish, 
swimming and gasping, after him. In his footsteps 
there follows one with a net, and this net-fisherman 
watches diligently to see what is going to happen 
and where. So the female Mullet is towed along, 
and all the males that catch sight of her, like (one 
might say) licentious youths ogling a beautiful girl 
as she hurries by, come swimming up, mad with 
sexual desire. Thereupon the man with the net 
casts it and frequently has good luck, thanks to the 
urgent lust of the fish that approach. It is essential 
for the first fisherman's purpose that the captured 
female should be at her prime and well-fleshed, so 
that a greater number may be ardent after her and 
may take the bait which her enticing beauty offers. 
But should she be lean, most of them will scorn her 
and go away. Still, if any one of them is madly in 
love, he will not leave her, because he has been 
enslaved not by her beauty (that I will swear) but 
by his desire for sexual intercourse. 

13. It seems however that fish are also models of The 
continence. At any rate when the ' Etna-fish \ a as H na " s 
it is called, pairs with its mate as with a wife and 
achieves the married state, it does not touch another 
female; it needs no covenants to maintain its 
fidelity, no dowry ; it even stands in no fear of an 
action for ill-usage, nor is Solon 6 to it a name of 
dread. What noble laws, how worthy of veneration ! 
—And man, the libertine, feels no scruple at dis- 
obeying them. 

* Unidentified. b See 2. 42 n. 



14. 'Kocrov<f>cp Sk tco daXarrlw rjOrj T€ /cat Starpt- 
fial at rrirpai Kal at a^payyaiSet? VTroSpofxat. 
yapbovai Be oStol eKaGTOS troXXds, /cat tcov ottlov 
olovel daXdpucov (rats} 1 vvp,<f>aLS d^tWavrat. koX 


%X €lv T7 ? J ' oppfy vevefJLTjfJbdvqv <j>alr}s 2 av elvai Tpv- 
<f>tbvTtov is evvrjv fiapfidpoov teal, (bs av el-nois avv 
TratSta airovhaaas, ftiov MrjSiKov Te koX UepaiKOV. 
eart Se XyQvtov t^XoTOTTcoTaTos Kal ttjv dXXcos 
p,ev, z oz>x yKiara Be orav at w/x^at tIktloow avTCp. 
el he XapuvpcoTepov ravra tt} /cara^p^^ 4 tcov 
ovopidTOiV etp-qTcu, SIBcoaiv rjpuv to, e/c Trjs <f>voeco$ 
TrpaTTopueva ttjv tcov tolovtcov i^ovoiav. at pev 
yap cohtveov 07877 ireipcbp,evai rjpepiovorl T€ Kal kvBov 
fievovcrw, 6 Be apprjv, ota Brjirov yaftenjs, irepSvpwv 
ras imfiovXds <f>vXaTTec Tas egcoQev </>6f$a> tcov 
j3pecf>cov. eoiKe yap /cat ret p,r)7rco yevvcofxeva <f>iXew 
Kal Beei TTorpiKcp dXtaKopievos ivrevdev oppcoBeiv 
77877, Kal Sirjfiepevei pukv irrl Trj 4>povpa irdvTWv 
ayevOTOS, Kal rj cfypovrls avTov Tpe<£et* BelXys Be 
o^ta? yevopbeviqs a^€trat Trjs dvdyKrjs TrjcrBe, /cat 
yLaoTevei Tpo(f>r)v y Kal ovk cm^et avTrjs. Kal 
€/ca<7T7? Se apa evpivKei tcov evBov, evre in chhtaiv 
etrj etre 77S77 Xexco, </>v/cta iroXXd tcov iv tois 6-rrais 
Kal rrepl Tas TreTpas, a oi Bei7rv6v eartv. 

15. 'EmfiovXeveiv 5 Koaav^co 6 Beivos dXcevs 
i^apfioaas dyKioTpco puoXv/ZBov fiapvv Kal evelpas 
tco dyKiOTptp /captSa (jLeydXyv KaBlrjcn to SeAeap. 

1 <rats> add, E. 2 ^al-qv most MSS. 

3 rqvaXkoiS A, koX ahXoiS pzv o8v most MSS, 

4 Kayser : Kpdaei, 


ON ANIMALS, I. 14-15 

14. The Wrasse has its haunts and resorts among The wrasse 
the rocks and near cavernous burrows. The males 

all have many wives and resign the hollow places, as 
though they were women's chambers, to their brides. 
This refinement in their mating, and the propensity 
which they enjoy for. having many wives one might 
describe as characteristic of barbarians who luxuriate 
in the pleasures of the bed, and (if one may j est on 
serious subjects) as living like the Medes and Per- 
sians. It is of all fishes the most jealous at all times, 
but especially when its wives are producing their 
young. (If by excessive use of these expressions 
I make my discourse too wanton, the facts of 
nature permit me to do things of that sort.) So the 
females which are actually facing the strain of birth- 
pangs remain quiet in their homes, while the male, 
after the manner of a husband, stays about the 
entrance to prevent any mischief from outside, being 
anxious for his offspring. For it seems that he loves 
even those that are yet unborn, and it is his fatherly 
concern that causes him these early fears ; he even 
spends the whole day without touching food : his care 
sustains him. But as the afternoon grows late, he 
relinquishes his forced watch and seeks for food, 
which he does not fail to find. But of course each of 
the females within, whether in the act of giving birth 
or after it, finds a quantity of seaweed in the hollow 
places and about the rocks, and this is their meal. 

15. A fisherman who is skilled in angling a Wrasse j^^o*^' 
fastens a heavy piece of lead to his hook, wraps owcaug 
round it a large prawn, and drops the bait. And then 

5 Jac : imfiovAzvcov. 6 Koaovfov 6-qpa. 



Kal 6 fjuev vttokwzZ TTjv oppLidv iyelpcov re Kal 
Brjytov is rr}V Tpo<f>rjv to 07/pa/xa, rj Kapis Se kwov- 
\iivt] etra fxevTOt $6£av rtva dVooreAAet fjLeXAovcrrjs 
is tols onds ras rov Koaav<j>ov Trapiivai. rto Be 
dpa tovto €x8lgtov* Kal Bid ravra atodavofjuevos, 
cos e%et dvfjiov, 1 terat d<f>avl£eiv rrjv iyQiaT7\v 2 (ov 
yap ol fiiXtL rfjs yaarpos rrjviKavra), Kal avvOXd- 
aas avrrjv dTraAAarreraij TTpoTifxoTepov Tpcxf>fj$ Kal 
Trpe&pvrepov to p,r) fcara/cot/xtcrat ttjv </>vXaKrjv tt€tti- 
ot€vkojs etvai. rwv Se oXXojv otclv tl fAeXArj rwv 
TTpooTWTTOVTOJV iaOUw, V7ro6Xdaas etra eiaae 
KeloBar Kal lBd>v t€9vt)k6$, z i£ avTod Tpwyei 
ol Se diqXeis Koaov<f)Oi, iojs ju-ev dppeva opcoat irpo- 
aaiTL^ovTa, &>$ av ewrotff, \iivovuiv evhov Kal to 
T7)s otKovplas <f>vXa.TTOVGL 0^77/xa • oTav Se d</>avt- 
crdfj, dXvovaiv atSe, Ttpodyei T€ avTas Kal i^dyei rj 
dOvfjiia Kal ivravda iaXwKaai. tL irpos ravra 
(oty 4 rroirjTal Xiyovaiv ol tt\v re EvaSvTjv rjfuv 

T7]V "I<f>lBo$ Kal TTJV "KXk^OTW TTjV YlcXlOV TTOcSa 

ivSo^ws OpvXovvTes 5 ; 

16. Ilar^p Se iv l%6vcnv 6 yXavKOS otos ecrrt. 
ret yewdyfxeva €K ttJs avvvopiov 7rapa<f>vXaTT€C 6 

1 TOV OvflOV. 

3 t€$vt]k6s ore fir) anatpei. 

4 <ot> add, Jac. 

5 Haupt : 8pr]vovvT€s. 

6 Schn : irapafoXdrrerai. 

° Evadne, wife of Capaneus, one of the * Seven against 
Thebes.' He was slain by Zens, and when his body was on 
the funeral pyre, E. leapt into the names and perished at his 


ON ANIMALS I. 15-16 

he moves the line a little, rousing and egging on his 
prey to take the food, while the prawn by its move- 
ment conveys the impression that it intends to enter 
the Wrasse s den. Now this the Wrasse greatly 
resents, and therefore, as soon as he observes it, he 
longs, such is his fury, to demolish the object of 
his abhorrence, for he is not thinking of his appetite 
at the moment ; and when he has • crushed it, he 
moves off, considering it more honourable and more 
important that the watchman should not be caught 
napping than that he should be fed. But when he 
intends to eat any other creature that comes his way, 
he crushes it lightly and then lets it lie. As soon as 
he sees that it is dead, then at length he nibbles 
at it. But the female Wrasses, so long as they see 
the male acting as their shield, so to say, ' remain 
within and with the care of their household ' are 
occupied. If however the male disappears, they 
become distraught; their despondency leads them 
to venture forth, and then they are caught. 

What have the poets to say to this — our poets who 
are for ever extolling Evadne" the daughter of 
Iphis, and Alcestis , & the daughter of Pelias ? 

16. Among fishes the ' Blue-grey ' c is a model The 
father. He maintains a strenuous watch over his ^h"^ 7 

* Alcestis, wife of Admetus, undertook to die in place of her 
husband, but was rescued by Heracles from the clutches of 

c Not certainly identified. 

VOL. I. 




lo)(vpa>s> iva dvempovXevTa re Kal dawfj 77. Kal 
fjLev </>aiBpd Kal e£a) Beovs Stavi^erat, d Se 
ttjv <f>povpav ovk dTroXijjmdvei, dXXd Trfj p,ev ovpayei, 
77f? Se °^ ^avTr\v Be Trapavrjx^rai Tr ) v rt^vp&v *) 
ifcelvrjv iav Be tl Belorj rcov 1 vy]7tLo)v, 6 Be x av &>v 
iaeBe^aTO to fipe<j>os' 2 etra tov <f>6fiov TrapaBpa- 
[jlovtos tov ko Ta<j)vy6vTa dvepLei otov iSi^aro, Kat 
ifcetvos rtdXiv j^erai. 

17. Kvojv Be BaXarrta reKodaa eyei ovvviovra 
Ta crKvXaKUt tjBy} real ovk is dvafioXds. iav Be 
Belarrj tl tovtcov, is tt]V psqrepa ioeBv addis Kara 
to dpdpov eiTa tov Beovs TrapaBpapbovTOS to Be 
irpoeioiv, woirep odv dvaTiKTop,evov add is. 

18. © au/xaf ouow dv6pa)7TOi Tas yvvaiKas d>s 
dyav <f>iXoTeKVovs* opd) Be otl Kal TedveojTtov vlwv 
rj BvyaTepcov etrqoav prqTepes, Kal ra> XP° V< P r °v 
irdOovs etXf) j>aoi XrjOrjv tt}s XvTtrjs piep.apaap.evrjs . 
BeX<bl$ Be apa 9r}Xvs (biXoTeKVOTaTOS is Ta ea^ara 
Qatwv eaTL. TLKret jiev yap ovo . . . ojav be 
dXievs rj Tpojcrr} tov 7rat8a avTrjs Tfj Tpiaivrj r) tt) 
olklBc fiaXf} . . , 3 r) fxev aKts ret dvco TeTpr]Tai, Kal 
ivfjTTTat axpivos piaKpd avTrj, ol Be oytcoi ioBvvTes 
eypvTai tov drjpos. Kal ecos fiev 4 ert pcopLrjs 6 
BeX<j>ls 6 TpavfjLaTtas pieTeiXrjxe, x a ^% ° OrjpaTTjs 
ttjv axotvov, Iva psq itOTe apa vtto tt)s ftias a-rrop- 
prjgrj avTTjV, Kal yevryral ol Bvo KaKO), e^aw re 
aTreXOrj ttjv dwrtSa o BeA^is* Kal dOrjpia TrepiTTeaji 

2 Kal owciSe rrjy alrCav add. L, del. H. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 16-18 

mate's offspring, to ensure that they are not attacked 
or injured. And all the while that they ai*e swim- 
ming the sea happily and without fear he never 
relaxes his vigilance, and sometimes brings up the 
rear and sometimes does not, but swims by them now 
on this side now on that. And if any of his young is 
afraid, he opens his mouth and takes the baby in. 
Later, when its fear has passed, he disgorges the one 
that took refuge exactly as he received it, and it 
resumes its swimming. 

17. Directly the Dog-fish has produced its young, The Dog- 
it has them swimming by its side, and there is no ^ 
delay. But if any one of them is afraid, it slips back 

into its mother's womb. Later, when its fear has 
passed, it emerges, as though it were being born 

18. Men admire women for their devotion to The'Doipiim 
their children, yet I observe that mothers whose sons young* 

or whose daughters have died, continued to live and 
in time forgot their sufferings, their grief having 
abated. But the female Dolphin far surpasses all 
creatures in its devotion to its offspring. It pro- 
duces two. . . . And when a fisherman either 
wounds a young Dolphin with his harpoon or strikes 
it with his barb . . . The barb is pierced at the 
upper end, and a long line is fastened to it, while 
the barbs sink in and hold the fish. So long as the 
wounded Dolphin still has any strength, the fisher- 
man leaves the line slack, so that the fish may not 
break it by its violence, and so that he himself may 
not incur a double misfortune through the Dolphin 


4 fikv akywv. 



avros' orav Be atodrjrai KapuovTa Kal ttcos irapei- 
pievov €K tov rpavfiaros, rjov)(fj Trap* avrrjv ayei 
ttjv vavv, Kal e^et ttjv aypav. r) Be p^rjrrjp ovk 
oppcoBet to TTpax^iv, ovBe dvauTeXXerai Beiaaua, 
aAA' arropprjr<p <j>vaei rq> tt69co tov rraiBos €7T€tcu' 
Kal BeipuaTa orrooa iOeXeis el eTrdyois s r) Be ovk 
€K7rXrjTT€TaL t tov TraiBa ovx VTropievovaa airoXnreiv 
iv rats <f>ovaXs 1 ovra, dXXd Kal e/c ^etpds" avrrjv 
irard^at TrdpeoTiv* ovtojs opioae %tope£ rots' f$d\- 
Xovocv, d>cr7T€p ovv dpLVV0vp,evr]. 2 Kal eK tovtcov 
ovvaXLoKerai rco TraiBl, o-codrjvaL rrapov Kal aneX- 
Oetv avTrp>. el Be dpL<f>to tol eKyova avrfj Trapelrj, 
Kal vorjcreie rerpaxjOai tov erepov Kal ayeaOat, ws 
TTpoeZirov, BtwKec tov oXoKXrjpov Kal drreXavvet, ttjv 
Te ovpdv 3 iTTioeiovaa Kal BaKvovcra rco aropLarc, 
Kal <f>vaa <j>vaiqp J d n darjpiov 4 pAv } fj BvvaTat y 
avv9rjpua Be Trjs <f>vyrjs ivBiBovaa uoyTiqpiov, Kal 6 
fiev dTTaXXdrreTai, p,evei Be avTr) 5 ear' av atpeOfj, 
Kal QVvaixoQvr\aKei toj iaXwKOTt. 

19. '0 fiovs 6 OaXaTTios ev rnqXcp TLKTerai, Kal 
eariv i£ (LBlvwv f$pdx*>GTos , ylveTai Be €K fipa- 
Xlotov 6 pt,eyiVTo$. Kal to- p,ev vtto tt)v vrjBvv 
XevKos eoTi, Ta vtoTa Be Kal to 7rp6ao)rrov Kal rds" 
TrXevpds p,eXa$ Beivcos. 7 crro/xa Be avTcp ipwe- 
<f)VKe apbLKpov, ol Be SBovTes, puepbVKOTos 8 ovk av 
avrovs tBots' ecrn Be 9 p^kigtos Kal irXaTvraTos. 

1 rots (j)6voLS, 2 diJLVvofievrf, 

3 tt} re ovpa. 

4 BeisJce : <$>vay\\x.ofri acrrjfiip. 

5 Schn : avrq. 

9 f3pa.xvTa.Tos • . . tov ^pax^orov. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 18-19 

escaping with the barb and himself failing to catch 
anything. As soon as he perceives that the fish is 
tiring and is somewhat weakened by the wound, he 
gently brings his boat near and lands his catch. But 
the mother Dolphin is not scared by what has 
occurred nor restrained by fear, but by a mysterious 
instinct follows in her yearning for her child. And 
though one confront her with terrors never so great, 
she is still undismayed, and will not endure to desert 
her young one which has come to a bloody end; 
indeed, it is even possible to strike her with the hand, 
so close does she come to the hunters, as though she 
would beat them off. And so it comes about that 
she is caught along with her offspring, though she 
could save herself and escape. But if both her off- 
spring are by her, and if she realises that one has 
been wounded and is being hauled in, as I said 
above, she pursues the one that is unscathed and 
drives it away, lashing her tail and biting her little 
one with her mouth ; and she makes a blowing sound 
as best she can, indistinct, but giving the signal to 
flee, which saves it. So the young Dolphin escapes, 
while the mother remains until she is caught and dies 
along with the captive. 

19. The Horned Ray is born in the mud, and The Horned 
though at the time of birth it is very small, it grows Eay 
from that size to be enormous. Its belly beneath is 
white; its back, its head, and its sides are a deep 
black; its mouth however is small, and its teeth— 
when it opens its mouth, you cannot see them. 

7 SavcDs Kal dva^Kis eori. . 8 Jac : pefiVKores. 




Be uapKOOV dvQ poorreloov iorOloov VTreprjBerat. avvoiBe 
Be avrw on pwprqv r^Kiaros £gti } fiovq) Be imdap- 
pet too pueyeQei. kal Bid rovro orav iBr) riva rj 
VY)yp\i€vov r\ VTroBvojxevov 1 iv rats' vBpoOrjplais, fiere- 
copiaas iavrov Kal imKvproocras hxivr^eral ol 2 
ftapvs dvoo iyKelpuevos re koI TTie^oyv Kal eTraprdjv 
Belfxd rt/ vireprrerduas to rrdv cco/xa rw BeiXaca) 
cos crreyrjv, dvaBvval re Kal dvarrvevcrai kooAvcov 
avrov. ovkovv emoxeQevros ol rod 7rvevpt,aros, 6 
fiev, ota eiKos, diroOvrfcrKei, 6 Be i[M7read>v e%€t rrjs 
7rapafJLOvrjs puadov o fxdXicrra At^veuet 4 BeiTrvov* 

20. Ta puev aAAa rd>v ojBikcov 5 [6pvea>v\ 6 evcrrofiei 
Kal rfj yXd)rrrj <f}6eyyerai BiKrjv dvQpooirov* oi Be 
rerriyes Kara rrjv l^vv elai XaXiararoi. Kal uirovv- 
rai p,ev rrjs Bpooov, rd Be i£ eco is 7rXrj9ovoav 
dyopdv arLwrrooGLV, rjXiov Be VTrapxofievov rrjs 
aKfjbijs, rov i£ eavrcov /xe&aox KeXaBov, <f>iX6rrovol 
rives <hs av eiTTOis x°P €VTa ^ V7re/> Ke<f>aXfjs Kal 
rwv 7rapavejJi6vra>v Kal rcov 6Ba> xpoopievcov Kat 
twv dfxwvrcov KardBovres. Kal rovro fxev to 
<f>iX6pbovoov eSajKe rots dppeaiv rj <f>vais' rerri^ Be 
drjXeia a<f>a)vo$ iari 3 Kal eoiKe Giooirav Biktjp vvpL<f)7]s 

21. f Y<f)avriKrjv Kal raXaalav rrjv deov rrjv 
'"Epydvrjv imvorjcrai (f>aatv avdpcoiroi* rrjv Be dpdx~ 
irqv rj (f)VGis cro(j>rjv is lorovpyLav iBrjfjbiovpyrjore. 
Kal ^tAore^vet ov Kara p,lp,Tf]p,a, 7 ovBe egcoQev 

1 imoSvofAtvov Post, op. 1. 44, irovovfizvov MSS, H. 

2 oi Kal eAAo^a. 3 Jac : Severn. 

3 8 

ON ANIMALS, I. i^-zt 

Further, it is exceedingly long and fiat. While on 
the one hand it feeds upon a great number of fish, 
yet its chief delight is to eat the flesh of man. It is 
conscious of its very small strength : only its great 
size gives it courage. Hence when it sees a man 
swimming or diving to catch something in the water, 
it rises and arching its body attacks him, pressing 
upon him from above with all its weight ; and while 
causing terror to fasten upon him, the Kay extends 
all its body over the wretched man like a roof and 
prevents him from reaching the surface and breath- 
ing. When therefore his breathing is arrested, the 
man naturally dies, and the Ray falls upon him and 
in the feast which it most greedily desires reaps the 
reward of its persistence. 

20. All other songsters sing sweetly and use their The Cicada 
tongue to utter, as men do, but Cicadas produce 

their incessant chatter from their loins. They feed 
upon dew, and from dawn until about midday remain 
silent. But when the sun enters upon his hottest 
period, they emit their characteristic clamour — in- 
dustrious members of a chorus, you might call them 
■ — and from above the heads of shepherds and 
wayfarers and reapers their song descends. This 
love of singing Nature has bestowed upon the males, 
whereas the female Cicada is mute and appears as 
silent as some shamefast maiden. 

21. Men say that it was the goddess Ergane who 
invented weaving and spinning, but it was Nature 
that trained the Spider to weave. The practice of 
its craft is not due to any imitation, nor does it 

4 Beishe : awx^ifet. fi Bochart : 'IvStfcaiv. 

6 [opveW] del. Warmington. 7 Beishe : wjixa. 



Aa/xj&xvet {to) 1 vrj[Ma 9 dXA* £k rrjs olrceias vr]8vos 
rovs fitrovs i£dyovaa elra p,ivroi rocs Kovfois rwv 
7ttt]vu)v Orjparpa OTTocjxxwei,, cos BiKrva eKtreray- 
vvaa. Kal Bi Sv igvcfialvei irapa rrjs yacrrpos 
Xafiovoa, 2 Bid rcovBe eKewrjv €Krpe</>ei wavo <f>iXep- 
yovaa, tbs Kal rdv yvvaiKtov rds fidXtara €V%€Cpas 
Kal vrjfJLa daKTjrov eKrrovyjaai Bewds pw) dvrnrapa- 
pdXXeadar veviKrjKe ydp rfj Xe7vr6r7]ri Kal rr)v 
rpc X a. 

22. ~Baf$vXojviovs re Kal XaASatou? cro<f>ov$ rd 
ovpdvia aBovcriv ol crvyy panels' p,vpp,r)Kes Be ovre 
is ovpavdv dvafiXeTrovres ovre 3 rds rod pw}vos 
Ytfxipas irrl BaKrvXwv dpiBpLeiv exovres opaos Bcopov 
€K cfrvcecos €ikrix aah wpdBo^ov rfj ydp r)pb€pa rod 
p/qvds rfj via ecrco rrjs eavrc2v areyrjs oiKOVpovai, 
rrjv 07ff}V ovx virepfiaivovres aAAa arpepbovvres . 

23. Owaa rat oapy q> rep IxOvi irerpai 4 re Kal 
arjpayyes, exovaai puevrot Biaa(f>dyas puKpds, 5 ojs 
avyfjv rjXiov 6 KarUvat Kal <f>a>rds VTroTTipwrXdvai 
rds Btaardaeis rdcrBe* xalpovat ydp ol crapyol 
<f>a)rl pt,kv Travrt, rrjs Be aKrtvos rod r)Xiov Kal 
jxaXXov Bufiwcrw. oIkovgl Be ev ravrco 7toXXol* 
Blairai Be avrois Kal rjOrj 7 to. rrjs QaXdrriqs 
Pp&X 7 ]* T V YV yeiTVia>at fxdXa dap,evajs. 
<f>iXovvt Be tto)s 8 atyas loxppios. idv yovv rrXiqaLov 
rrjs r\6vos vepbop,4vojv rj aKid pads rj Bevrepas ev 
rfj OaXdrrrj <f>avfj, ol Be dcrpLevtos rrpocrveovat Kal 

1 <rd> add. H. 2 Meiske: lA/covaa. 

3 ouSe, <* 4 rrirpa. 

5 fiiKpas Kal Tas faacrrdaeiSt v.l. y,. koX hieorwaas* 


GN ANIMALS, I. 21-23 

obtain spinning matter from any external source, but 
produces the threads from its own belly and then 
contrives snares for flimsy winged creatures, spread- 
ing them like nets; and it derives its nourishment , 
from the same material that it extracts from its belly 
and weaves. It is so extremely industrious that not 
even the most dexterous women, skilled at elaborat- 
ing wrought yarn, can be compared to it : its web is 
thinner than hair. 

22. Historians praise the Babylonians and Chal- The Ant 
daeans for their knowledge of the heavenly bodies. 

But Ants, though they neither look upwards to the 
sky nor are able to count the days of the month on 
their fingers, nevertheless have been endowed by 
Nature with an extraordinary gift. Thus, on the 
first day of the month they stay at home indoors, 
never quitting their nest but remaining quietly 

23. The fish known as the Sargue has its home Sargue 
among rocks and hollows, which however have in 

them narrow clefts so that the rays of the sun can 
penetrate within and fill these fissures with light. 
For Sargues like all the light there is, but have an 
even greater craving for the sunbeams. They live 
in great numbers in the same place, and their usual 
haunts are the shallows of the sea, and they particu- 
larly like to be near the land. For some reason they 
have a strong affection for goats. At any rate if the 
shadow of one or two goats feeding by the sea-shore 
fall upon the water, they swim in eagerly and spring 

iJAtov re, 7 IA17. 8 ircos t&v dKoyoiv. 



dvarr/jhcoGiv, ws rjSofMzVoi, Kal TTpoadtftaaOat, tcov 
alywv ttoBovcjiv e£aAAo/xevoi, Kavroi ov rrdw n 
6vt€$ oXtikol ttjv oXXojs' vr\ypp>evoi hi Kal vtto 
toXs KVfxaavu op,a)s rrjs twv alywv 6apur]s e^ow- 
aiv aiadrjcrw, Kal V(f)* rjhovrjs TrpoeXOetv 1 iir* avrds 

OTT€vhoV(JLV . 67761 TolwV hvcrip(OT€S 2 €1<TIV, i£ &V 

ttoOovgw €K tovtcov dXtaKOVTai. dXcevs yap dvr)p 
alyos hopa iavrov 7T€pta/x7rexet, aijv avrols tols k4- 
pacrc hapeiwqs avTrjs' Aa/x/?dVet <Se> 3 dpa tov 
r)Xiov Karavwrov im^ovXevcov 6 Orjparrjs rrj ay pa, 
€ira KaraTrdrTeL rrjs OaXdrrrjs, v<f> fjv oikovow oi 
7Tpo€t,pr}fj,ivoi, aX<j>ira alyela) f^o/xai StajSpa^evra. 
iXKOfxevoi hi ol aapyol cbs vtto twos Ivyyos rrjs 
daixrjs rrjs TTpoetprjpbevrjs TTpoolaoi, Kal atTovvrai piv 
rcov dX<j>Cra)V, KrjXovvrai hi vtto rrjs hopas* alpeX 5 
hi avrcov ttoXXovs dyKicrrpa) aKXrjpco Kal oppia 
XLvov XevKOV- i^rjrrrai hi ou%6 KaXdpLOV ) dXXd 
pdfihov Kpaveias* Set yap tov ipmeaovra dvavTrd- 
aat paara, iva p,r) tovs dXXovs iKTapagrj. Orjpwv- 
rai hi /cat drro %eip6s, idv ns rds aKavdaSy as 
> iyeipovow is to iavrots dpLVVetv, is to Karai piipos 
drro ye rrjs K€<j>aXfjs rjavxrj Kardyojv etra K.XLvr) 
Kal TTiiaas rcov ireTpwv iKQTrdar], is as iavrovs 
VTfkp tov Xadeiv wBovcrw. 

24. f e^ts TrepirrXaKels Trj OrjXeta fxlywTac r) 
hi avi^erai tov wpL<f>(ov Kal Xvrrei ovhi ev. orav 
hi TTpos tco riXei rcov d(f>pohccrlcov c5at, novrfpav 
vrrip rrjs opuXias rr)v ^cXo^poovvrjv e/crtVet r) 

1 Abresch : irpoa-. 2 cs ra irpocip^iiiva Bva-. 

8 <8e> add. H. 4 S. ^TTOfxevrjs cos alyos* 

5 atpetrat. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 23-24 

up as though for joy, and in their desire to touch the 
goats they leap out of the water, though they are 
not in a general way given to leaping. And even 
when swimming below the waves they are sensible 
of the goats' smell, and for delight in it press in to 
be near them. Now since they are thus love-sick, 
the object of their love is the means of their capture. 
Thus, a fisherman wraps himself in a goatskin which how caught 
has been flayed with the horns. Stalking his prey, 
the hunter gets the sun behind him and then sprinkles 
on the water beneath which the aforesaid fish live, 
barley-groats soaked in broth of goats' flesh. And 
the Sargues, attracted by the aforesaid smell as 
though by some charm, approach and eat the barley- 
groats and are fascinated by the goatskin. And 
the man catches them in numbers with a stout 
hook and a line of white flax attached not to a 
reed but to a rod of cornel-wood. For it is essential 
to haul in the fish that has taken the bait very 
quickly so as to avoid disturbing the others. They 
are even to be caught by hand, if by gently 
stroking the spines, which they raise in self-pro- 
tection, from the head downwards one can lay them, 
or by pressure draw the fish out of the rocks 
into which they thrust themselves to avoid being 

24. The male Viper couples with the female by vipers and 
wrapping himself round her. And she allows her tlieir matmg 
mate to do this without resenting it at all. ' When 
however they have finished their act of love, the 



vvfi<f>7] rep yapirrj' ip,<f>vcra yap avrov rop rpa^Xco, 
StaKonrei avrov avrfj Ke^aXfj' Kal 6 fiev r46viqK€v 3 
r} Be eyKaprrov e^et rrjv fil£iv Kal kvzi. rlftrei Sk 
ovk cpa, aAAa ppetfyiq, /cat eoriv evepya rjorj 
^/cara) 1 rrjv avratv <f>voiv rrjv KaKicrrrjv. Ste- 
0QU1 yovv rrjv pvr\rp(pav vrfivv, Kal rrpoeiut irdpav- 
ra 2 rtfjicopovvra rep TtarpL. rl ovv ol 'Opiarat 
Kal ol 'AAkjokhWcs irpos ravra, to rpayopbol 
<f>tXoi ; 

25. Ttjv vatvav rryres p>€v dppeva el Oedoaio, rrjv 
avrrjv is vioira oifsei OrjXvv el Be 6fjXvv vvv, /xera 
ravra appeva* koivwvovvi re d^poSlrrjs eKarepas, 
Kal yaiiovvi re Kal yapovvrai, dvd eros ttEv dfxel- 
fiovaat, ro yevo$. ovkovv rov Katvea /cat rov Tet- 
pealav dp%alovs a7reSei£e ro faiov rovro ov 
Kopwrois dAAa rols epyois avrots. 

26. yid\ovrai fjuev vrrep roov drjXeiwv ws VTrep 
wpaiiov yvvaiKcov Kal ol rpdyoi TTpos rpdyovs Kal 
ol ravpoc TTpos ravpovs koI vrrep ol&v ol Kptol 
7Tp6s rovs dvrepwvras' opywai Be i<ni ras SiqXetas 
Kal ol daXdrrioi Kavdapoi. ylvovrai Be ev rots 
KaXovfxivois dairpOLS 3 ^co/nots, Kal elal C^Xorvnoi, 
Kal iBot,$ av p-dx^v vrrep rcov OrjXeicov Kaprepdv 
Kal ear iv 6 dyebv ovx virep ttoXA&v, cos rols 

1 <( Kardy add. H. 2 kclt avrd, V. I. Kara, ravra. 

3 Aewpot? H after Jac. 

a Orestes slew his mother Clytemnestra in revenge for her 
having slain his father Agamemnon.— Alcmaeon slew his 
mother Eriphyle who had brought about the death of his, 
father Amphiaraus. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 24-26 

bride in reward for his embraces repays her husband 
with a treacherous show of affection, for she fastens 
on his neck and bites it off, head and all. So he dies, 
while she conceives and becomes pregnant. But she 
produces not eggs but live young ones, which imme- 
diately act in accordance with their nature at its 
worst. At any rate they gnaw through their 
mother's belly and forthwith emerge and avenge 
their father. 

What then, my dramatist friends, have your 
Oresteses a and your Alcmaeons to say to this ? 

25. Should you this year set eyes on a male Hyena, ^ H 7 ena 
next year you will see the same creature as a female ; 
conversely, if you see a female now, next time you 

will see a male. They share the attributes of 
both sexes and are both husband and wife, chang- 
ing their sex year by year. So then it is not 
through extravagant tales but by actual facts 
that this animal has made Caeneus & and Teiresias 

26. As men fight for beautiful women, so do ^ suck 
animals fight for their females, goats with goats, bulls 

with bulls, and rams with their rivals in love for 
sheep. Even the Black Sea-bream wax wanton for 
their females. They are born in what men call 
rough places, and are jealous, and one may see them 
fighting vigorously for their females. And they do 
not contend for several, in the way that Sargues do, 

b Caeneus, originally a girl named Caenis, was changed by 
Poseidon into a man; after death he resumed his female 
form. Teiresias likewise changed his sex twice, but the Hyena 
does this every year. 



oapyols, 1 aAA* vrrkp ttJ? IBlas ovvv6p,ov t <b$ vrrkp 
yafjLerrjs rep MeveAea> 7Tp6s tov TVdpiv. 

27. 'EaTtarat jaev ^aAAats 1 ) 2 /cat aAAats- Tpcxfxus 
6 ttoXvttovs' €.an yap /cat <f>ay€tv Setvo? /cat iiri- 
fiovXevaai a<f>6hpa iravovpyos' to Se atrtov, 7ra/x/?o- 
pcoraros Brjplwv BaXarrlcov iarl. /cat < ('>7> 3 otto- 
Sgl^ls, et ns avr<3 yivovro dBrjpta, rebv iavrov 
TrXoKajxajv Traperpaye, /cat r^r yaaripa Kopioas 
TTjv airdviv rijs ay pas ^/cecraTO* etra avafivec to 

iXXetTTOV, COCT7T€p OVV T7]S <f>V(T€0)S TOVTO 4 Ot iv TW 

XtfMco TrapaaK^va^ovarjs %toi\lov to Selrrvov* 

28. "Ittttos 1 ipptfJLfievos a<firjK<bv yiveals icrrw. 6 
fjiev yap VTroarjrrer at, e/c Be to£> [AveXov iKTrirovrai 
ot Bfjpes ovroi, ojklcttov £(pov . 7TT7jvd e/cyora, tov 

ItTTTOV Ol a<f>7]K€S. 

29. AtftuAov f<£ov /cat 4oik6$ rats (f>apixaKtcrtv 9? 
yAa££. /cat TTpcLrovs (xev alpet tov$ opviBoBrjpas 
f)pT]{i4v7]. itepidyovai yovv avrrjv cos 7ratSt/ca ^ 
/cat Ata Treplairra irrl toV cbpiwv. /cat vvKTOip 
jLtev auTOt? dypVTrveZ /cat tt? </>tovfj olovct rwi 
€7raoiSrj yor}T€ta$ vrrearrapiiiviqs alpuvXov re /cat 
deXKTLKrjs tovs opviBas eA/cet /cat /ca#tfet rrXqalov 
iavr7]S' 7]$r} §e /cat eV rjf^Gpa Br\parrpa erepa rots 
opvioi TTpoaelei \LcoKco\hivr] /cat aAAore aAA^v tSeav 
TTpoacoiTov GTpi^ovoa, vcf>* &v KTjXovvrat, 5 /cat 
Ttapap.ivovaiv eWot 6 iravres opviBes, j)pr\\i,€Voi Sect 
/cat /xaAa ye la^vpcp i£ Sv iKeLvrj iLop<f>d£ei,, 

1 Reiske : or. d TroAe/ios-. 2 <aAAcus> if. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 26-29 

but each for its own mate, just as Menelaus fought 
for his wife with Paris. 

27. The Octopus feeds first on one thing and then Th^ ^ 
on another, for it is terribly greedy and for ever copus 
plotting some evil, the reason being that it is the 
most omnivorous of all sea-animals. The proof of 

this is that, should it fail to catch anything, it eats 
its own tentacles, and by filling its stomach so, finds 
a remedy for the lack of prey. Later it renews its 
missing limb, Nature seeming to provide this as a 
ready meal in times of famine. 

28. A horses carcase is the breeding-place ofTheWasp, 
Wasps. For as the carcase rots, these creatures fly generated 
out of the marrow : the swiftest of animals begets 
winged offspring : the horse, Wasps. 

29. The Owl is a wily creature and resembles a The Owl 
witch. And when captured, it begins by capturing 

its hunters. And so they carry it about like a pet 
or (I declare) like a charm on their shoulders. By 
night it keeps watch for them and with its call that 
sounds like some incantation it diffuses a subtle, 
soothing enchantment, thereby attracting birds to 
settle near it. And even in the daytime it dangles 
before the birds another kind of lure to make fools of 
them, putting on a different expression at different 
times ; and all the birds are spell-bound and remain 
stupefied and seized with terror, and a mighty terror 
too, at these transformations. 

<ij> add. H. 4 Kal rovro. 

atpovvrat. 6 Hetnst : ol vioi. 



30 . *0 Xdfipa£ Kaploos TjrTrjTai,, Kal etrj av, tva 
n Kal Ttalaas eliTa), 1 lyQvwv otffO<j)ayiararos, 
ovkovv eXetoi ovres ras iXelovs eAAo^ajCTtv. elcrl 
yap r<o yevet rpcrrat' Kal at fzev avrcov ofa? 
TTpoetTTOv, at Be £k <j>VKtcov } TreTpataL ye jjl-tjv at 
rplrai. dfivveoOai Be avrovs dBvvaTOvoai alpovv- 
rav ovvaTToBvrjGKew \ Kal to ye ao<f>tayia elirelv 
ovk oKwqcra) avrcov. orav yovv aicrdcovrai Xap,f$av6- 
fMevat, to e^eyov Trjs Ke<f>aXrjs {eoiKe Be Tpirjpovs 
ifjbfioAw Kai iidXa ye 6£ei } Kal aXXa)s ivTopas e^et 
BiKrjv iTpiovos) tovto Totvvv at yevvalat ao<f>cos 
e-rriOTpetftacrai TrrjBcoaC Te Kal dvaOopvuvTat Kov</>a 
Kai aATLKa. Keyr\ve be o Aappaf \Leyaf Kai eaTiv 
oi tol Trjs Beprjs drraXd. ovkovv 6 fxev avXXafitbv 
TTjV KaplBa Kafiovaav o'leTai Belirvov e%ew s rj Be ev 
e^ovaCq Te Kal evpv)(0)pia oKipra Trjs <f>dpvyyos ws 
av eXrrois KaTa^opevovcra* etra e\mr\ywTai tw 
BeiXacco 6rjpaTjj tol KevTpa, Kal eXKOVTal ol tol 
evBov Kal dvoiBrjoavTa atpa eKpdXXei noXv Kal 
duoiTvLyeiy /cat KacvoTara Brjrrov drroKTeivaua 

31. 'Ovu^ojv a/c/xats 1 Kal oBovtoov BiaTOfials Bap- 
povcrt, Kal dpKTOi Kal Xvkoi Kal rrdpBoi Kal XeovTes' 
Tt]v he vvTpv)(a aKovw Tavra fiev ovk e^etv, ov 
fir)v SttXcov vtto Trjs (j>vaecos dpuvvTrjplwv dftoXe- 
Xei<f>9ai €prjp,rjv. tocs yovv imovaw eirl Xvp,rj 
ray avcoOev Tp£)(a$ otoi>et fieXrj eKTrepwreij /cat 
evaTo^s fidXXei noXAdKis, tol va>Ta <f>pl^aoa' 

cmko] et Kal TtTaiaas iput. 

4 8 

ON ANIMALS, L 30-31 

30. The Basse is a victim of the Prawn and is in- ^^ e n and 
clined to be (if I may be allowed the j est) the greatest rawn 
gourmet among fish. So being lake-dwellers they 
lie in wait for the lake Prawns. These are of three 
kinds : the first are such as I have already mentioned ; 
the second subsist on seaweed, while the third kind 
live on the rocks. Being incapable of self-defence 
against the Basse, they prefer to die along with it. 
And I shall not hesitate to use the word ' stratagem 7 
of them. For instance, directly they realise that they 
are being caught, these precious creatures adroitly 
turn outwards the projecting portion of their head, 
which resembles the beak of a trireme and is exceed- 
ingly sharp and has moreover notches in it like a 
saw, and spring and leap lightly and nimbly about. 
But the Basse opens its mouth wide, and the flesh 
of its throat is tender. So the Basse seizes the 
exhausted Prawn and fancies that , it is going to 
make a meal of it. The Prawn however in this 
ample space gambols about and dances in triumph, 
so to say, over the Basse's throat. Then it plants its 
spikes in its unfortunate pursuer, whose inward 
parts are thereby lacerated, so that they swell up 
and discharge much blood and choke the Basse, until 
in most novel fashion the slayer is himself slain. 

31. Strength of claws and sharpness of fangs make The 
bears, wolves, leopards, and lions bold, whereas the orc 
Porcupine, which (I am told) has not these advan- 
tages, none the less has not been left by Nature 
destitute of weapons wherewith to defend itself. 
For instance, against those who would attack it with 
intent to harm it discharges the hairs on its body, 
like javelins, and raising the bristles on its back, 



/cat e/cetvat ye 7TrjBa)at,v, Sairep odv e/c twos 
d<j>eip,4vat, vevpas* 

32. *H Beivov KaKov /cat voo^ju-a dypiov exOpa 
/cat pZvos av^vis, elirep ovv /cat rots dXoyots 
ivrerrjKe /cat avrols iart BvaeKViirra, \wpaiva 
yovv rroXviroBa pLicr€L } /cat ttoXvttovs Kapdficp noXe- 
fjiios, /cat fivpawr] Kapafios exOiaros eort. puvpaiva 
fiev yap rats d/c/xats* rcov oBovtcuv rds TrXeKTavas 

TCp TToXv-TTohl Sta/C07TT€t, elra fJL€VTOL /Cat €S TTjV 

yaarepa ecrBvaa avrw rd avrd Bpa y /cat elKorcos' 
rj puev yap viqKriKrj, 6 Be eoiKev epirovTi' el Be /cat 
Tp€7roiTO rrjv %poav Kara rds Trerpas, eoiKev avrtp 
rd (To<j>LopLa ovputfcepew 1 ovBe ev tovto' eart yap 
ovviBelv €KeCv7] Beivrj rod £q>ov to 7raAa/x^jCta. 
rovs ye puv]V Kapdfiovs avrol 2 ovXXafiovTes is 
Trvtyfia, oTav veKpovs epydaosvraiy rd Kpea e/c/xu- 
£a)crw avrcov . Kepara Be rd eavrov 6 Kapafios 
dveyelpas /cat OvfiioBels is avrd, TrpOKaXeiTat p,v- 
paivav? ovkovv rj fxev rov avrciraXov rd Kevrpa, 
oaa ol 7rpop€pXrjrai } ravra ovk iwoovva Kara- 
BaKver 6 Be rd? XV^^ olovel xeipas TrpoTeLvas, 
Trjs Beprjs 7rap' eKarepa iyKparws ixop>€vo$ ov 
fieB } Ct]o w rj Be. dcr^aAAet /cat iavTYjv eAtrret /cat 
-nepifidXXei rwv darpaKcov rats d/cjuat?, <x>V7tep ovv 
is avrrjv Tr^yvvfievcov /xaA/ctet 4 re /cat d7rayopevet } 
/cat reXevrcbcra Trapeifievq /cetrat* 6 Be tt\v 
avrl-TTaXov 7rotetrat Beiirvov. 

1 Triller: atpeiv. 

2 avrot corrupt, H. 

3 fJL. Kal <as ttvai Kara ywaiKa c5pytajLt«^v. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 31-32 

frequently makes a good shot. And these hairs leap 
forth as though sped from a bowstring, 

32. Enmity and inborn hate are a truly terrible Mutual 
affliction and a cruel disease when once they have Moray, 
sunk deep into the heart even of brute beasts, and ^g^^ 
nothing can purge them away. For instance, the 
Moray loathes the Octopus, and the Octopus is the 
enemy of the Crayfish, and to the Moray the Cray- 
fish is most hostile. The Moray with its sharp teeth 
cuts through the tentacles of the Octopus, and then Moray and 
boring into its stomach does the same thing — and opus 
very properly, for the Moray swims, while the 
Octopus is like some creeping thing. And even 
though it changes its colour to that of the rocks, 
even this artifice seems to avail it nothing, for the 
Moray is quick to perceive the creature's stratagem. 

As to the Crayfish, the Octopuses strangle them ^ cfc J|^ an 
with their grip, and when they have succeeded in ra 
killing them, they suck out their flesh. But against 
the Moray the Crayfish raises its horns and with Moray and 
fury in them challenges it. Thereupon the Moray Cra y fish 
imprudently tries to bite the prickles which its 
adversary has thrust forward in self-defence. But 
the Crayfish reaches out its claws like two hands, and 
clinging firmly to the Moray's throat on either side, 
never relaxes its hold, while the Moray in its distress 
writhes and transfixes itself on the points of the Cray- 
fish's shell ; and as these are planted in it, it grows 
numb and gives up the struggle, finally sinking in 
exhaustion. And the Crayfish makes . a meal off its 

4 fiaXaKiet. 

5 1 


33. Tr)v (jbvpawav 1 rov lx$vv rpe(f>ei ra treXdyrj. 
orav Be avrrjv ro Blktuov TTepiXafy, 2 Btavrjx^rac 
Kal CrjreL rj ftpoxov dpaiov r) pvjypa rov Blktuov 
rrdw ao^cD?* Kal ivTvyovaa rovroyv rivl Kal BieK- 
Bvaa iXevOepa vrjx €TaL ^ tvx ol A 6 " 1 
rrjaBe rrjs eveppiias, Kal at Xoirral ocrai rod avrov 
yevovs avveaXooKaai Kara rrjv eKecvqs <f>vyr)v 
i^laocv, cos 6B6v riva Xafiovoai Trap" r)yep,6vos . 

34. Tr)v aryniav orav pbeXXcouw alpetv 3 oi rovrcov 
dyaOol dt]paral } avvetcra eKeCvrj TraprjKe ro i£ eav~ 
rrjs a7roa^ay/xa, 4 Kal Karax^rai iavrrjsy Kal rrepi- 
Xafxpdvei Kal d<j>avi^ei rraoaVy Kal KXerrrerai rr)v 
oijsw 6 dXievs* Kal r) fxev iv 6<f>9aXfioLs eanv, 6 Be oi>x 
opa. roiovrov n Kal rw Alveca v£<f>o$ rrepifiaXcov 
rj7rdrr]cr€ rov 'A^tAAea 6 UoaecSajv, cbs"Op,r)pos Xeyec. 

35. Bao7cava>v o^OaXpuovs Kal yorjrcov <j>vXdr- 
rerai Kal rcov ^cpcov rd dXoya <f>vaei rwl drropprjrcp 
Kal OavpLao-rfj . aKovco yovv 5 fiaoKavias dfxvvrr)- 
piov rds <f>drras Bd<f>vrjs KXcovta dtrorpayovaas 
Xerrrd etra puevrot rats eavrcov KaXiats evnOivai 
rcov veorrtcov <f>etBoL* tKrtvoi Be pdpuvov, KipKoi Be 
rriKpiBa, at ye pbrjv rpvyoves rov rrjs ipecos Kapirov, 
dyvov Be KopaKes, ol Be erro^es ro dBiavrov 3 orrep 
ovv Kal KoXXCrpcxov KaXovcrt rives } dpiarepecova Be 
Kopcovrj, Kal Kirrbv dprrrj, KapKivov Be epcpBios, 

1 Ges : a<j>vpaivav. 2 TrepifidXXr}. 

3 JReisJce : atpelv kclI Ari/z/?dV«v. 

4 wro (j^ayjua H, cp. Hippon. 2a (D 2 ). 5 o$v. 

° The genus picris embraces a wide variety of plants ; it 
may here signify ox-tongue or chicory or endive or Urospermum 

5 2 

ON ANIMALS, I. 33-35 

33. The fish known as the Moray lives in the sea, The Moray 
and when the net encircles it, it swims hither and 
thither, seeking with great cleverness some weak 

mesh or some rent in the net. And when it has 
found such a place, it slips through and swims free 
once again. And if one of them has this good for- 
tune, all the others of its kind that have been caught 
along with it escape in the same way, as though 
taking their direction from a leader. 

34. Whenever fishermen who are skilled in these gto 
matters plan to catch a Cuttlefish, the fish on realising 
this emits the ink from its body, pours it over itself 
and envelops itself so as to be entirely invisible. 
The fisherman's sight is deceived : though the fish is 
within view, he does not see it. It was by veiling 
Aeneas in such a cloud that Poseidon tricked Achilles, 
according to Homer [II 20. 321-]. 

35. Even brute beasts protect themselves against f£f*™£ 
the eyes of sorcerers and wizards by some inexplic- tection 
able and marvellous gift of Nature. For instance, I 

am told that as a charm against sorcery rmg-doves 
nibble off the fine shoots of the bay-tree, and then 
insert them in their nests as a protection for their 
young. Kites take buck-thorn, falcons picris, a while 
turtle-doves take the fruit 6 of the iris, ravens the 
agnus-castus tree, but hoopoes maidenhair fern, 
which some call 'lovely hair'; the crow takes 
vervain, the shearwater « ivy, the heron a crab, the 

b From Thphr. HP 3. 3. 4 ' it appears that the buds of the 
poplar were mistaken for fruit,' Hort ad loc. So here perhaps 
Kafynos should be understood as the bud of the iris. 

« '"Apm? . . prob. shearwater; L-S 9 ; but the meaning 
is quite uncertain, cp. 12. 4. 



Trip&ig Se KaXdfxov tfiofirjv, 6aX\6v Se at /ct^Aat 
iwpplv7]s. TrpofidXAerai Se /cat Kopvhos dypwartv, 
aerol 1 <Se> 2 T ov Ai'0<w, oairep ovv i£ avrwv 
atTirqs /ce'/cA^rat. Xiyerai Se o&ro? o XlBos teal 
yvvatgl Kvovaais dyadov etvai, rats dpu^Xwaeui 


36. f O IxOvs r) vdpK-q otov aV /cat Trpocrdt/f-qrai 
to avr^ff wo/w e'Sw/ce' Te kol vapKav eVotT/crev. 

T} 8e i X €V7]k j7T€ X €L ra<r vavs, Kal i£ 0$ TTOleZ 

KaXovpev avj-qv. kvovg^s Se oXkvovos lararat 
fxev rd TreXdyr]^ elprjvrjv Se /cat <f>iXtav dyovaiv 
avepot,^ Kvei^Se apa x €l ^ V( >s fieaovvros, Kal 
ojxeos rf rod depos yaXrjvr) otSayaiv evrjfxeplav, /cat 
aXKvovelas* TqvucdSe tt)s wpas dyofiev r)ix£pas. 
%Xvos he Xvkov vareX Kara rvxrjv Ittttos, kol vdpKrj 
TrepielXrifevavTov. el Se vmopptijjeias darpdyaXov 
Xvkov rerpwpep 4 0eWt, to Se cos ireTrqyds eorrfce- 
rat, row lttttcov tov darpdyaXov TrarrjadvTwv . 
Xioov Se <f>vXXoi$ irpivov to 'i X vos eVt/?aAAet, /cat 
vaptea- . . . 5 Se /cat o Xvkos, el kol puovov irpo- 
(jneXaaete 7TerrjXois crKtXArjs. ravrd rot /cat at 
dXd)7T€Kes isjas evvds rcov Xvkcov ip,{$dXXov(jt,, Kal 
elKorcos' Bid yap ttjv ef avr&v eirifiovXty voovvw 
exOiara avTots. 

37. Ot ireXapyol XvpLawofievas avrwv rd <bd rds 
WKTeplBas dp,vvovTai -rrdvv ao^aV at fiev yap 

1 ateTot MSS always. 

2 <8e'> add. Jac. 

* Jac; Kal T€Tpa>pq>, 


ON ANIMALS, I. 35"37 

partridge the hairy head of a reed, thrushes a sprig 
of myrtle. The lark protects itself with dogs-tooth 
grass; eagles take the stone which is called after 
them aeiite (eagle-stone). This stone is also said to 
be good for women in pregnancy, as a preventive of 

36. The fish known as Torpedo produces the effect TJ*^ 
implied in its name on whatever it touches and 
makes it * torpid ' or numb. And the Sucking-fish 
clings to ships, and from its action we give it its 
name, Ship-holder. 

While the Halcyon is sitting, the sea is still and the The^ 
winds are at peace and amity. It lays its eggs about 
mid-winter ; nevertheless, the sky is calm and brings 
fine weather, and it is at this season of the year that 
we enjoy ' halcyon days.' 

If a horse chance to tread on the footprint of a ogjds^ 
Wolf, it is at once seized with numbness. If you num bness 
throw the vertebra of a Wolf beneath a four-horse 
team in motion, it will come to a stand as though 
frozen, owing to the horses having trodden upon the 
vertebra. If a Lion put his paw upon the leaves of an 
ilex, he goes numb. <And the same thing happens 
to> a Wolf, should he even come near the leaves of a 
squill. And that is why foxes throw these leaves 
into the dens of Wolves, and with good reason, 
because their hostility is due to the Wolves* designs 
upon them. 

37. Storks have a very clever device for warding ^phyi-^ 
off the bats that would damage their eggs: one bybirds 

s Lacuna : vap K a TraTwv 8e mss, <va/)«a> Jac, <o^otW> H* 



TTpooaifjaiievai p,6vov dvepaaia ipyd&vrai Kal 
ayova avra. ovkovv to iirl tovtois <f>dpp,aKov 
€K€tvo ecrrt. TrXardvov <f>vXXa iiri^epovoi rats 
KaXcais' at Be WKTepLBes orav avrots yevrvidawai, 
vapKwac Kal yivovrai Xvjretv dBvvaTOt,. Ba>pov Be 
dpa r) <f>vats Kal rats ^eAtSoatv eBa>Kev otov. at 
aiX<j>ai Kal tovtcov rd <hd dBtKovaw. ovkovv at 
p,7]T€p€s creXtvov KOfirjv TrpofidXXovrat t&v fipe<f>a>Vy 
Kal iK^Lvais to ivTevdev afiard iari. ttoX-uttogi Be 
et ti$ im^aXoi 1 TTTjyavov, aKcvrjroL fievovmv, <bs 
Xeyei ti$ Xoyos. o<f>ea>s Be el KaOiKOio KaXdfiqy, 
fieTa tt}v TTpayrrjv TrXrjyrjv dVpe^et Kal vdpKrj 2 
TreS-qdels r}ovxd£ei' el Be iiraydyois 3 BevTepav rj 
TpiTTjv, dveppcocras avrov. Kal \wpaiva Be TtX-qyelaa 
vdpOrfKC is aVa£ rjavxaCer el Be TrXeovaKis, is 
dvpov e^aVrerat. Xeyovcrt Be aXiets Kal TroXviroBas 
is Trjv yrjv vpo'ievai, iXaias OaXXov iirl rrjs f]6vos 
Kei^evov. 9rjpia)v Be dXe£t,cf)dpp,aKov rjv dpa irdv- 
r<x)v TnpeXrj iXe<f>avT0S , rjv el tis imxplcraiTo, Kal el 
yvfivos ofAoore x^P ^! tois dypiaiTaTOis ; datvfjs 

38. 'OppcoBeX 6 iXe<f)as KepdcrTrjv Kptov Kal ^ot- 
pov fiorjv. ovto) toi } <j>aGi ) Kal 'Pco/mioi tovs avv 
Uvppq) T<p 'E.7T€(,pd>T7} €TpiifjavT0 iXi^avras , Kal 
ff vLkt] avv tols e Pto/zaiW XajATrp&s iyevero. 
yvvaiKOS <8e> 4 wpaias ToBe to £cpov ^TT&Yat Kal 

1 em/SaAAet. 2 rjj vdpKj}. 

3 iwyois. 4 <8e'> add. H. 

fl Si% (rendered 'cockroach' in L-S 9 ) here probably 
signifies the dipterous insect Stenopteryx hirundinis. ' Most 


ON ANIMALS, I. 37-38 

touch from the bats turns them to wind-eggs and 
makes them infertile. Accordingly, this is the 
remedy they use to prevent this happening. They 
lay the leaves of a plane-tree upon their nests, and 
directly the bats come near the storks, they are 
benumbed and become incapable of doing harm. 
On swallows too Nature has bestowed a like gift: 
cockroaches* injure their eggs. Therefore the 
mother-birds protect their chicks with celery leaves, 
and hence the cockroaches cannot reach them. ^ If 
one throws some rue upon an octopus it remains ^f n of 
immobile — so the story goes. If you touch a snake herbs n 
with a reed, it will after the first stroke remain still, JgygJ 
and in the grip of numbness will lie quiet; if how- 
ever you repeat the stroke a second or a third 
time, you at once revive its strength. The moray 
too, if struck once with a fennel wand, lies still 
the first time ; but if struck several times, its anger 
is kindled. Fisherfolk assert that even octopuses 
come ashore if a sprig of olive is laid upon the 

It seems that the fat of an elephant is a remedy Elephant's 
against the poisons of all savage creatures, and if a f at 
man rub some on his body, even though he encounter 
unarmed the very fiercest, he will escape unscathed. 

38 (i). The Elephant has a terror of a horned ram The 
and of the squealing of a pig. It was by these means, f0 H a f n ' 
they say, that the Romans turned to flight the perfumes 
elephants of Pyrrhus of Epirus, and that the Romans 
won a glorious victory. This same animal is over- 

of the known Hippoboscidae live on birds and are apparently 
specially fond of the Swallow tribe. They are all winged.' 
D. Sharp, Insects, 519 (Camb. Nat. Hist. 6). 



rrapakveraL tov Ovfiov iKKaxfxodev 1 is to KaXXos. 
Kal dvTfjpa <f>avlv iv rfj Alyvirria 'AXegdvhpov 
rroXei yvvaiKos UTe<f)dvovs TrXeKovarjs 'Apiaro <j>dvei 
ra> Bv£avTiq> iXe<f>as. 2 dya7ra he 6 avTos Kal 
evcohiav irdcrav, Kal fxvpoov Kal dvOecov KrjXovpuevos 

Tjj OVflfj. 

"Octtis fiovXeTai kXo)$ r} XrjaTrjs Kvvas dyav 
aypiooTaTovs KaTaaiydvai Kal Qeivai <f>vydhas, £k 
TTVpas dv6pw7rov haXov Xaficbv opocre avTots -^copei, 
tfiacjLv ol he oppcohovacv. aKrjKoa he Kal eKeivov 
tov Xoyov. XvKOGirdha oh negas <Vts-> 3 Kal ipiovp- 
yrjvas Kal x^&va ipyacrdfievos Xviret tov 7)067} p,e- 
vov oha^ojxov yap ipyd&Tai, d>s Xoyos. epiv 
he el tis Kal endow iOeXot iv tw ovvheinvcp 
ipydoaoOat, hrjxOevTa vtto kwos XWov ipb^aXcbv 
tco oivq) Xvtrei tovs ovfjaroTas eKpLaivcov, Kavdd- 

pOLS hk KaKOVfJLOlS 07] plots €1 TCS eTTlppdveie 4 

pjvpov, ol he tt)v evcohiav ov <f>epovow } aAA' 
dmoQv7]OKovow . ovtcd toL <j>aoc Kal tovs fivpoo- 
heiftas ovvTpa<f>4vTas dipt KaKw /3heXvTTeo6ac 
puvpov. Xiyovoi he AlyvTTTioi Kal tovs ofieis 
irdvTas lfiea>v TTTepd hehievat. 

39. Srjpcocri tAs Tpvyovas ol 5 tovto>v aKpi- 
fiovvTes t(l OrjpaTpa, Kal fidXiOTa tt]s Treipas ov 
htapLapTdvovcrt, tov TpOTtov tovtov. ioTTjKaoiv op- 

1 MeisJce: cKKwfadds, 2 6 iXtyas. 

3 ijisyaM. H. 4 imppdveu* 

5 ol /ecu . 

* Aristophanes of Byzantium, 3rd/2nd cent. B.C., head of 
the library at Alexandria, famous as grammarian, literary and 


ON ANIMALS, I. 38-39 

come by beauty in a woman and lays aside its tem- 
per, quite stunned by the lovely sight. And at 
Alexandria in Egypt, they say, an Elephant was the 
rival of Aristophanes of Byzantium a for the love of 
a woman who was engaged in making garlands. 
The Elephant also loves every kind of fragrance and 
is fascinated by the scent of perfumes and of flowers. 

(ii) If some thief or robber wants to silence dogs ^JJ^ 
that are too fierce and to make them run away, he barking 
takes a brand from a funeral pyre (they say) and 

goes for them. The dogs are terrified. I have 
heard too this story : if a man shears a sheep that 
has been mauled by a wolf r and after working the 
wool makes himself a tunic, this will irritate him wcg « 
when he puts it on. * He is weaving a gnawing itch 
for himself/ as the proverb has it. 

(iii) If a man wants to bring about a quarrel and 
contention at a dinner-party, he will by dropping part y 
into the wine a stone that a dog has bitten, vex his 
fellow-guests to the point of frenzy. 

(iv) If a man sprinkle some perfume upon beetles, ^^ tjmd 
which are ill-smelling creatures, they cannot endure unpleasant 
the sweet scent, but die. In the same way it is said 

that tanners, who live all their life in foul air, detest 
perfumes. And the Egyptians maintain that all 
snakes dread the feathers of the ibis. 

39. Those who have a thorough understanding of Thestiag- 
the matter hunt Sting-rays, 6 and it is chiefly in this SJghtT 
way that their efforts are successful. They take their 

textual critic, especially in the field of Greek poetry. \Y r ?te 
an epitome of natural history based upon Aristotle ; it in- 
cluded * paradoxal ^ 

& Cp. 17. 18; Tpvyw must here stand for t. daAarrta. 



Xovpevoi Kal dBovres ev fxdXa p,ovoiKa>s' ai Be 
/cat rfj aKofj SeXyovTai Kal rfj oifsei T7\$ opxtfcrecos 
KiqXovvrai Kal TTpovtaviv eyyvTepo). ol Be virava- 
XWpovaiv rjcrvxri Kal fidBrjv, evda Bi]7Tov Kal 6 
BoXos rat? BeiXalais 7tpoKeiTai 3 BtKTva eKTreiTTa- 
fieva 1 - etra epLirvnTovaiv is avrd Kal aAtWovrat, 
op%r\aei Kal chBfj fiprjfievat TTpobrov. 

40. "OpKvvos ovofjua KY]Tw8r]s txQvs ovk aao<f>os 
es ra avrov XvmreXiarara, Bcopov Xax&v <f>voei 
tovto, ov rixvrj. orav yovv TrepLrraprj rep ajKio- 
rpw, KaraBvei avrov is fivdov Kal <hdeZ Kal 
TTpooapdrret, ra> Ba7re8q) Kal Kpovec to crrofjia, 
eK^aXeiv to dyKiorpov eBeXow* el Be dBvvarov 
tovto et7], 2 evpvvet 3 to Tpavfia, Kal eKrrTverai to 
Xvttovv avrov Kal egdXAerac. TroXXaKts Be ovk 
€TVxe rrjs rreipas, Kal 6 Oiqpa'rqs aKovra avawrrdcFas 
k'xei ttjv aypav. 

41. AeiXoTaros Ixdvayv 6 fieXdvovpos } Kal k'xet 
T?j$ BeiXias fxaprvpas tovs aXiets. ovt€ yovv 
KvpTtp XafipdvovTai ovtoc, ovt€ Trpoataaiv avTCp* 
aayrjvr) Be el wore avrovs irepiAdfioi* ol Be 
ayvoovvres eaXojKaai. Kal orav puev fj vnevBla Kal 
XeLa r] 9dXaTTa } ol Be dpa Kara) rrov Trpos rats 
TreTpats § tois <f>VKiot,$ rjovxd^qvut, Kal rrpofidX- 
Xovrai tvav 6 ti BvvavTai, to awfia d(f>avlCovTes : 
edv Be rj ^et/xepta, tovs aAAous" opcbvTes KaTaBvv- 
fas eK Tijs ra>v KVfxaTOJV TTpoafioXrjs is rov f$v86v, 

3 evpvvet o8v. * ireptfi&Koi. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 39^41 

stand and dance and sing very sweetly. And the 
Sting-rays are soothed by the sound and are charmed 
by the dancing and draw nearer, while the men with- 
draw gently step by step to the spot where of course 
the snare is set for the wretched creatures, namely 
nets spread out. Then the Sting-rays fall into them 
and are caught, betrayed in the first instance by 
the dancing and singing. 

40. The Great Tunny, as it is called, is a monstrous The Great 
fish and knows well what is best for it. This gift it Tujmy 
has acquired by nature and not by art. For instance, 
when the hook has pierced it, it dives to the bottom 

and thrusts and dashes itself against the ground, 
striking its mouth in its effort to eject the hook. If 
that fails, it widens the wound and disgorges the 
instrument of pain and dashes away. Frequently 
however it fails in the attempt, and the fisherman 
draws up the reluctant creature and secures his catch. 

41. The Melanurus is the most timid of fishes, and The 

to its timidity fishermen bear witness, for it is not (biack-Sn) 
caught in weels nor does it go near them ; but if by 
chance a dragnet encircles it, then it is caught 
without knowing it. And whenever the sea is fairly 
calm and smooth, these fish lie quiet down below 
upon the rocks or among the seaweed and cover 
themselves as best they can, trying to conceal their 
bodies. But if the weather is stormy, observing 
other fish diving to the depths out of the buffeting 
waves, they take courage and approach the shore, 



oc Be avadappovcri, 1 Kal rfj yfj TrpoGTreXd^ovai, Kal 
raZs iter pais TTpocrveovac, Kal rjyovvral cr<f>iai 
TrpofiArjfjia iKavov etvai tov V7Tepvrjx6p.evov d<f>pov 
KaXv7TT0vrd re avrovs Kal eTrrjXvyd^oVTa . avviam 
Be ed fjL&Aa a,7T0ppr}Tws ore toZs dXievcrtv ev rjfiepq, 
Tola 77 vvktI is tt)v OdXarrdv evrtv dj3ara, dyptai- 
vovarjs Trjs OaXdrrrjs <(/axt) 2 ra>v KVfidrwv alpo- 
fxevcov ixerewpo)v re Kal cfcoflepcov. e^ovai Be Kal 
Tpo<j>rjv ev ^ei/zawt, tov kXvBcdvos rd puev dTrocnrajv- 
tos eK rcov Trerpwv, rd Be imavpovros e/c Trjs yrjs' 
oirovvTai Be fxeXdvovpot, ra pvirapdyrepa Kal Sera 
ovk dv paBLois lx@vs aXXos dv irdaatTO, el firj irdvv 
XipLcp 7Tte£oiTO. ev yaXrjvrj Be em Trjs dfifxov 
fjiovrjs aaXevovai? Kal eKeZSev ftoGKOVTai. ottcos Be 
dXLtJKQvrai, epeZ d'XXos. 

42. 'Aero? Be 6pvl6a>v o^vcoTreoTaros * Kal "Ofirj- 
pos avrw avvotBe Kal tovto, Kal fxapTVpeZ ev Tjj 
HarpOKXela, elKa^cov tov MeveAeaw rai opviBi, ore 
dve^njreL ^AvtlXo^ov, tva dyyeXov diroGTelXr} tw 
'A^tAAet, TTiKpov jjuevj dyayKaZov Be, virep tov 
irdOovs tov Kara tov iratpov avTOV, ov e^eTTepujse 
puev, ox>x VTveBe^aro Be, Kavroi ttoOcov eKeZvos 
tovto. Xeyerac Be firj eavTW puovco xprjoip,os 3 dXXd 
Kal dvOpcLiTcov 6<f>6aXpioZs 6 deros dyados 4 etvai. 
el yovv fieXcrl ti$ 'Attikw tt)v x°^1 v wvtov 
BiaXaficbv 5 V7raXelifjaiTO 6 dpifiXwoptevos, oipeTat 
Kal o^vrdrovs yovv IBeZv e^ei tovs 6(j>daXpiovs . 

1 dvaOapaovat. 2 <(/cat> add. Meishe. 

3 Jac : dXiivovm, 4 Schn : dyadov. 

5 avaXaficov ? H. 6 vrraAet^oiTO. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 41-42 

swim close to the rocks, and fancy that the foam 
floating overhead is sufficient protection while it 
conceals and overshadows them. And they know in 
some quite inexplicable way that for fishermen the 
sea is unnavigable on such a day or such a night, as 
it rages with the waves mounting to a terrifying 
height. It is in stormy weather that they gather 
their food, when the swell drags some off the rocks 
and sucks some from the shore. The Melanuruses 
feed off the foulest matter, such stuff as no other 
fish would readily take, unless it were utterly over- 
come by hunger. But in calm weather they have only 
the sand to ride on, and from there they get their 
food. But how they are captured another shall tell. 

42. Among birds the Eagle has the keenest sight. The Eagle, 

& ° its keen 

And Homer is aware of this and testifies to the fact sight 
in the story of Patroclus when he compares Menelaus 
to the bird [II 17. 674-], at the time when he was 
searching for Antilochus, that he might despatch 
him to Achilles as a messenger, unwelcome indeed 
but necessary, to announce the fate that had be- 
fallen his comrade, whom Achilles had sent out <to 
battle) but never welcomed home again for all his 
yearning. And the Eagle is said to serve not him- 
self alone but to be good for men's eyes as well. At 
any rate, if a man whose sight is dim mix an Eagle's 
gall with Attic honey and rub it <(on his eyes), he 
will see and will acquire sight of extreme keenness. 



43. 'AtjSow opvLQcov Xhyvpcordriq re kol evpiov- 
aordrrj, 1 Kal /caraSet rcov iprjfjLalwv ywpLtov 
evaropceLrara opvlOcov Kal ropcorara. Xiyovav he 
koI rd Kpea avrfjs is dypwnviav XvoireXeiv, 
TTOvrjpol fiev odv ol rocavrrjs rpo(f>rjs Bairvpioves 
Kal dfiaOets Becvcos' 7TOvrjp6v 8e to €k rijs rpocfyfjs 
Swpov, <f>vyfj vttvqv, rod Kal Oecov Kal avdpcorrcov 
fiaatXiais, d>S "Oprqpos Xeyet, 

44. Twv yepdvcov at KXayyal koXovgiv opbfipovs, 
ws <f>aow 6 Se iyKe<f>aXos yvvaiKtov is %dpiv 
d<f>poSlaiov 2 e^et rwds tvyyas, et rep 3 iWot 
T€Kp,r}pitocraL ol irpeoroi <f>vXd£avre$ ravra,^ 

45. TV7TC0V 7TT€pd €t #U/Ztaff€t€ 5 TtS, COS" aKOVO), 

Kal ck efycoXeeov Kal i£ elXvwv rovs 6<f>ets irpod^ei 

To £epov 6 6 8pvoKoXd7TT7}$ i£ od Spa 7 Kal 
K€KXr]Tat. e%ct puev yap pdpb</>os eTTLKvprov, KoXd- 
irrei Se dpa rovrip rds Bpvs, *at ivravBoi 8 cos 
is KaXcdv rovs veorrovs ivrlBt\aiv 3 ov derjOels 
Kap<j>a)v Kal rijs i£ avrcov irXoKrjs Kal oiKoSopLLas 
ovSe ev. ovkovv et res XtOov ivOels itn<f>pd£;€L€ rep 
opveep rep irpoeiprjpLevcp rrjv ecrSucrtv, o Se avp,j3aXcbv 
rrjv impovXrjv 9 /co/uf ei ttoov i^Opdv rep XlOcp 
Kal Kar* avrov ridrfow 6 Se ota fiapovptevos Kal 
fxrj <f>ipa>v i£dXXerai y Kal dveepyev av9i$ rep rrpoet- 
prjptevep r) $iXt) V7roSpofJL7j. 

1 evvovardrrj. 2 afooBicrlav. 8 rrov. 

4 aw*a. 5 Ovficdaav. 

6 to £<3ov] t,$ov Se. 7 Jac : a/ia- 

8 gvtolvBoZ KoiXdvas rov tottqv, 

6 4 

ON ANIMALS, I. 43~45 

43. Among birds the Nightingale has the clearest ^ Mingale 
and most musical voice, and fills solitary places with 

its most lovely and thrilling note. Further, they 
say that its flesh is good for keeping one awake. 
But people who feast upon such food are evil and 
dreadfully foolish. And it is an evil attribute of 
food that it drives sleep away — sleep, the king of 
gods and men, as Homer says [//. 14. 233]. 

44. The screaming of Cranes brings on showers, so The Crane 
they say, while their brain possesses some kind of 

spell that leads women to grant sexual favours — if 
those who first observed the fact are sufficient 

45. If a man burn the feathers of a Vulture (so I Vulture's 
am told), he will have no difficulty in inducing snakes 

to quit their dens and lurking-places. 

The bird ' Woodpecker ' derives its name from what ^ e odpecker 
it does. For it has a curved beak with which it pecks 
oak-trees, and deposits its young in them as in a 
nest ; and it has no need at all of dry twigs woven 
together or of any building. Now if one inserts a 
stone and blocks up the entrance for the aforesaid 
bird, it guesses that there is a plot afoot, fetches 
some herb that is obnoxious to the stone, and places 
it against the stone. The latter in disgust and un- 
able to endure <the smell) springs out, and once 
again the bird's caverned home lies open to it. 

9 €TTi^OvXrjV T7)V KOLT CtVTOV, 

VOL. I. 




46. 01 ovvoSovres ovk elcrl fiovicu, ovSe rrjv a7r' 
dXXrjXcov ipr}p,tav re Kal htatpeaw avlyovrai. 
(fnXovai 8e avvayeXd^eoQai kclO* rjXiKiav. Kal ol 
fikv vecorepoi Kara tXas vrjxovrat, °t $e ivreXecrre- 
poi vrdXiv Kowfj* t<al ro rov Xoyov rovro fjXtt; 
-fjXiKa Kal €K€lvol repirovai, rrapovres irapovoiv cos 
eraipois Kal <f>LXois €K rcov avrcov iTnrrjSevfidrojV' 
re Kal Starpificbv. reyya£>ovrai he rtpos rovs 
Orjparas oirota, orav dXtevs dvrjp ro is avrovs 
heXeap KaQfj, rrepieXOovres rrdvres Kal KVKXooe 
yevo\ievoi is dXXrjXovs 6p(x>oiv 3 oiovel ovvQy\p,a eKa- 
err os eKaara) hihovres [vr\re TrXrjcidoai firjre dxjsaudai 
rov Ka6eip,€Vov SeXedcrfjuaros . Kal oc pikv irapare- 
raypuevoi is rovro drpepiovoiv €K Se 1 dXXorpcas 
dyeXrjs crvvoScov d(f>lKero t Kal KararrLvei ro dyKtar- 
pov, iprjfMcas Xafichv 2 puoOov rrjv dXwow. Kal 6 
fiev dvaoirarai, ol he yhr) Oappovow cos ovx 
dXwaofievot, Kal Kara^povrjoavres ovrco Orjpcdvrat. 

47. Qpvyerai hta rov Oipovs 6 Kopa£ rep St^et 
KoXa^ouevos, Kal Boa rrjv riacopLav aaprvpoiLevos \ 
ws <paoi. feat rrjv airiav Aeyovaiv eKeivr\v. o 
'AttoXXcov avrov depdirovra ovra vSpevcrofievov 
drtottepmev 6 he evrvyxdvei Xrjico j3a8et \xev s en 
he xAcopa), Kal puevei ear dv adov yevrjr at t rcov 
irvptov rrapaxvavoai /3ovX6jJLevos> Kal rov rtpoordy- 
fxaros chXtycoprjcre . Kal viiep rovrcov iv rfj 
fxdXiora avx^rjpordrr] copa hufscov hUas eKrlves. 
rovro eoiKe puvQtp fiev, eiprjoOto S' ovv rfj rov Oeov 
athoZ. . 


ON ANIMALS, I. 46-47 

46. The Four-toothed Sparus is not solitary nor The Four- 
does it endure loneliness and separation from its Sp arus 
kind. These fish love to congregate together 
according to their age: the younger ones swim 
about in shoals, the maturer ones also keep together. 

And as the saying is true 1 A friend must be of one's 
own age/ a so these creatures delight to be where 
others of their kind are, like comrades and friends 
sharing the same pursuits and resorts. And these 
are the means they devise for evading their pursuers. 
Whenever an angler drops a bait for them they all 
gather round and forming a ring look at one another 
as though each were signalling to each not to 
approach and not to touch the bait that has been 
lowered. And those that have been posted for this 
purpose remain still. But a Sparus from some other, 
strange shoal arrives and swallows the bait, and gets 
the reward of its solitariness by being caught. So while 
he is being drawn up, the rest grow bolder as though 
they were not going to be taken, and so through their 
scorn <of danger) are caught. 

47. All through the summer the Eaven is afflicted TheEaven, 
with a parching thirst, and with his croaking (so they lts thirst 
say) declares his punishment. And the reason they 

give is this. Being a servant he was sent out by 
Apollo to draw water. He came to a field of corn, 
tall but still green, and waited till it should ripen, 
as he wanted to nibble the wheat : to his master's 
orders he paid no heed. On that account in the 
driest season of the year he is punished with thirst. 
This looks like a fable, but let me repeat it out of 
reverence for the god. 

« The full phrase is iJAt£ yjXiKa re/wet, cp. PL PJmedr. 240 C. 



48. e Kopa^ y opviv avrov (jjaoiv lepov, /cat 
'AnoXXajvos aKoXovOov etvai Xeyovat. ravrd roc 
/cat fzavTLKots crvfifSoXots dyaBov ofxoXoyovat rov 
avrov, /cat orrevovral ye npos rrjv £k€lvov fiorjv ol 
avvtevres opvLBow /cat eSpas /cat KXayyds /cat 
TTrrjaeis avrcbv rj Kara Xacav X € W a V K wrd 

UpoaaKova) Se /cat tod KopaKos fieXalveiv rpt^as*. 
/cat XPV T ° v BoXovvra rrjv eavrov Kopjqv eXaiov iv 
rw arofjiari e^etv crvfApivaavra* el Se ^77, /cat ot 
SBovres avrw avv rfj rpiyl fxeXalvovrat Svo-eKrrXvroi 
re /cat SvaeKvnrrot. 

49. f fxepoiff to opveov e/x7raAtv <j>aui rois aX~ 
Xocs diraav rrererai' rd fxev yap is rovp,7rpooQev 
terat /cat /car' SfiOaXfjiovs, 6 ok is rovrrlcra). /cat 
erreioi ju,ot OavpA^ew rrjv </>vcriv rrjs imcrfjiov /cat 
irapaho^ov /cat drjOovs <)>opa$, rjv e/cetvo arret 1 ro 

50. *H fJLVpawd orav 6pp,rjs d<f>poSialov V7ro7rXr)- 
vQfjy rrpoeiow is rrjv yfjv, /cat ofuXiav rroQei 
vv[i<f>lov /cat juaAa Trovrjpov- irdpeioi yap els e^ea»? 
(f>o)Xe6v, /cat ap,<f>a> av pwrXeKovr ai. rjSr] Se <j>aai 
/cat 6 ext-S olarprjoas /cat e/cetvo? eV /uf «> d<f>tKvetrat 
77/50? r^i^ OdXarrav, /cat ofov et KatfiaarTjs crvv rep 
avXw dvpOKonel, ovra> roc /cat e/cetvo? ovplaas rrjv 
ipcofxevqv 77-apa/caAet, /cat aur^ Trpoeivi? rrjs 
(f>vae(Ds rd aAA^Acov oicpKiafxeva avvayovurjs is 
imOvpLiap tyju ofiolav /cat kqvtov rov avrov. 

1 ay«. 2 <?es : trpoa-. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 48-50 

48. The Raven, they say, is a sacred bird and The^Eaven, 
attends upon Apollo : that is why men agree that nation 

it is also of use in divination, and those who under- 
stand the positions of birds, their cries, and their 
flight whether on the left or on the right hand, are 
able to divine by its croaking. 

I am also informed that Raven's eggs turn the **» iss 3 
hair black. And it is essential for anyone who is 
dyeing his hair to keep olive oil in his mouth and his 
lips closed. Otherwise his teeth also turn black 
along with his hair, and they are hardly to be washed 
white again. 

49. The Bee-eater flies (so they say) in precisely The Bee- 
the opposite way to all other birds, for they move 
forward in the direction in which they look, while the 
Bee-eater flies backwards. And I am astonished at 

the remarkable, incredible, and uncommon character 
of the motion with which this creature wings its way. . 

50. Whenever the Moray is filled with amorous Moray and 
impulses it comes out of the sea on to land seeking 
eagerly for a mate, and a very evil mate. For it 

goes to a Viper's den and the pair embrace. And 
they do say that the male Viper also in its frenzied 
desire for copulation goes down to the sea, and just 
as a reveller with his flute knocks at the door, so the 
Viper also with his hissing summons his loved one, 
and she emerges. Thus does Nature bring those that 
dwell far apart together in a mutual desire and to a 
common bed. 



" 51. f Paxt? dvOptoirov veKpov cfacrtv VTTOcrrjnofXe- 

VOV TOV fJLVtXoV 7]§7] Tp€7T€L €ff 0</>W Kal €K7Tl7TT€t, TO 
97}plOV 3 Kal €p7T€L TO 1 dyplCOTaTOV €K TOV rjjxepcoTd- 

tov Kal tcov fxev KaXcov Kal dyaOcov to, Xdifsava 
dvaTraverai, Kal ddXov rjcruxtav, woirep o3v 

Kal rj faxr) tcov toiovtcov to, ahofxeva t€ /cat 
vpvovpueva €K twv aocf>cov 7rov7]pa)V Se dvdpcoTTCov 
pdx^is rotaura tiktovgi Kal pueTa tov fiiov. t) 
toLwv to Ttav avOos icTTtVy 7i, el tovt diftevScos 2 
7X€-rriaT€VTai ) 7TOvrjpov vtKpos, cos Kpweiv ep,e, 
o<j>€COS yeviaQai 7TaTrjp tov Tpo-rrov fiiadov rjveyKaTO. 

52. XeAtStov Se dpa Trjs copas ttjs dptVTrjs 
VTTotrqpaLvei tt)v emSrjpblav. Kal eWt tf>iXdv9pco7To$, 
Kal yatoet TtoSe tlo tcoco 6acop6<j>ios ovaa 3 Kai 
aKArjTOS atbiKveiTat,, /cat ot€ ot cpiAov /cat e^ 6t 
/caAais, a7raAAaTTerat. /cat ot ye dvOpcoirot vvohe- 
Xovrai avTrjv /caTa tov ttJs' 'OpurjpiKTjs tjevlas 
deapiov, os /ceAeuet /cat cfiiXdv tov 3 ixapovTa Kal 
Uvai f3ovX6p,evov diro7T£^7reLV . 

53. "Exet rt -rrXeoveKTrjpa t) alt; ty)v tov rrvey- 
fjLaTOS iap07]V ) cos ol vop,€VTiKol Xoyoc 4 <j>acnv. 
dvattv€i yap Kal Sta, tcov cotcov Kal 8ta tcov 
uvKT-nptov, Kal attjQwTiKcoTaTOV tcov St^Acov eWt. 
Kal tt)v yukv avriav €17T€lv ovk otda, o oe otoa 
tovto elirov, d Se Troviqpa UpopbrjOecos Kal a?£, tL 
f3ovX6p,€yos tovto dpydoaTO, elMvai /caTaAt/wrava> 

1 £$01/ TO. 

2 ratJra ovtcdol MSS, t. opPcD? (?es. 

3 ^c'vov i? (1876). 4 \6yoL /cat ttol[1€vlkqI. 


ON ANIMALS, !. 5*~53 

51. The spine of a dead man, they say, ^nsforms 
the putrefying marrow into a snake. I he brute 
emerges, and from the gentlest of beings crawls forth 
the fiercest. Now the remains of those that were 
fine and noble are at rest and their reward is peace, 
even as the soul also of such men has the rewards 
which wise men celebrate in their songs. J3ut it is 
from the spine of evildoers that such evil monsters 
are begotten even after life. The fact is, the whole 
story is either a fable, or if it is to be relied upon as 
true, then the corpse of a wicked man receives (so I 
think) the reward of his ways in becoming the 
progenitor of a snake. 

52. A Swallow is a sign that the best season of the The^ 
year is at hand. And it is friendly to man and takes 
pleasure in sharing the same roof with this being. 
It comes uninvited, and when it pleases and sees ht, 
it departs. Men welcome it in accordance with the 
law of hospitality laid down by Homer -[Od. 15. 
72-41, who bids us cherish a guest while he is with 
us and speed him on his way when he wishes to 

53. The Goat has a certain advantage <over other The Goat,^ 
animals) in the manner of taking breath, as the 
narratives of shepherds tell us, for it inhales through 
its ears as well as through its nostrils, and has a 
sharper perception than any other cloven-hooted 
animal. The cause of this I am unable to tell ; 1 
have only told what I know. But if the^Goat 
also was a creation of Prometheus, what the 
intention of this contrivance was, I leave him to 



54. KaJ €X €C0S ^rjyfjua Kal o<f>ecos dXXov <f>a<xlv 
avTiTrdXcov put] hiapuapTavew (ftapfiaKcov . Kal toe. 
pep avrtov aKovco TTWjxaTa 1 elvai, ra Se %/u/mTa 2 . 
Kal irraoiSal Se enpdvvav tov 3 iyxpwdivTa lov, 
dcrmSos Se aKOvw pLOvrjs 4 Brjyfia dviarov etvai Kal 
irriKOVplas Kp&TTOv. kol paoeiv a£iov to tq>ov 
rrjs evKXrjplas rrjs is to KaKov. dXXd Kal rovrov 
0-qptov pLiapcorepov Kal d<f>vXaKTOTepov yvvfj <f>app,a- 
ki$ 9 olav aKovop,€V Kal rrjv M^Setow Kal TTjv 
Ktp/cqv* ra pbev yap r<hv doirihayv <f>dppLaKa 
8r}yp,aros 5 epya iari, rd Se iKetvwv dvaipel 6 Kal 
€K p,6v7}$ ttjs d<f>7]$, </>aoiv. 

55. Kvvcov daXarricjv rpla yevr}. Kal ol /xev 
avrcov etcrL pueyeOei piiyiaroi, Kal Krjrtov iv rots' 
aXKLficDrdroig dpidpuolvTo dv yivt] Se Bvo rd 
XotTrd, TTTjXatot fiev rrjv <f>vcriv } TTporjKovcri Se is 
irrjxvv to piiyeOos^ Kal tovtcov ol puev KareoTiyp^e- 
vol KaXolvTO dv yaXeol, KevTplvas Se oVo/xafcov 
tovs Xotrrovs ovk dv SiajjuapTavocs . ol pbkv ovv 
ttoikLXoi kol TTjv Sopdv etoi fxaXaKcoTepoi Kal ttjv 
K€<f>aXr)v TrXaTVTepot,* ol he erepot crKXypol 8 ttjv 
hopdv ovtcs 9 ttjv K€(f>aXr)v Se dvriKovoav is d£v 


K€.vrpa Se dpa avTOts ovpurri^VKe to p,ev 11 Kara 
TTjv Xocfudv, oj$ dv eirrois, to Se fcara ttjv ovpdv* 
OKXrjpd Se dpa ra KevTpa Kal dTretOrj iari, Kal lov 

1 wop- mss always. 2 xp^ a l xa ' ra - 

3 TLVOiV. 4 fiOVOV. 

5 Schni Kal Sijy/taros. 6 dvaipetv. 

7 fieyedos /cat rov fikv avroty yaXeov rov Se KevTplrqv <j>t,\ovotv 


ON ANIMALS, I. 54-55 

54 They say that the bite of the Viper and of ~us 
other snakes is not without countering remedies. 
Some, I am told, are to be drunk, others are to be 
applied; spells too can mitigate poison injected by 
a sting. But the bite of the Asp • alone, I am told, 
cannot be cured and is beyond help This creature 
truly deserves to be hated for being blessed with the 
power to injure. Yet amonster more abominable and 
harder to avoid even than the Asp is a sorceress, such 
as (we are told) Medea and Circe were, for the 
poison from Asps is the result of a bite, whereas 
sorceresses kill by a mere touch, so they say. 

55 There are three kinds of Sea-hound." Thenar* 
first is of enormous size and may be reckoned among 
the most daring of sea monsters.' The others are of 
two kinds, they live in the mud and reach to a cubit 
in length. Those that are speckled one may call 
gaUm (small shark), and the rest, if you call them 
Spiny Dog-fish you will not go far wrong. Now the 
speckled ones have a softer skin and a flatter head 
while the others, whose skin is hard and whose head 
tapers to a point, are distinguished from the rest by 
the whiteness of their skin. Moreover nature has 
provided them with spines, one on their crest, so to 
say, the other in the tail. And these spines are 
hard and resisting and emit a kind of poison. Oitne 

a The Eevptian cobra, Naia haie. 

» The terms 0^ *6w and ya\*6s signify both dog-fish 
and shark. See Isfdex II. 
c i.e. the shark. 



Ti rrpoafidXAei. dXLaKerai Se rcov kvvcov rcov 

OjJLLKpCOV TCOvSe €K&T€pOV (j6 cbOXoV^ 1 €K rfjs 

IXvos Kal rod rnqXov, Kal 7] ay pa, eliretv avrrjv ov 
X&pov ' ivri. BeXeap avrtov KaOiacrw IxOvv XevKov 
€KT€rr\ur\p»€vov rrjv payw. orav rolwv els dXco Kal 
rep dyKiarpco TT^pirriari , rrdvreg ol deaud\ievoi 
ifi7T7]Scb<nv 2 avrcp Kal 3 KartoBev iXKOfievco errov- 
rat 4 Kal p*ixP l T l s vechs ovk dvaoreXXofjuevov, cbs 
et/cacrat C^XorvirLa hpav ravra avrovs, ota eKelvov 
ri tcop is rpo<f>rjv eavrto fiovcp TroOev aTrocruXijorav- 
ros' Kal is rrjv vavv ye avrrjv iaeirrfhiqadv rives 
TroXXaKis, Kal eKovres edXcoaav. 

56. Trjs rpvyovos rrjs daXarrias to Kevrpov 
iarlv drrpoapbaxov. eKevrtjae yap Kal direKreive 
7rapaxpfjp>a y Kal Trechp'iKaow avrrjs roSe to oVAov 
Kal ol rcov dXcecov Betvol rd OaXdrrta- ovre ydp 
dXXos Idcrerai to rpavfj,a ovre r) rpcocraaa' p>ovr\ 
ydp, cos to €lkos, rfj UrjXiooTtBi fJieXlrj 5 rovro 

57. Aeirrov 6 Srjplov 6 Kepduriqs. ecm Se 8<f>is, 
Kal vrrep rod puercoTrov Kepara e^et Svo, Kal eocKe 
rocs rov koxXLov rd Kepara, ov pu-qv iarw cbs 
iKelvtov drraXd. ovkovv rots p>ev aXAois rcov 
Atfivcov elol rroXifjiioL' eari he. avrols Trpos rovs 
KaXovpuevovs WvXXovs evaiTOvha, olrrep odv ovre 
avrol haKovrcov i7ratovm, 7 Kal rovs rep rotovrco 

1 <<£uAoy> add. Beiske, <ro> add. H. 

2 crufjLTrrjScocnv. 3 Kal rot. 
4 ZTTovrai re. 

6 Jteiske : jSoA^ v. I. fiovrj. 


ON ANIMALS, I. 55~57 

small Dog-fish both kinds are caught in the ooze and 
mud, and the manner of catching them I may as well 
explain. By way of bait men let down a white nsn 
out of which they have cut the backbone. Directly 
one of the Dog-fish is caught and hooked, all those 
that have seen him make a rush for him and tollow 
him as he is drawn upwards, never stopping until 
they reach the boat. One might imagine that they 
do this out of envy, as though he had filched some 
piece of food from somewhere and all for mmseii. 
And it often happens that some of them actually 
leap into the boat and are caught of their own free 

56. The barb of the Sting-ray nothing can with- 
stand. It wounds and kills instantly, and even 
those fishermen who have great knowledge ol the 
sea dread its weapon.. For no man can heal tne 
wound, nor will the creature that inflicted it; that 
was a gift vouchsafed, most probably, to the ashen 
spear from mount Pelion alone." 

57. The Cerastes is a small creature ; it is a snake, The^ 
and above its brow it has two horns, and these horns 

are like those of the snail, though unlike the snail s 
they are not soft. Now these snakes are the enemies 
of all other Libyans, but towards the Psylli, as they 
are called, they are gently disposed, for the ^Psylh and *e 
are insensible to their bites and have no difficulty 
« The spear of Achilles was made from an ash-tree on xat 
Pelion (Horn. II 16. 143). Telephus, wounded by the spear, 
was afterwards cured by the rust from it. 

6 Aew/cdv. 7 eWoucrt rtov Si}y/xaTO>v. 



KaKw TrepiTTeaovras tcbvrat, pdura. /cat 6 rpoiros, 
e.av TTplv rj 7Tp7)<j9rjvai to irdv acbfxa a<f>lt<r)Tal ns 
tcDv iKefflev kXtjtos rj Kara rvxyv, etra to /xev 
crrofia vSari i kkXv<tt)t at , 1 aVov/i/n? Se ras X€tpas 
iripa), kcu TTtetv rw SrjxOevrt $a> eKarepov, dvep- 
pwcrOr) re e/cetvo? Kal kolkov ttolvtos i£dvr7]s to 
ivrevOeu icrrc, hiappei 8e Kal Xoyos Atf3vKos 6 
X4yo)v 3 WvXXov dvSpa rrjv iavxov yap,€rr)v v<f>o- 
pda'dac Kal pLiaeiv <hs \L^.\Lov)(£V[Livf]v Kal \lIvtoi 
koL to i£ avrfjs f$p£<j>os VTTOTrrevew <hs voOov re 
Kal rq> vferipa) yivti KifiBrjXov. mlpav ovy 
KaQeivat, Kal /xaAa iXeyKTtKTjv <f>aow avrov. Xdp~ 
vaKa 7TXr)pebara$ Kepacrr&v ifxpdXXet 2 to f$p€<f>os, 
olovel TTVpl tov ^pvaov re^irrjs to TratSiov i^eXey- 
yoyv e/cetvo? rfj aTrodiaei. Kal ol fiev 7TapaxpfjfjLa 
iTravLaravro Kal rjyp[aivov Kal ttjv GVfi<f)vrj Aca/ciav 
rjrrecXovv iirel Se to TraiStoP avra>v Trpoaiifsavozv , 
ol Se ifiapdvOrjcrav, Kal ivrevOev 6 Aifivs eyvco ov 
voOov dXXd yovov yviqalov iraTrfp wv. Xiyovrai Se 
Kal tcov iripaiv SaKerwv Kal <f>aXayyla)v 8k 
dvTLTraXo t ToSe to yivos etvai. Kal ravrd ye et 
reparevovrat, Agues', ovk ifie, aAA* avrovs aTrarcov- 
T€$ IvTOiaav. 

58. WLeXirrcov Se i7TipovXoi Kal i%9pol ec€V dv 
€K€lvol } ol re alyidaXot KaXoV{JL€VOL Kal rd TOVTCOV 
veorrta Kal ol a<f>7]K€s Kal at xeAtBoWs 1 Aral ol 
octets Kal at <f>dXayy€$ Kal at "\Xvyyav\? Kal at 

1 emKAvoTjrai.. 

2 Ges : koX e/AjSaAAet. 

3 Xvyyai 1 vox nihili,' ^ahXaivai {or Spvvai, cp. Arist. HA 626 a 
30) Qow. 



ON ANIMALS, I. S7-5 8 

in curing those who have fallen victims to this 
venomous creature. Their method is this : if one 
of that tribe arrive, whether summoned or by chance, 
before the whole body is inflamed, and if he then 
rinse his mouth with water and wash the bitten man's 
hands and give him the water from both to drink, 
then the victim recovers and thereafter is free from 
all infection. And there is a story current among 
the Libyans that, if one of the Psylli suspects his wife 
and hates her on the ground that she has committed 
adultery ; and if moreover he suspects that the child 
born from her is a bastard and no true member of his 
tribe, he then puts it to a very severe test : he fills 
a chest with Cerastae and drops the baby among 
them, just as a goldsmith places gold in the fire, and 
puts the infant to the proof by thus exposing him. 
And immediately the snakes surge up in anger and 
threaten the child with their native poison. But 
directly the infant touches them, they wilt, and then 
the Libyan knows that he is the father of no bastard 
but of one sprung of his own race. This tribe is said 
also to be the enemy of other noxious beasts and of 

Well, if the Libyans are here romancing, I would 
have them know that it is not I but themselves 
that they are deceiving. 

58. The following creatures plot and make war Bees and 
against Bees : the creatures known as Titmice and enemies 
their young, also Wasps and Swallows and Snakes and 
Spiders and [Moths ?]. Bees are afraid of these, and 



pukv SeStacrt ravra, ol S' ovv fjueXirrovpyol iXav- 
vovgiv avrd air avrwv r) Kow^av irnOvfiLdoavres 
rj ^Aa>pdv ert pLrjKcova rrpo rcov crififiXcov Karaarr\" 
aavres r) Karaarpcoaavres . Kal ravra p,€v rots 

dXXoiS ix@P& €QTL T0LS TTpOeLprjfJLdvQlS, G(j)TjKOiV 8e 

dXajacs iKGLvr] 1 av etrj. KVprov aTraprrjaai xprj 
rrpo rrjs ar<f>7]Kia$ Kal ivQzivat avrw Xeirrr)v pbepb- 
fipdSa rj fjLawlha oXtyrjv Kal crvv tovtois laiira r) 
^aA/aSa 1 ol 8e o<f>r)K€s vtto rrjs ep,<j>vTOv yaorpipuap- 
yias iXf<6fji,€vo(,, KaXovvros avrovs (rody 2 Se- 
Xedapbaros, ioTrvnrovo-iv ddpooi, Kal TrepiXafiovros 
avrovs rod KVprov ovk eorrtv avrois rrjv orrlcra) 

OVK€TL €K7TTr)vat. Z Kal OL OOVpOl 8<£ ilTlfiovXeVOVOl 

rats pbeXlrrats Kal ol KpoKoScXot ol %€paaioi' 
SXeOpos 8e Kal tovtois imrerixy 7 ]^ 1 iKecvos* 
dXfara yap iXXefiopaj hevoavres rj TidvpbaXXov ottco 
V7Tox€avT€s 4 rj fiaXax^s X v ^ ^^Trecpovat rrpo 
rcov alfJbfiXcov rd dXfara* oTrep odv oXeOpov <f>ep<zt, 
rots 7Tpoecpr}p,€voi,s aTToyevaapbivois avrwv. ififta- 
Aojv $€ is rrjv Xlfivrjv (f>X6fjiov <£uAAa rj Kapva 
drrwXeae rovs yvpivovs 6 rcbv pLeXirrcov SeaTrorrjs 
paura. at 8e (fjdXXaivac 5 drroXXwrai vvKrojp, ivaK- 
fidCovros 6 Xvxvov rzQevros rrpo rwv apwjvcov 
Kal ayyeicov iXalov 7T€7rXr]poou,€va)v to> Xvyvoj 
vrroKeifjLevcov at oe rrpos rrjv avyrjv Treropue- 
vai ifiTrtrrrovrnv is to ZXaiov Kal drroXcoXauiv 
iripa)S 8e ovk dv alpeOetev paora. ol 8e alylOaXot 

1 Schn : dXaxxeLS eVeira. 

2 {rovy add. Jac. 

3 ZKTTTrjvai, Kal v$<op S* civ avrcov KaraaKehdaas paov huxfiQtipats 
av avrovs, Kal irvp i^dipas kcltou p-qaais. 

4 viTOX^ovres. 



so bee-keepers try to drive them away by using flea- 
bane as a fumigant or by placing or scattering pop- 
pies still green before the hives. Most of the 
aforesaid creatures dislike these things, but the way 
to catch Wasps is as follows. You should hang up a 
cage in front of the Wasps' nest and insert a little 
smelt or a small sprat and with them a minnow or a 
sardine. And the Wasps, drawn by their natural greed 
and lured by the bait, fall into the cage in numbers, 
and once they are trapped, it is no longer possible for 
them to fly out again. Lizards also have designs upon 
Bees, so too have Land-crocodiles. a But a means 
has been devised of destroying them too, thus: 
soak some meal in hellebore, or pour upon it the sap 
of spurge or the juice of mallow and scatter it 
about in front of the hives. This is death to the 
aforesaid creatures, once they have tasted of it. If 
a bee-keeper drop the leaves of mullein or nuts b into 
a pool, he will find it the simplest way of destroying 
Tadpoles. But Moths c are destroyed at night- 
time by the placing of a strong light in front of the 
hives and vessels full of oil below the light. And 
the Moths fly to the brightness and fall into the oil 
and are killed. Otherwise they would not be caught 
so very easily. But the Titmice, once they have 

a 1 The " crocodile " is the Psammosaurus griseus, a land 
lizard, which reaches a size of 3 feet ' (How-Wells on Hdt. 
4. 192). 

b Perhaps some word has been lost indicating what kind of 
nut is intended. 

c This may be the Wax-moth, which is found in bees' nests, 
its larvae eating the comb ; or it may be one of the Hawk- 
moths (fam. Sphingidae) which enter the nests for honey. 

5 Ges : ^dXayyes MSS, H. 6 evavyd&vros. 



a\<f>LTtov ohco $iaf}paxevTO)V aTroyevodfievoi Kaprf- 
fiapovow, elra ttLittovgi, Kal Kelpevoi cmalpovvi,, 
koX elvlv alpedfyai fyeAototf, 1 avairr^vai fiev 
wnevhovres, apxty Se dvao-rfyai fxr} ^vvdfxtvot,. 
ol 8e r-qv x^XiSova aldoi rrjs puovcrcKrjs ovk djTOKrel- 
vovut, KalroL paSlojs av avrrjv 2 toSto Spdaavres- 
aTToxpr) Se avrots KO)Xvew rrjv x^tSova irkqalov 
rwv alfJbpXcov KaXiav VTTOTrfjfjai. 

'ATrexOdvovrat 8e apa at fJueXirrac KaKOorfila 
rrdori Kal p,vpcp Sfiolcos, ovre to <$vaa>$es UTro/xe'- 
vovaai ovre daTratd/xevat rrjs evojdlas to redpvp,- 
fj,evov, ota SrjTTov Kopai daretat re koX ad><f>poves 
to fiev jSSeAuTrd/xevat rrjs 8e virep^povovaai, 

59. Kvpos p,iv, cos <j>aoiv 3 6 TTpeofivrepos /xe'ya 
€<f>pov€i iirl tols jSaoxAetW rots iv UepoeTroXei? 
otairep odv avros oJKoSopLrjcraro, Aapetos^ 8e em 
tt) KaraoKevfj rfj roov OLKoBofi-qfxdrwv rcbv Sou- 
<reta>v 4 * /cat yap 5 iKeivos iv Ttovaots ra dSd/xeva 
iKeiva elpydaaro. Kupo? Se 6 hevrepos iv AuSta 
Trapdheioov avros Kare^vrevae rats X e Pf L TC "^ 
fiaviXiKois iv 6 rocs dfipois eWvot? x iT f wat Ka \ 
rols repnvois €K€lvols Kal fteya thiols XlOois, /cat 
iirl rovrw 7 ye iniaXAvvero /cat -rrpos aXXovs fiev 
rwv * EAAtjjw, drdp odv Kal irpos Avvavhpov rov 
AafceSat/xoViov, ore rjXde rrpos^ rov Kvpov 6 
AvoavBpos is rr]v AvSlav. Kal virep /xev rovrcov 

1 erolfjLOL Gow, ye oloi J ac, paSiot Lorenz, 

2 Oud : avri} mss, H would delete. 

4 Reiske : Sovcr«i>. 5 Kal yap kcu. 

6 G £ Vt 7 TOVTOIS* 


ON ANIMALS, I. 5^59 

tasted the wine-steeped ™^^ e ^^y(?) 
they fall over and lie quivering and c ^ re ^ U ^ 

£,~r bl 4n«| T - " 

th lSn S * Bees dislike all bad smells and perfume 
they cannot endure foul odours nor do 
thev welcome a luxurious fragrance even as modest 
SLdg^abhor the former while despising the 


SSs beautiful jewels of great pnce, . . 
fLrdens in Lydia and prided himself on the tact 
Se alUhe Greeks and even before Lysander the 
gartan len Lysander came to visit tan » Lydra. 

of S«ft 

Alexander the Great. Persia, 521-485 B.C., 

The * Gardens ' were at Sardes. ^ 


aBovaiv ol avyy panels , at Be rcov pueXirrcov 
olkoBo fiat aocfcorepai odcrac Kara rroXv Kal rex~ 
vyjiorepai, 1 aXka rovrcov ye 2 ovBe oXtyrjv edevro 
wpav €K€ivot [lev yap ttoXXovs 3 XvTTTjGavres 
elpydoavro oaa elpydcravro- ovBev Be dpa rjv 
fxeXcrrcov €i>xctpiTa)T€pov> iirel pbrjBe oocfycbrepov 
r\v. TTpibrovs piev yap ipyd^ovrai rovs OaXdjiovs 
rovs rcov fiacriXecov, Kal evpvx<oplav e^ovaiv ovroi 3 
Kal elalv dvwrepor Kal epKos Be irepifidXAovcri 
tovtois, olovel retxos etvai Kal TrepLfioXov, drroae- 
ixvvvovaai Kal gk rovrov rrjv oiKiqow rr)V fiaoiXeiov. 
Biaipovai Be avrds is rpLa Kal ovv Kal rds 
olKrjaeis rds iavrwv is roaavra, al puev yap 
rtpeo^vrarai 4 yeirvicoai rfj rcov fiacnXecov avXfjf* 
al Be vecorarai 6 fxerd ravras 7 olkovctw, al Be iv 
yjpTj Kal dKp,fj ovaat i^corepco iKelvcov } cos etvai 
rds {JLcv rrpeofivrdras cf>povpovs rcov fiaoriXecov, rds 
Be vedviBas epKos rcov vecordrcov. 

60, Aiyei fxiv ns Xoyos aKevrpovs etvai rovs 
rovrcov fiaoiXias* Xiyei Be Kal erepos Kal rrdvv 
ippcopieva rd Kevrpa avfnrecpvKevai avrois Kal 
TeOriypiiva dvBpeiorara' ovre Be in* dvBpt irore 
Xprjcrdai, avrois ovre iirl rats pieXirrais, dXXa avp,7re~ 
7rXda6at chofiov dXXcos' fir} yap Oipas etvai rov 
dpxovra Kal rcov roaovrcov ecbopov KaKov ipyd- 
aaoQai. Kal rds pueXlrras Be ras Xoirrds ofioXo- 
yovcrw ol rovrcov imariq proves iv oijtei rcov dpxovrcov 
rcov crcperipayv viroKXiveiv rd Kevrpa, olovel rfjs 

1 Pauw : Tas Se . . . oiVoSo/ids' oo^corepas ovaas . . . 



ON ANIMALS, I. 59-6° 

Historians celebrate these constructions, but the 
dwellings of Bees which are far cleverer and exhibit 
a greater skill, of these they take not the slightest 
notice. And yet, while those monarchs wrought 
what they wrought through the affliction of multi- 
tudes, there never was any creature more gracious 
than the Bee, just as there is none ^cleverer Ine 
first things that they construct are the chambers oi 
their kings, and they are spacious and above all the 
rest. Round them they put a barrier, as it were a 
wall or fence, thereby also enhancing the importance 
of the royal dwelling. And they divide themselves 
into three grades, and their dwellings accordingly 
into the same number. Thus, the eldest dwel 
nearest the royal palace, arid the latest born dwell 
next to them, while those that are young and m the 
prime of life are outside the latter. In this way tte 
eldest are the king's bodyguard, and the youthiul 
ones are a protection to the latest born. 

60. According to one story the King Bees are *ta 
stingless; according to another they are born with 
stings of great strength and trenchant sharpness; 
and yet they never use them against a man nor 
against bees: the stings are a pretence, an empty 
scare, for it would be wrong for one who rules and 
directs such numbers to do an injury. And those 
who understand their ways bear witness to the tact 
that the other Bees when in presence of their rulers 
withdraw their stings, as though shrinking and giving 

6 mSAf; olovel Sopv<j>opot /cat <f>povpoi. ovtol. 

vecorarat Kai at aOroeretS. 



igovaias afaarafxevas kol napax^povaas . e/cdVe- 
pov S' dv Tt? iKTrXayeirj to rcav jSaatAecov iKetvw 
€*lt€ yap fjurj exovGL Trodev ahiKiqaovaij fieya rovro* 
e'lre /cat 7rapov aSwyjcrai fir) ahiKOvaw, dAAa. rovro 
ye jxaKpcp Kpeirrov iartv. 



way before authority. And one might well be 
astonished at either of the aforesaid characteristics 
in these King Bees: if they have no means ot 
injuring, this is remarkable ; if with all the means of 
injuring they do no injury, then this is far more to 
their credit. 




1. "Orav rd jjOrj rd ra>v ®paKa>v Kal rovs 
Kpvfiovs a7ToX€C7TCt)ort rovs ®pq,Kiovs at yepavot 3 
a$pol£ovTcu puev is rov c/ E/?pov, XiOov 8' eKaarrj 
Karamovcra, <hs e^etv Kal hemvov Kal rrpos rag 
ip,j3oXas rwv dvifjLcov €/>/xa, rreipwvrai rod //.eTOt- 
Kicrfjiov koX rrjs irrl rov NetAoy 6pp,i}s 3 dXias re 
Kal -)(€tp,€piov 1 GWTpo<f>ia$ TToOco rijs iKeWt, fieX- 
Xovawv Se avrow aipeaQai Kal rov rrpoaa) e)(ea6at, 
6 iraXairaros yepavos TrepteXdtbv ttjv rrauav dyekqv 
is Tpi$ 3 etra pbivroi ireawv d<f>irjat, rrjv ^vyrpr. 
ivravda 2 ovv ol XolttoI Bdrrrovai pAv rov veKpov, 
(frdpovrai Be evOv rrjs AlyvTrrov, rd p/r\Kiara ireXdyq 
7T€paLOvp,evoi ra) rapvco rcbv rtrep€iv > Kal ovre 
opfii^ovraC 7rov ovre dvairavovrai. airelpovras Be 
rov$ Klyvirriovs KaraXapsfldvovGi, Kal rpdrre^av 
cbg dv €ittoi$ a<f>9ovov rrjv iv rats dpovpacs evpovres 
etra a/cA^rot ^evlaiv pueraXay)(dvovoLv t 

. liKrecruai pev ev opeoi Qcoa /cat ev aepi /cat 
iv OaXdrrrjy Oavpa ovttoj peya' vXq yap Kal 
rpO(f>rj Kal <f>vais r) rovraiv atria' eKyova Be uvpds 
TTTTjvd etvai roi>s KaXovpuevovs iropvyovovs, Kal iv 
avrw fiiovv Kal reOrjXevai, Kal Bevpo Kal e/cetcre 
TrepiTTordadai, rovro iKTrXrjKrtKov \ Kal to ert 
6avp,a, orav e£a> rov irvpos rov avvrpo<f>ov €Kvev~ 

1 tt}s xet/ze/Jiou. 2 evrevBev. 



1. When Cranes are about to leave their Thracian ^ tion 
haunts and the frosts of Thrace, they collect on the C f Cranes 
river Hebrus, and when each one has swallowed a 
stone by way of food and as ballast against the on- 
slaught of winds, they prepare to emigrate and to set 

out for the Nile, longing for the warmth and for the 
food that is to be had there during the winter. 
And just when they are on the point of rising and 
moving off, the oldest Crane goes round the entire 
flock thrice and then falls to the ground and breathes 
his last. So the others bury the dead body on the 
spot and fly straight to Egypt, traversing the widest 
seas on outstretched wing, never landing, never 
pausing to rest. And they fall in with the Egyptians 
as they are sowing their fields, and in the ploughlands 
they find, so to speak, a generous table, and though 
uninvited partake of the Egyptians' hospitality. 

2. That living creatures should be born upon the 'Fire-flies' 
mountains, in the air, and in the sea, is no great 
marvel, since matter, food, and nature are the cause. 

But that there should spring from fire winged crea- 
tures which men call ' Fire-flies,' 6 and that these 
should live and flourish in it, flying to and fro about 
it, is a startling fact. And what is more extra- 
ordinary, when these creatures stray outside the 

Mod. Maritza. t 
6 Lit. ' fire-born ' ; these are not what are now called fire- 
flies,' and are unknown to modern science. 



ooyoi Kal depos iftvxpov fxeraXdxcoocVy 1 ivravSa Srj 
redvrjKaoL. Kal rjrts rj air la riKreaOaL [lev Ttvpt, 
dipt Se diroXXvoOai, Xeyerojoav a'AAot. 

3. 01 fxev opviOes ol erepoi dvafiaivovrai, cos X6~ 
yos, at 8e xeAtSoVes- ov, aAAa rovroov ye kvayria 
rj pbtizis earl. Kal to alriov othev r) <j>vois . Xeyei 
Se 6 TrXeiajv Xqyos on rre(f>piKaat rov Tiypea Kal 
BeSot/caat p/q rrore apa TTpoaepjrvaas Xddpq, etra 
ipydcrrjrai rpaycpSlav Kaivrp/. r\v Be dpa feat rovro 
X^XiBovc Bcbpov £k rrjs <j>vcrea)s, <%s ye e/xe Kptvew, 
to ripitcorarov . rnqpayBeiaa rrjv oifjtv Tvepoyais edv 
TVXfl* opa add t>9. rl ovv en rov Teipeoiav aBofxey, 
Kalroi fxrj evravOl 2 <(fi6vov}, z dAAa Kal ev aBov 
ao<f>d>rarov , 4 ws "Opsqpos Xeyei; 

4. Z<3a i^rjfjiepa ovrw KeKXrjrac, Xafiovra to 
ovofia eK rod puerpov rov Kara rov j3iov riKrerai 
yap 5 iv rw ocvco, Kal dvot^xOevros rov GKevovs 
rd Be igeTrrr} Kal elBe to <j)Cos Kal re8vr}Kev. 
ovkovv TTapeXBetv pukv avrois is rov j8tW eBwKev rj 
<f)VGLS, rwv Se iv avrco KaKcbv ippvvaro rrjv Ta%t- 
utj\v } p/qre ri rtov IBioiv ovpL<j>op<xyv fjaOypLevois 
\ijyre psqv twos twv aXXorplcov pdprvcrt yeyevrjpbe- 

1 jLteraAajScocrt^. 2 ivravOoi. 

3 (fiovopy add. H. 4 ao<j>dyrarov ijivx^v. 

5 {iev yap. 

a Tereus married Procne and later, under false pretences, 
her sister- Philomela. To punish him Procne slew their son 
Itys and then fled with her sister. When pursued by Tereus 



range of the heat to which they are accustomed and 
take in cold air, they at once perish. And why they 
should be born in the fire and die in the air others 
must explain. 

3. With other birds the hen is mounted by the cock, Swallow 
so they say ; not so Swallows : their manner of coupling mating 
is the reverse. Nature alone knows the reason for 
this But the common explanation is that the hens 
are afraid of Tereus « and fear lest one day he steal 
secretly upon them and enact a fresh tragedy. Now 
in my opinion the most valuable gift that Nature has 
bestowed upon the Swallow is this, that if it chance 
to be blinded with a brooch-pin, it regains its sight. 

Why then do we continue to sing the praises of 
Teiresias, even though he was the wisest of men not 
only on earth but also in Hades, as Homer tells us 
[Od. 10.493]? 

4. There are creatures called Ephemera (living only 'Ephemera' 
for a day) 6 that take their name from their span of 
life for they are generated in wine, and when the 
vessel is opened they fly out, see the light, and die. 
Thus it is that Nature has permitted them to come to 
life, but has rescued them as soon as possible from 
life's evils, so that they are neither aware of their 
own misfortune nor are spectators of the misfortune 
of others. 

all three were changed into birds, T. into a hoopoe (or hawk), 
Procne a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale. 

° Perhaps the ' Vinegar-fly/ belonging to the genus Droso- 



5. "HSt? [xivroi ns koX doirihos iv /xa/cp<p t$ 
Xpovw TrXrjyrjv Idaaro rj ro^rjv TrapaXafiwv rj Trvp 
VTToixelvas e$ [xdXa rXrjfjiovw r) avay/catW <£ap^a- 
kois to kckov, Iva p,r) irpoaoj ipTrvor}, 1 arrjo-as 6 
SetAatoy omdaffl Be fiaoiXLoKov to /xtJ/coV eoTi, 
Kal fiivTOi Kal 6ea<rd[xevos 6 t&v ofewv ^kiotos 
avrbv ovk is dvajSoAas aAAa i* rfjs tov 
^varniaros TrpoapoXrjs ados eanv^ d Be avdpcoTros 
Karixot pdfiBov, etra TavT-qv cVetw? evBaKOi, 
rddvrjKev 6 Kvpios rrjs Xvyov. 

6. Trjv tcov BeX(/)Cva)V ^iXoyiovotav Kal to t&v 
avTwv ipaiTLKov, to p,ev aBovat KopiWiot, 3 Kal 
ofioXoyov&iv avTOis Mofiioi, to Be ItJtcu 4 - Ta 
fxev 'Aplovos 5 tou MrqBviivaiov e/cetvoc, Ta ye [itjv 
iv Tfj "Ia> 6 v-rrep tov TratBos tou koXov koX rfjs 
vrjgews avTov Kal tov BeXftvos ol eTepoi. Xiyei 
Be Kal BvtdvTios dvrip, AecovlBrjs ovopa, IBeiv 
avTOS irapd Trjv AtoAiSa <rrXia>v iv tt^ KaXpvfMevrj 
UopoaeXrjvrj jroXec BeXfava rj6dBa Kal iv Xiyevi 
Tib iKelvwv olKOVVTa Kal Sairep ovv tBiotjevoLS 
Xpcofxevov tols iKetdi. Kal int ye tovto) 6 avTos 
Xeyei irpeo-^VTiv 7 rwa Kal yepovTa Be crvvotKovvra^ 
avTjj iKdpeiffat TovBe tov Tp6<f>ip,ov heXeaTa* oi 
irporetvovras f<al fxdXa 9 ye e^oA/ca. Kal^jxevToi 
Kal oyLorpofos ol rjv 6 twv <npeafivT<hv vlos, /cat 
eu^VowTo a/x^co tov BeXfava Kal tov iralBa tov 

1 Jac : TTpoaepTTvar}. 8 Saieou ^ 

s Gron : Aiyfariot. 4 Valerius : T^trat. 

5 'ApiWos. 6 FaZesw* : T W . 

7 «at wpeajSunv. 8 SeAeap re. 
9 aAAa. 

9 2 


5 Men have, it is true, recovered after a long The Asp, 
while from the bite of an Asp - either by — ng 
excision to their aid or with the utmost fcjWj«te 
enduring cautery, or they have m then- phght pre 
vented the poison from spreading by taking the 
necessary medicines. 

The Basilisk measures but a span, yet at the sight bj^. 
of it the longest snake not after an interval but on 
the instant, at the mere impact of to breath, shnvels^ 
And if a man has a stick in his hand and the Basilisk 
bites it, the owner of the rod dies. 

6 The Dolphin's love of music and its affectionate M P Mn a*d 
nature are a constant theme, the former with the 5o roseie„e 
people of Corinth (with whom the Lesbians concur), 
L latter with the inhabitants of Ios. The Lesbians 
tell the story of Arion of Methymna ; what happened 
in Ios with the beautiful boy and his swimming and 
the Dolphin is told by the inhabitants of Ios. 

A certain Byzantine, Leonidas by name, declares 
that while sailing past Aeolis he saw with his own 
eves at the town called Poroselene » a tame Dolphin 
which lived in the harbour there and behaved towards 
the inhabitants as though they were personal friends. 
And further he declares that an aged couple fed this 
foster-child, offering it the most alluring baits. 
What is more, the old couple had a son who was 
brought up along with the Dolphin, and the pair 

* lor^seleief iland and town, the largest of the Heoatonnesi 
lying between Leshos and Asia Minor. 



a<f>erepov, Kai ttcos i'K rrjs ovvrpo<f>[as iXaOir-qv 
is epcora aXXrjXcov vireXdovre o re dvOpcoTros Kai 
, to Ctpov, Kai, rovro Si) ro dhojLevov, VTrepaepuvos 1 
dvrepcos irtpiaro iv rols 7rpoeipr)p,evoi$. 6 toLwv 
$eX<j>l$ cos jJtev nrarpiha i<f>iXei rr)v UopoaeXrjvrjv,^ 
cos oe ioiov ockov r)yaira rov At/xeva, /cat or) Kai 
ra rpo(f)€La rots Opei/fafievois aTreSiSov, Kai rovroov 
ye 4k€lvos rjv 6 rpoiros. reXeios cov rrjs oltto 
X €{ 'pos rpo<j)rjs eSetTO r\Kiora, 7]$rj ye p/rjv Kai 

7T€paiT€pO) TTpOVeOiV Kai 7T€ptVrjX0fl€V0S Kai CKOTTCOV 

dypas ivaXLovs to. pikv iavrcp hevrrvov et^e, T< * Se' 
rots oIk€lols drre(f>epev' ol he jjSeaav rovro Kai 
fievrot, Kai dvifievov rov i£ avrov <f>6pov dcrp,eycos. 
Kai fjiia p,ev rjv ijoe rj 7rpocrooos 3 eKetyrj be aAA^. 
6Vo/xa 3 rep SeX<j)ivt, cos too iraihl ol OpetfsdfievoL 
eSevro' Kai 6 Trals rfj avvrpo<j>ia Oappcov, rovro * 
avrov €7rl nvos TrpofiXijros urds roirov eKaXei, Kai 
dfia rfj /cA^aet Kai eKoXaKevev 6 Se, etre 7rpos 
elpeaiav rjfiiXXaro rwa 3 elr iKvfilara rcoy dXXcov 
oaoi irepl rov x^P 0V i^Xavcovro dyeXatoi Kara- 
GKiprcov, etr* eOrjpa 5 eiretyovorjs rrjs yaarpos 
avrov y €7ravrj€L Kai ybdXa ye ooKiara BtKrjv iXavyo- 
(j,€vr)s vecbs ttoAAo) rep po9tco 3 Kai TrXrjcrlov rcov 
TratBtKWV yevop,evo$ orvfXTraCarrjs re r)v Kai avve- 
OKipra, Kai Trfj puev rep TraiSl Trapevr^TO , Trfj Se o 
SeX<f>ls ota 7rpOKaXovp,€VOs elra /xeWot is rrjv 
dpuXXav rr)v TTpos 6 avrov ra 77atStKa virrjye. Kai 

1 Kai fidXa v. 

2 7TpO€tp77fJL€V7]V. 

ovofia oe /cat. 

4 Schn : rovrov, 

5 efre is Oypav Kai fidXa ye. : 6 ety- 



cared for the Dolphin and their own son, and some- 
how by dint of being brought up together the man- 
child and the fish gradually came without knowing it 
to love one another, and, as the oft-repeated tag has 
it, ' a super-reverent counter-love was cultivated ' 
by the aforesaid. So then the Dolphin came to 
love Poroselene as his native country and grew as 
fond of the harbour as of his own home, and what is 
more, he repaid those who had cared for him what 
they had spent on feeding him. And this was how 
he did it. When fully grown he had no need of 
being fed from the hand, but would now swim 
further Out, and as he ranged abroad in his search for 
some quarry from the sea, would keep some to feed 
himself, and the rest he would bring to his * relations/ 
And they were aware of this and were even glad to 
wait for the tribute which he brought. This then 
was one gain; another was as follows. As to the 
boy so to the Dolphin his foster-parents gave a 
name, and the boy with the courage born of their 
common upbringing would stand upon some spot 
jutting into the sea and .call the name, and as 
he called would use soothing words. Whereat the 
Dolphin, whether he was racing with some oared 
ship, or plunging and leaping in scorn of all other 
fish that roamed in shoals about the spot, or was 
hunting under stress of hunger, would rise to the 
surface with all speed, like a ship that raises a 
great wave as it drives onward, and drawing near to 
his loved one would frolic and gambol at his side ; 
at one moment would swim close by the boy, at 
another would seem to challenge him and even 
induce his favourite to race with him. And what was 
even more astounding, he would at times even decline 



to ert Oavpua, direo-nr} /cat rrjs TTpcorrjs wore /cat 
/cat vrrev^aro avrq), ota viK<bp,evos rjSitos 
SrjTTOv* ravra rolvvv £K€KrjpvKT0 3 /cat rots rrXdov- 
aiv opapt^a eSo/cet avv /cat rots aXAois ocra r) ttoXis 
dyada eZ^e, /cat rots TTpeofivrais /cat rep fxeipaKLO) 
TTpoaoBos rjv. 

7. 'Ev Aiftvr} rjfjuovovs 1 rj TerpcopuEVOVS 'Ap^e- 
Xao$ Aeyet 7} airewTOVTas vtto SIi/jovs €ppl<f>6at 

V€KpOV$ TToXAoVS. 7ToAAa/CtS Se O(f)€C0V €7TLpp€VGaV 

</>vXov 7rdp,7ToAv rcov Kpecov iadtecv irrdv Se 
jSaatAta/cov cropLypbaros aKOvar], rd p,ev vrro rocs 
elXvots 2 /cat T77 xjidpLpap d^avi^eodai rr)v rax^rrjv 
/cat drroKpv7TT€or6at, rov Se TTpooeXBovra Kara 
7ToXXr)v rr)v elprjvrjv Belnvew, etra a£0t9 virocrupi^ew 
/cat d7raAAaTTeo$at, tous rjpuovovs /cat to 
Set7rvov to e£ auTcov Gr}p,alv€oQai to ivrevdev, to 
rov Xoyov tovto, aorpot?. 

8. Aoyot </>acrlv Evfiodcov Sevpo </>oitwvt€S, tous* 
aXidas tovs eKetcre rots BeX<f>t<Ji rots e/cet#t tao/xot- 
ptav ttJ? Qrjpas dirovi^iv /cat a/cova> T97V dypav 
Toiavrrjv. yaXrjvrjv etvat ^p?^ /cat et Tay^' ovtcds 
e^eti rfj? TTpcppas rwv dfcaTLtJV KolXas rtvds 
igaprcoow ea^apt'Sas 1 irvpos ivaKpud^ovros' /cat 
etol 8ta<£avet?, cos /cat aTeyew 3 to 7r£p /cat /x^ 
Kpv7TT€W to <£aJS". Ittvovs koXovgw avras . ot 
ToLvvv IxOvs SeStaat tt^v avyrjv /cat t>)i> XapbTrrjBova 
hvoamovvrai* /cat ot /x€i> ou/c etSoTe? o Tt fiovXerai 


1 rtvay. 

3 lieiske : areyctv «al. 

2 tAvax. 


the winner s place and actually swim second, as 
though presumably he was glad to be defeated. 

These happenings were noised abroad, and those 
who sailed thither reckoned them among the excel- 
lent sights which the city had to show ; and to the 
old people and to the boy they were a source of 

7. Archelaus tells us that in Libya mules that The Basilisk 
have been wounded or which have succumbed from snakes 
thirst are thrown out for dead in great numbers. 

And frequently a multitude of snakes of all kinds 
comes streaming up to eat their flesh, but whenever 
they hear the hiss of the Basilisk they disappear as 
swiftly as possible into their dens or beneath the 
sand, and hide ; so the Basilisk on reaching the spot 
feasts in complete tranquillity. Then again with a 
hiss he is off, and thereafter as to the mules and to 
the feast which they provide, * he marks their place,' 
as the saying has it, ' only by the stars.' * 

8. There are stories which reach us from Euboea of ^ermen 
fisher-folk in those parts sharing their catch equally Dolphins 
with the Dolphins in those parts. And I am told 

that they fish in this way. The weather must be 
calm, and if it is, they attach to the prow of their 
boats some hollow braziers with fire burning in them, 
and one can see through them, so that while retain- 
ing the fire they do not conceal the light. They call 
them lanterns. Now the fish are afraid of the bright- 
ness and are dazzled by the glare, and some of them 
not knowing what is the purpose of the thing they see, 

a I.e. he never returns; cp. Jebb on Soph. OT 795. 

VOL. I. 




to opcoptevov, irXrjGid^ovai, fxadetv fiovXopLevoi tov 
<f>o^ovvros o<f>a$ rrjv air lav etra €KTrXayivT€$ rf 
irpos tlvl Trirpa rjvvxdCovaw dOpoov ttoXXo^voi, 
rw Seet 77 is rrjv ffova €.kixLtttovuiv (bdovftevoi, Kai 
ioiKaat tols ipbfizfipovTTjpLivois . ovra) ye pLrjv 


eVetSav odv Oedacwrai ol BeXfaves rov$ aXieas to 
nvp igdi/javras s iavrovs evrp^rrL^ovui. Kai ol 
jxkv rjpifxa VTrepirrovcnv , ol 8e $eX<f>tves tovs 
i^coripo) rwv lyftvtov (ftofiovvres wOovol Kai rod 
oiaBiopdoKeiv dvacrrdXXovow. ovkovv eKetvoi me- 
£6fjLevoL TravraxoOev Kai rpotrov rivd K€kvkX<x>\l4.voi 

€K T€ T^S" TOVTWV elpzolas Kai T7]S VTj^etDS TtJs* 

£k€cvo>v ovviauw a<f>vKra etval o<f>icri } Kai irapa- 
fxevovort Kai dXioKOvrai irdfiTroXv ti ^p^/xa. Kai 
ol SeX<f>LV€s trpoGiaaiv 1 (Ls aTtairovvres tov kolvov 

7T0V0V TT]V €7nKap7TiaV T7)V 6(/>€lXofJL€m]V 0<j>UJlV €K 

rfjs vofjbrjs, Kai ol ye dXiels marcos Kai evyvtopLovws 
a<f>t<jTavrai tols ovvOrjpots tov oiKaiov fidpovs, et 
fiovXovrai Kai irdXiv a<j>iai crvfxp,d)(ov$ aKXrjrovs 
irapelvai Kai aTTpo^aaiarovs . Ttiorevovoi yap ol 
e/cet OaXarrovpyol on 7Tapaf}dvTes e£ovaw ixOpovs 
ovs €i)(ov TTporepov <f>lXov$. 

9. "EAa^os* o<f>w viKa, Kara rtva <f>vaea)s ocopedv 
dav\iauTr\v % Kai ovk av avrov BcaXdOoi iv rep <f>a)~ 
Aeai tov 6 €x@ lo " ro $> dXXd TTpocrepeiaas rfj Kara- 
opofjufj tov BaKCTOV 2 rows' iavTov fxvKTrjpas jStato- 
rara eWvet, Kai cXkci (Ls Ivyyi tco TrvevpLaTi, Kai 
aKovra irpodyei, Kai rrpoKvirrovTa avTov ioOUtv 
dpx^rar Kai fidXiOTa ye Bed ^et/xojvos' Spa tovto, 
1 Schn : rrpotaaiv. 



draw near from a wish to discover what it is that, 
frightens them. Then terror-stricken they either 
lie still in a mass close to some rock, quivering with 
fear, or are cast ashore as they are jostled along, and 
seem thunderstruck. Of course in that condition it 
is perfectly easy to harpoon them. So when the 
Dolphins observe that the fishermen have lit their fire, 
they get ready to act, and while the men row softly 
the Dolphins scare the fish on the outskirts and push 
them and prevent any escape. Accordingly the fish 
pressed on all sides and in some degree surrounded, 
realise that there is no escaping from the men that 
row and the Dolphins that swim; so they remain 
where they are and are caught in great numbers. 
And the Dolphins approach as though demanding 
the profits of their common labour due to them from 
this store of food. And the fishermen loyally and 
gratefully resign to their comrades in the chase their 
just portion— assuming that they wish them to come 
again, unsummoned and prompt, to their aid, for 
those toilers of the. sea are convinced that if they 
omit to do this, they will make enemies of those who 
were once friends. 

9. A Deer defeats a snake by an extraordinary gift £ n e ^ nd 
that Nature has bestowed. And the fiercest snake L 
lying in its den cannot escape, but the Deer applies 
its nostrils to the spot where the venomous creature 
lurks, breathes into it with the utmost force, attracts 
it by the spell, as it were, of its breath, draws it 
forth against its will, and when it peeps out, begins 
to eat it. Especially in the winter does it do this. 




rjSrj ybivroL tis 1 Kal Kepas i\d<f>ov £icra$ s etra to 
^e'oyxa i$ irvp ivefiaXe, Kal 6 Kairvos dviwv SiwKet, 
tov$ 6<f>€ts rravraxoOev, purjBk rrjv oap/qv VTropui- 

10. "Ecm [lev rrjv aXXws 2 6 lttttos yavpov Kal 
yap Kal to fiiyeOos Kal to tcl^os avTov Kal rod 
avxivos to vtfsrjXov Kal rj twv g-kcXwv vypoTTjs Kal 
rj twv ottXwv Kpovacs 3 eV <f>pvaypia Kal TV<f>ov 
dvdyei* /xaAicrra Se Kopuwaa twos dfipoTaTOV re 
ioTi Kal OpVTTTiKcoTaTOV. drt/xafet yovv dvafirjvai 
tov$ 6vov$ avTrp/, Ittttw Se yapuovfievr] rjSeTai, Kal 
iavTrjv d^toi twv iieyioTwv. orrep ofiv owetSdres 1 
ol fiovAofievoi r}p,i6vov$ o<f>Loi yeveoSai, dirodpi- 
aavT€$ TTjs Ittttov Trjv xaiTrjv gIkt} Kal <I>s €TVxev > 
etra jjl€vtoi tovs ovovs iTrdyovatv rj Se viropbivet 
tov aSogov rjSrj yafjuzTrjv, TrpWTov aihovpLevrj. Kal 
Eo^o/cA^ Se €olk€ pcepLvrjaSac tov TtdBovs, 

11. Ilepi p,ev Trjs twv iXe(f>dvTwv uo<f>la$ eiTrov 
aXkaxoQiy Kal /xeVrot Kal Ttepl tt\s Orjpas avTwv 
Kal TavT7}$ 4 €L7Tov SXlya €K ttoXXwv &v €<f>ao-av 
dXXot . to Se vvv exov eotKa 5 ipeiv rrepc tc 
€vp,ovcrlas avTwv Kal tvTreiOelas Kal tt}$ is tol 
fiaOtffxaTa evKoXlas, x a ^ €7T ^ ofiwg ovTa Kal 
avOpwTTw tvx^iv, 6 prq ti yovv tooovtw SripLw Kal 
ovtw t4w$ dypLWTaTW avyyevioOai. ^opetav yap 
Kal opx'qoTiKriv Kal fiatvew 7rp6s pvdfidv Kal 

1 tls after eXdfov in mss. 

2 TTjV aAAco?] Kal €K rwy aAAcov. 

3 Kpovais rravra. 

4 ravra» 5 Schn : efty/nx. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 9-1 1 

Indeed it has even happened that a man has ground 
a Deer's horn to powder and then has thrown the 
powder into fire, and that the mounting smoke has 
driven the snakes from all the neighbourhood : even 
the smell is to them unendurable. 

10. The Horse is generally speaking a proud crea- Mare and 
ture, the reason being that his size, his speed, his Ass 
tall neck, the suppleness of his limbs, and the clang 

of his hooves make him insolent and vain. But it is 
chiefly a Mare with a long mane that is so full of airs 
and graces. For instance, she scorns to be covered 
by an ass, but is glad to mate with a horse, regarding 
herself as only fit for the greatest <of her kind). 
Accordingly those who wish to have mules born, 
knowing this characteristic, clip the Mare's mane in 
a haphazard fashion anyhow, and then put asses to 
her. Though ashamed at first, she admits her present 
ignoble mate. Sophocles also appears to mention 
this humiliation [jr. 659P].° 

11. Touching the sagacity of Elephants I have The 
spoken elsewhere ; and further, I have spoken too S e §oS?ity 
of the manner of hunting them, mentioning but a 

few of the numerous facts recorded by others. For 
the present I intend to speak of their sense for music 
and their readiness to obey and their aptitude for 
learning things which are difficult even for mankind, 
to say nothing of so huge an animal and one hitherto 
so fierce to encounter. The movements of a chorus, 
the steps of a dance, how to march in time, how to 

• See 11. 18. 

6 rv\<dv avTcov. 

1 01 


avXov dafiivcos 1 aKovetv Kal avvievai rjxojv § 4 a- 
<f>Gpds, rj fipaBvvew ivSiBovrcov rj raxyvew rrapop- 
IxdiVTOiv, fiadcov otSev iXe<f>as, Kal aKpifioi Kal 
ov cr(f)dXXerat. ovrojs dpa r) <f>vcrts p>eyeQei p,kv 
avrov pueyiarov elpydaaro y fidSrjais 2 Be rrpaorarov 
a7T€<f>7]V€ Kal evdywyov. el puev ovv epbeXXov rrjv iv 
'IvSofc avroiv evrrelOeiav /cat evpudOeiav rj rrjv iv 
AlBiorrLa rj rrjv iv Aifivr} ypdfew, taws av ra> Kal 
(jlvQov iBoKovv Tivd ovfLTrXdoas Kopt,7rd£eiv y elra 
,€irl <f>tffJL7] rod drjpiov rrjs <f>vaeojs KaraifsevBeoBai- 
orr€p^i)(pr]v Bpdv </>iXooo(f>ovvra dvBpa rjKiara Kal 
dXrjBeias ipacrrrjv Bidrtvpov. a Be avros etBov Kal 
artva rrporepov iv rrj *Pa)p,r) rrpaxBevra dveypaifsav 
aXXoi 7TpoeiX6fjb7]v eirreiv, irrcBpapbcbv oXiya 4k rroX- 
Xwv> ovx TjKMjra Kal ivrevBev a7ToBeiKvvs rrjv rov 
£a>ov 3 IBtorrjra. rjpiepwBels 4 eXe^as TTpaorarov 
ian t Kal. dyerai paara is o ri ns 5 BeXet,. Kal rd 
ye rrpea^vrara npbwv rov xP° vov ^pw 7rptorov. 
Bias irrereXec 'Pay patois 6 TeppLavLKos 6 Kataa/r 
etrj 8' av dBeX<f>iBovs Ttfiepiov ofiros. ovkovv 
iyivovro 6 Kal dppeves iv rfj 'Pwpur} reXeiot rrXeiovs 
Kal Br]X€iai s etra it; avrwv irexBrjaav avBiyevecs. 
Kal ore rd KcoXa vrrrjpgavro iriqyvvaBai, ao(f>6s 
dvrjp opbiXelv roLovrois BrjpLOLs irrwXevaev avrovs , 
Baipuovla nvl Kal iKirXrjKriKrj BtBaoKaXla pberaxec- 
piadpcevos. rrpoorjye Be avrovs dpa rjcrvxv rrjv ye 
vpwrrjv Kal rrpdws rocs BiBdypbaoi BeXeara drra 

1 avXov acr/xeVcoy] avXovfievovs. 

2 Jac : fiadijcret. 

3 TOJV t,tptxiV. 

4 JSchn : rutepwOev. 

6 o ns. 6 eyevovro piv. 



enjoy the sound of flutes, how to distinguish different 
notes, when to slacken pace as permitted or when to 
quicken at command— all these things the Elephant 
has learnt and knows how to do, and does accurately 
without making mistakes. Thus, while nature has 
created him to be the largest of animals, learning 
has rendered him the most gentle and docile. Now 
had I set out to write about the readiness to obey 
and to learn among elephants in India or in Ethiopia 
or in Libya, anyone might suppose that I was con- 
cocting some pretentious tale, that in fact I was on 
the strength of hearsay about the beast giving a 
completely false account of its nature. That is the 
last thing that a man in pursuit of knowledge and an 
ardent lover of the truth has any right to do. In- 
stead I have preferred to state what I have myself 
seen and what others have recorded as having 
formerly occurred in Rome, treating summarily a 
few facts out of many, which nevertheless sufficiently 
demonstrate the peculiar nature of the beast. 

The Elephant when once tamed is the gentlest 
creatures and is easily induced to do whatever one in Kome 
wants. Now keeping due eye on the time, I shall 
state the most important events first. Germanicus 
Caesar was about to give some shows for the Romans. 
(He would be the nephew a of Tiberius.) There were 
in Rome several full-grown male and female elephants , 
and there were calves born of them in the country; 
and when their limbs began to grow firm, a man who 
was clever at dealing with such beasts trained them 
and instructed them with uncanny and astounding 
dexterity. To begin with he introduced them in a 
quiet, gentle fashion to his instructions, supplying 
a Or rather, the adopted son. 



ertdyow Kal rpO(f>ds rjBtaras Kal TreiroiKiXpLivas 
to eiraycoyov 1 re Kal e<f>oXKov, <L$ el n puev r\v 2 
aypiorrjTOS, rovro eKpaXeiv, d7Tavropi,oX7jvai 3 Be 
rrpos to rjfiepov Kal dp,ojaye7ra)s avdpwtreiov, Kal 
r[u ye rd fxaB^pbara avXcov 4 aKovovras fxrj eKfial- 
veaOai, Kal rvpmdvow apdfiov Kporovvros pur] 
r apdr read ai 3 Kal KrjXeLaOat avpiyyi, <f>epew Be Kal 
7]x ov s eKpbeXets 5 Kal ttoBcov epufiawovrcov ifjo</>ov 
Kal cbBrjv avfjbfjLLyfj- i^€7rovrj9rjaav Be Kal dvdpd)7Ta>v 
TvArjOos pur) BeBievai. r\v Be Kal eKetva BtBdy/xara 
dvBpiKa, 7rp6$ rrjv rrjg TrXTjyrjs Karacf>opdv fiT) 6v~ 
fxovcrQat, firjBe pur)v dvayKa^opievovs XvyL^eiv ri 
rwv pueX<bv Kal Kapmrew opx^vriKcbs re Kal x°P l ~ 
ko>5 etra is 6vp,6v e^dirTeaQai, Kal ravra pwprqs 
re Kal akKrjs ed 7]KOvras. <f>vaei piev odv rovro 
TrXeoveKrrjfia yjBr) Kal pbdXa yevviKov, pur} e^etv 
draKrcos pbrjBe direiQais rrpos rraiBevpuara dv9pa)~ 
m/ccr ivrel Be d7re<j>r}vev avrovs 6 o/^TjcrToStSacr/ca- 
Aos Kal fxdXa ye aofovs, Kal rjKplfiovv rd zk rrjs 
7ratBevcrea)s 3 ovk iiffevoravro tt}s BtBaaKaXtas rov 
irovovy <f>aaiv, evda eTTiBei^acrdai rd TratBevfiara 
avrovs rj xP € ^ a avv T Q Kaip(b TrapeKaXei. BcoBeKa 
fj,ev yap rov apiQpudv oBe 6 X P°$ ^av* irapfjX96v 
ye pity evrevQev rov Oedrpov Kal €Kel9ev vepbr}9evres 3 
Kal etorjecrav aj8pa pt,ev j3alvovre$ 3 OpVTrrtKcos Be 
rd ocopta irav Biax£ovre$ 3 Kal ripurrelxovro xopevn- 
Ka$ oroXds Kal dvOwds. Kal rov ye xopoAeWov 
rfj <f>a)vfj fjidvov VTToarjpbrjvavros ol Be enl arolxov 
rjeaav, <f>aalv 3 el rovro eKeXevoev 6 BiBd^as' etra 

1 ayoyov. 2 et /xei> rt hrijv Cobet. 

3 £iravroiiohf}oai. 4 koX avX&v. 



them with delicacies and the most appetising food, 
varied so as to allure and entice them into abandon- 
ing all trace of ferocity and into becoming renegades, 
that is tame and to some degree human. So what 
they learnt was not to go wild at the sound of flutes, 
not to be alarmed at the beating of drums, to be 
charmed by the pipe and to endure discordant notes, 
the beat of marching feet, and the singing of crowds. 
Moreover they were thoroughly trained not to be 
afraid of men in masses. And further their dis- 
ciplining was manly in the following respects : they 
were not to get angry at the infliction of a blow, nor, 
when obliged to move some limb and to sway in time 
to dance or song, to burst into, a rage, even though 
they had attained to such strength and courage. Now 
to refrain by instinct from misbehaving and from 
flouting the instruction given by a man is a virtue and 
a mark of nobility. When therefore the dancing- 
master had brought them to a high degree of pro- 
ficiency, and they performed accurately what he had 
taught them, they did not disappoint the labour 
spent on their training (so they say) in the place 
where in due time the occasion demanded that they 
should display what they had been taught. Now 
this troupe was twelve in number, and they advanced 
in two groups from the right and the left sides of the 
theatre. They entered with a mincing gait, sway- 
ing their whole body in a delicate manner, and they 
were clothed in the flowered garments of dancers. 
And at no more than a word from the conductor they 
formed into line (so we are told)— supposing that to 
have been their teacher's order. Then again they 

5 Jac : e/i/xeAefe. 


ad TtdXiv TrepiijpxovTo is kvkXov, V7rocrrjp,fjvavTos 
livai Tavrrj' Kal el igeXirreiv ISet, eirpaTTOv avro, 
Kal av6rj fxevroi piTrrovvres eKoapcovv to S&TreBov 
olSe, puETpo) Kal <f>€tBoi Bpcovres, Kal, tl Kal 1 
€7T€KTV7rovv rois 7Toul y ^dpetdV re 2 Kal avpLpieXes 
opLoppoBovvres oi avrol. Adpiwva puev ovv Kal 
YiTTivdapov Kal * Kpior6t;€vov Kal $>iX6$;€vov Kal d'A- 
Xovs €7ratetv p,ovot,K7js KaXkiara Kal iv oXiyois 
iierd^ordac rrjvBe nrr)v ao^iav davfxaarov [lIv } 
aitKJTov Se Kal irapaXoyov ovSapbcos' to Se alrcov, 
av9pco7ros £a>6v ian XoyiKov Kal vov Kal Xoyicrpiov 
Xa>pr}TiKov t^tbov Be avapOpov ovviivaiKal pv8p,6v 
Kal fieXovs Kal ^vXarreiv Gxrjfia Kal ipLfieXetav 
p/rj 7Taparpi7T€Lv Kal aTToirXripovv rwv BiBaxOevrcov 
rrjv aTraLrrjaiVy <f>vcreaj$ Bwpa ravra dpua Kal 
LotoT7)s Kau GKacrTov €K7rA7jKrLKrj. ra oe eiri 
tovtois Kal eKp/qvai 3 rov 9earr)v iKavd' ^apiai- 
^fjXcov kXlvqjv an^dBes 4 iv rfj ipdpbpLO) rov Qedrpov 
redeicrai, etra iBi^avTo rvXela 5 Kal irrl tovtois 
GTpcopLvrjv 7TOtKlXr]v s OLKtas 6 p,iya evBaifxovos Kal 
TraXaioirXovrov o'a^rj 7 pbaprvpia m Kal KvXiKia rjv 
7roXvT€Xrj rrapaKetpLeva Kal Kparfjpes xpvcrot Kal 
apyvpol, Kal iv avrots vBwp Trdp,7roXv, rpdrreCat 
re irapiKeivTO 6 vov re Kal iXi<j)avros ed pudXa 
aofiapal, Kal rjv iv avrcov Kpea Kal dpToc, rrapi,f$o- 
pcoTarwv ipLTrXrjaao ^(pcov yaaripas tKavd ravra. 
€7rel Be ra rrjs irapauKevrjs eK^Xed re Kal dpL</>tXa<j>rj 
rjv, rraprjXOov ol Sam> puoves. If p,ev appeves, iod- 

1 Kal TL /Cat] aVTLKCL 5*. 

2 Tt. 3 GKfi&Vat, 

4 Wytt : a>$ crrtjSaSes. 

5 rvXta. 



wheeled into a circle when he so ordered them, and 
if they had to deploy, that also they did. And then 
they sprinkled flowers to deck the floor, but with 
moderation and economy, and now and again they 
stamped, keeping time in a rhythmical dance. ^ 

That Damon therefore, that Spintharus, Aristo- 
xenus, Philoxemis, and others should be experts in 
music and should be numbered among the few for 
their knowledge of it is certainly matter for wonder 
but by no means incredible or absurd. The reason 
is that man is a rational animal capable of under- 
standing and logical thought. But that an in- 
articulate animal should comprehend rhythm and 
melody, should follow the movements of a tragic 
dance without a false step, fulfilling all that its 
lessons required of it— these are gifts bestowed by 
Nature, arid each .one is a singularity that fills one 
with amazement. _ „ . , 

But what followed was enough to send the specta- 

at a banque 

tor wild with delight. On the sand of the theatre 
were placed mattresses of low couches, and on these 
in turn cushions, and over them embroidered cover- 
lets, clear evidence of a house of great prosperity arid 
ancestral wealth. And close at hand were set costly 
goblets and bowls of gold and of silver, and in them 
a large quantity of water; and beside them were 
placed tables of citrus wood and of ivory, of great 
magnificence, and they were laden with meat and 
bread enough to satisfy the stomachs of the most 
voracious animals. So as soon as the preparations 
were completed in all their abundance, the ban- 
queters came on, six males and an equal number ot 



pidfioi Be at O-qXetai avrois* Kal oi p,ev 1 dppevomov 
aroXrjV etxov, at Be OrjXvv, Kal KareKXlvrjorav 2 avv 
Kodfico avvBvaadevreg dppev re Kal OfjXv, Kal 
v-rroarj^vavros rots' TrpofioaKiBas d)$ X € W as k zko~ 
Xaofiivtos rrpovrecvov, Kal iacrovvro ed fxdXa 
aa><f>p6v<os- Kal ovre ns avroov e8o£ev dBrj<f)dyos 
ovre fxrjv 7rpoT€v0r)s n$ 7j rrjs puoipas rrjs p,ei£ovos 
dprraKTiKoSy cos 6 Ueparjs. 6 7rapd rep Eevo<f>d>VTi 
XP va <P- * 7T€ *' °^ irlvew eBec, iK&orcp Kparrjp 
Traperediq, Kal dpvrop,evoi rats* TrpofioaKtai, ro 
rrorov eirivov KeKoap,r]pLeva>s , elra drceppawov avv 
iraioia Kal oi>x vfipec. iroXXd Be Kal aAAa dveypa- 
tpav 3 roiavra tt}s}tos rcovSe rtov £<poov 
aocpd Kal iK7rXrjKTiKd. eyd) Be etBov Kal ypapupuara 
ypd<f>ovra eirl irivaKos 'Pa^ata darpafiajs rfj 

7Tpof$0<JKlOl Kal drpertTOiS' TtXtjV eTTeKeiTO <^> 4 

X*lp rod BiBd^avros is rrjv rcov ypapupidroiv 
iratBaywyovaa 7repiypaj>r\v 3 eare dnoypdijsai ro 
C<pov to Be dreves ecopa Kara). ireTraiBevpievovs 
elvai rovs 6cf>6aXfiovs too faiaj Kal ypap,p,ariKov$ 
ehres dv. 

12. "E%et puevrot Kal 6 Xaycbs 5 avpufoels tSto- 
nrjras. €K7T€7rrapLevois pikv yap rocs f$Xe<f>dpois 
KadevBei, Kdnrjyopei Be avrov rd err) rpcoyXas 
rivds V7To<f>atva)v. fyepei Be Kal ev rfj vtjBvl rd 
fiev -qtiireXfj, rd Be (LBivei, rd Se t}Bt) oi rereKrai. 

1 ol fih eXtyavres. * KaTexXtd-qaav, 

3 Sckn : aveypatfra* 
« <V> add. Schn. 
5 \aya>6$. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 11-12 

females ; the former were clad in masculine garb, the^ 
latter in feminine; and they took their places in 
orderly fashion in pairs, a male and a female. And 
at a signal they reached forward their trunks 
modestly, as though they were hands, and ate with 
oreat decorum. And not one of them gave the 
impression of being a glutton nor yet of trying to 
forestall others or of being inclined to snatch too 
large a portion, as the Persian did who occurs in 
Xenophon the golden.® And when they wanted to 
drink, a bowl was placed by each one, from which 
they sucked up the water with their trunks and 
drank it in an orderly manner, and then proceeded to 
squirt <the attendants) 6 in fun, not by way of insult. 

Many similar stories have been recorded showing 
the astounding ingenuity of these animals. And I 
myself have seen one actually with its trunk writing 
Roman letters on a tablet in a straight line without 
any deviation. The only thing was that the in- 
structor's hand was laid upon it, directing it to the 
shape of the letters until the animal had finished 
writing ; and it looked intently down. You would 
have said that the animals eyes had been taught 
and knew the letters. 

12. The Hare has certain innate characteristics. The Hare 
For one thing it sleeps with its eyelids open; for 
another it proclaims its age when it half shows certain 
apertures. Also it carries some of its young half- 
formed in its womb, some it is in process of bearing, 
others it has already borne. 

Xen. An. 7. 3. 23 ; Arystas was however an Arcadian, not 
a Persian. * Golden/ cf. Diog. La. 10. 8 TLMraiva xptvoiw, 
Lticr. 3. 12 [Epicuri] aurea dicta. 

b Or ' each other * ? 



13. Ta K-ryrq rd pueydXa Trdvra 1 dvev kvvcov 
Belrai rov r)ye{j,6vo$ y Kal rols 6<f>6aXuot$ eKetvov 
dyerai, eari Be l^Ovs puiKpos 2, Kal Xerrros, 3 rrjv 
Ke<j>aXr)v 7Tp0fxiqKK]s* orevbv ^Sc) 4 avrcp to 


elre Be avrov iKetvov rrapeBojKe rep Kvyrei rj <f>vacs 
eKacrrcp, elre (f>iXia avrcp 5 eKcov 7Tp6aeiacv 3 Q ovk 
otBa- <f>vaetos Be dvdyKrjv etvai rd Trparrofievov 
fidXXov 7T€7riaT€V KGL . v^eTat yap SBe 6 txdvs 
ovBeTTwirore eavrw, 7 rrpoeiai Be rfjs rod Krjrovs 
Ke<f>aXrjSi Kal rjyep,c6v ecrrw avrov, Kal <h$ elireiv 
ola£. rrpoopa yovv eKelvcp rd Trdvra Kal irpoataOd- 
verai rep avrcp, Kal rrpoBiBdcrKet, eKaora rijs 
oupa? rip aKpcp, Kal Trapeifsavae rovrcp, Kal eBwKe 
avvdiqp,a, Kal rcov p,ev <j>of$ep&v dveareiXev, eirl ye 
firjv rd Opii/fovra irpodyei, Kal rrjv e/c rcov Orjparcov 
ivcpovXrjv oiSdcrKei orjfjLeicp nvl dreKfidpra), Kal 
rcov rdircov cov ov xprj roaovrov Orjplov €7ri/&}vat 
irpop/qvvei, tva prq rrpre dpBrjv es epfxa irepiaxeOev 
diroXrjrac, rj rolvvv rod filov vrroOecns rep pueylarcp 
ro ppdx^rov earw. eoiKe Be Kara-mavQev ro 
Ccpov pirjre opdV en prqre aKoveiy, etvai Be TTpofiXrjfia 
Kal rr\s diftecos Kal rvjs aKorjs rcov aapKwv rov 
oyKov. ov% opdrai Be rod krjrovs ep7]p,os, aXXd 
dvdyKT], rov rrdvrcov avrcp rcov 7rpoeipr]p,eva>v 
alrtov TTpoarroXojiXoros , Kal eKetvo aTroXeaQai. 

1 SXiyov Trdvra. 2 Ges ; fiaKp6$, 

3 Xevtcos. 

* <8£> add. H. 

5 Eeiske : avrwv. 

6 Jac : TTpoeiaiv. 

7 Abresch: avra>. 



13. All the large fishes, with the exception of the MubmA 
Shark, require a leader, and are guided by its eyes, leaders 
The leader is a small, slim fish with an elongated 
head, but its tail is narrow, according to the authori- 
ties on the subject. But whether Nature has con- 
ferred upon each large fish the aforesaid guide, or 
whether it associates with the large fish of its own 
free will out of friendliness, I am unable to say, but 
I prefer to believe that this is done under the com- 
pulsion of Nature, for this fish never swims by itself, 
but moves in front of the large fish's head and is its 
leader and, as it were, tiller. For instance, it fore- 
sees and takes previous notice of everything on be- 
half of the large fish ; it forewarns it of everything 
by the tip of its tail, and by its contact signals to the 
fish, keeping it away from what is to be feared but 
leading it on to what will feed it. And by some 
invisible sign it warns the fish that its pursuers have 
designs upon it, and gives timely indication of those 
spots which a creature of its size ought not to ap- 
proach, if it is not to be surrounded and perish utterly 
on some reef. 

So then the first essential for the life of the largest 
of creatures is the smallest. And it seems that when 
the large fish becomes very fat it can no longer see 
nor hear, the vast bulk of its flesh being an obstacle 
to sight and to hearing. But the ' leader ' is never 
seen apart from the large fish ; if however, with its 
responsibility for the services described above, it 
dies first, then the large fish is bound to die 



14. Xa^tatAecov to foW is jxiav 1 XP° av °" 
7T€(j>VK€v ovre opdoQat ovTe yvtopi^eaBai, kX4ttt€i 
Be iavrov irXavwv re ajxa /cat 7rapaTpe7Ta>v ty]v 

T(X)V 6p<l)VT(DV OifflV. €L yap 7T€plTVXOl$ pLeXaVL TO 

ethos, 6 Be e^erpetjje to pL6p<j>a)p,a is ^AojpoTTjTa, 
a>GTT€p ovv pL€TapL<f>t,ecrdpi,evos 2 ' etra puevTOi dXXolos 
i<f>dvrj yXavKorrjra 3 vttoBvs, KaBdirep TrpoGamelov 
erepov rj aroXrjv VTTOKpirfjS dXXnrjv, inel rolvuv 
ravff ovtcos €%et, <j>aCr] tls dv /cat rrjv $vaw purj 
Kadeijjovorav pbrjBe emxplovaav cjiappidKois > coairep 
ovv r\ MrjBecdv Tiva fj KtpKVjv, /cat 4 eKeivyjv 
<f>apfxaKiSa elvai. 

15. UojjLTTiXov 5 weXdyiov /cat flvBco faXyBovvTa 
elBivai xprj pidXiara lyQvuyv wv lap,ev aKofj* pnoel 
Be rj avros rrfu yfjv ^ top IxBvv eKelvr\. repuvovaas 
Be dpa p,eaov rov iropov rds vavs olBe ol iropwriXoi 
cbcnrep o$v ipcopuevas irpocrveovres Bopv<f>opovai 3 /cat 
Bevpo /cat €K€icre irepiipxovTai xop^ovres 6 apua 
/cat 7ri)B<x>VTe$. oi /xev odv ireplvew oiroaov 7 
d<f>eardai 8 rrjs yfjs, ovBe ev 9 auTOtS" elBivai 
irdpeoTi Brjirov ol Be vavrac, KXerrreaBaL 10 pievrot 
/cat auTOts 1 to dXrjBes eiwBev. ol ye purjv 11 TropurlXoi 
pLdKpoBev fiudovro Blf<r)v evplvov kvvos to BrjpapLa 
iXovcnqs Ta^tara, /cat ovk4tc tooovtos clvtovs 
epcos ve<hs KaTaXapufidvei, <hs Ttapa\ievew , aAAa 

1 els tBiav fiiav. 

3 Pauw : AevKonjra. 

4 koX fievroi /cat. 

5 Ges here and below : tto/^u-. 

6 Kai Bevpo . . . x°P*v° VT€S ] Kal zkgWi TrepUpxovrai ^opeuopres 
Kai Sevpo, 


ON ANIMALS, II. 14-15 

14. The Chameleon is not disposed to remain of 
one and the same colour for men to see and recognise, 
but it conceals itself by misleading and deceiving the 
eye of the beholder. Thus, if you come across one 
that appears black, it changes its semblance to green, 
as though it had changed its clothes ; then again it 
assumes a bluish-grey tint and appears different, like 
an actor who puts on another mask or another gar- 
ment. This being so, one might say that even 
Nature, though she does not boil anyone down nor 
apply drugs, like a Medea or a Circe, is also a 

15. You must know that the Pilot-fish frequents the The^ 
open sea and loves to dwell in the depths more than 

all others of which we have heard tell. But either it 
detests the land or the land detests the fish. Well, 
when vessels are cleaving the mid-ocean these Pilot- 
fish swim up as though they were in love with them and 
attend them like a bodyguard, circling this way and 
that as they gambol and leap. Now the passengers 
are of course totally unable to tell how far they 
are from land, and even the sailors themselves are 
frequently mistaken as to the true fact. The 
Pilot-fish however can tell from a long way off, 
like a keen-scented hound which immediately gets 
wind of the prey, and then they are no longer so 
captivated by the vessel as to stay at her side, but 

7 Jac : Travis otrorav, 8 afaoravai. 

fl ouSeV MSS always. 1Q Jac: Kai irrateoOai. 

11 dAA' ot ye (irjv. 



ota vrro avvdrjpLan dOpooi yevop,evoi 1 cpxovro 2 
airiovres. Kal laaaiv evrevdev oi rrjs vecbs dpxovres 
ore dpa xpr) TrepifSXeirew yijv ov TTVpaois reKfjucu- 
pofievovs dXXd rots rrpoeLpiqpiivois TreTraihevpiivovs . 

16. 'l&pvOrjpLa 3 el 7tot€ eTravariXXeu Kal a>xp^~ 
ai$ 4 eirl ijsiXris rijs Sopas Kal Tpiy&v yvpuvrjs, 
(davpLaarov o*3SeV> 5 * rdpavBos oe to £q>ov, dXXd 
odros ye Bpi^lv avrals rpeirei eavrov, Kal ttoXv- 
Xpoiav ipyd^erai puvp cav, d)s iK7rXrjrreiv rr\v oiftiv, 
eo-n Se TiKvOtjs, Kal rd f vcDraf 6 TrapairXriGios 
ravpcp Kal ro p,eye6os. rovrov roi Kal rrjv Bopdv 
dyadfjv dvTLTrakov o^XFU avrcov dwnicri 

7T€piT€WaVT€$ VOOVGW 7 ol HtKvSai. 

17. UeXdyios Ix^vs rrjv Xrj^iv^ rr)v oifiiv puzXas, 
to purjKos Kara 9 p.ep.erpiqp.iviqv eyxeXvv, Xafioov 10 
i£ Sv Spa ro dvop,a 3 deovarj vr]l Kal pcdXa ye i£ 
ovplas 11 Trpou^Bapels Kal rrjs TrpvpLvrjs ro aKpov 
ivSaKwv, 12, woirep odv Ittttov aropLiq) d7ret6r] Kal 
rpaxpv ^aAtva> oxA^oai fiiaiorara dvaKpovaas, 
dvaareXXet tt}s 6pp,f}$ Kal rreSijcras ex €r KaL 
pbdrrjv puev rd laria pbeaa TretTprjarai, is ovBev 8e 
<f>vcrajcnv ol avepLOi, a^o? 8' exec rovs TrXeovras. 
avviaoi he oi vavrai, Kal rrjs vecbs yvcopl^ovac ro 

1 Eeiske : yivoivro. 

2 rravres. 

3 ipvdrjfJLara. 

* chxplauts Kal ycvioBai neXihvov Kal dvOpa>7T(p ravra Kal 
d-qpiois aAAa. 

5 (QavfjLaorov ouSeV> add. Ges. 

6 vcora corrupt. 

7 voovgl KaL 


ON ANIMALS, II. 15-17 

mass as at a signal and are off and away. There- 
upon those in control of the vessel know that they 
must look around for land, not because they judge 
by beacons but because they have been instructed 
by the aforesaid fish. 

16. If at any time a flush or a pallor appears on a The 
man's bare and hairless skin it causes no astonish- ar 
ment. But the animal known as Tarandus (elk?) 
transforms itself hair and all, and can adopt such an 
infinite variety of colours as to bewilder the eye. 

It is a native of Scy thia and in its [hide ?] a and its size 
resembles a bull; and the Scythians cover their 
shields with its hide and consider it a good counter 
to a spear. 

17. There is a fish whose province is the open sea, The 
black in appearance, as long as an eel of moderate size, 
and deriving its name from what it does : with evil pur- 
pose it meets a vessel running at full speed before 
the wind, and fastening its teeth into the front of 
the prow, like a man vigorously curbing with bit and 
tightened rein an intractable and savage horse, it 
checks the vessel's onrush and holds it fast. In vain 
do the sails belly in the middle, to no purpose do the 
winds blow, and depression comes upon the pas- 
sengers. But the sailors understand and realise what 
ails the ship ; and it is from this action that the fish 

Perhaps 4 coats,' i,e. summer and winter coats of hair. 

8 Meiske : vq^iv. 9 Kara rr\v. f 10 Aa^alv. 

11 ovplas Kal rwv lariojv KSKoXTTiOfxeviav. 

12 BaKWV. 


rrdOos. Kal evrevQev eKrrjoaro to 6Vo/xa* e^evTyt'Sa 
yap Kokovdiv ol TTeTreLpafievot. 

18. 'AvajSawec pev r) reyy*q Ka * L & rpiyovtav 
hiSaoKaXias 7rap' *Op,r}pa) 1 r) rrepl rcbv rerpcofxivcov 
re kgll <f>apfJLdf<ov Seofjuivwv . iraiheverai jxev yap 
6 Mevoirlov UdrpotcXos v-n 'A^AAc^? larpiKijv, 
'Ax^XXevs 8e 6 UrjXecos vrro ¥L€ipa>vo$ rov Kpovov. 
Kal iv Tjpcocrl re Kal Oeaiv Tratalv rjv rd fiadrjfJLara 2 
<f>vow eiSivat ptfcov Kal iroas Sia<f)6pov xpr^vw /cat 
(j>apfjidKcov Kpaaiv Kal eTraoiBas & re <j>Xeyiwvr)v 
dvrnrdXovs, Kal dvaorelXai atp,a, Kal oaa dXXa 
€K€Lvoi ye 3 rjSeaav Kal fjuevroi Kal ol rov xpovov 
Kara) 4 dvlyyevadv rcva. 5 dXXa rovrayv ye rwv 
o-oc/yicFfidrcov r) <j>vais ovSev eSetro* Kal Karrjyopet 
6 iXe<f>as* orav yovv is avrov eX6rj 86para Kal 
peXrj TToXXd, iXalas Traodfxevos 6 dvdos rj eXatov 
avro 3 elra irav to ipjireaov aTreaeiaaro, Kal eartv 
add is SXoKXrjpos. 

19. Kai ToSe to Oavfia rovde rov faiou IBiov. 
reKetv f$pe<f>os ovk olSev dpKros, ovSe ofioXoyrjoei 
rts e£ coS/vcuv ISwv to eKyovov ^cpoyovov etvai 
avrfjv, dXXa r) jxev eXoxevOrj, to 8e eltcq Kpeas Kal 
dv7)\Lov re Kal drvrroyrov Kal dp,op<f>ov. r) Se rjBrj 
<f>iXel Kal yvcoplCei <to> 7 reKVOV, koX vtto roZs 

1 7rapa ra> 'O. 

2 jj,a9rjfjiaTa ovoZa. 

3 Jac : re. 

4 Jac : Karen koX iv rjpoiaL re /cat 9ewv rw. 

5 Tt. 

6 trdaao>v, vl. Trdaas- 

7 <rd> add. E. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 17-19 

has acquired its name, for those who have had 
experience call it the Ship-holder. a 

18. In Homer skill in treating the wounded and Medicine m 
persons in need of medicine goes back as far as the Ag e 
third generation of pupil and master. Thus Patro- 
clus, son of Menoetius, is taught the healing art by 
Achilles,* and Achilles, son of Peleus, is taught by 
Cheiron, son of Cronus. And heroes and children ol 
the gods learnt about the nature of roots, the use ot 
different herbs, the concocting of drugs, spells to 
reduce inflammations, the way to staunch blood, and 
everything else that they knew. And moreover 
there are discoveries which men of a later age have 
made. But that Nature really has no need of these 
ingenuities is proved by the case of the Elephant; The^ 
for instance, when it is assailed with spears and a 
shower of arrows, it eats the flower of the olive c 
or the actual oil, and then shakes off every missile 
that has pierced it and is sound and whole again. 

19. [And here is another strange feature peculiar The Bear ^ 
to this airimal.]* The Bear is unable to produce a 
cub, nor would anyone allow, on seeing its offspring 
immediately after birth, that it had borne a living 
thing. Yet the Bear has been in labour, though the 
lump of nondescript flesh has no distinguishing mark, 
no form, and no shape. But the mother loves it and 
recognises it as her child, keeps it warm beneath her 

a This is the Sucking-fish or Remora; see Thompson, Gh. 
fishes, p. 70. 

* Horn. II II. 831. . 

« ' TJnde Ael. florem oleae duxerit, nescio (bobneider). 

* If these words belong here, the order of the chapters has 
been confused : ch. 19 should follow one on Bears. 



l^qpois Oaklet, Kal Xeatvet rrj yXcorrrj, Kal e/crwot 
es dpOpa, Kal fievTot /cat Kara, puKpd €Kfj,op</>oi 3 
Kal IBwv ipets rovro dpKrov gkvXolkiov. 

20. Kepara aKXivrj Kal 6p8d ear?y/ce ravpois 
drraaL s Kal Sid ravra d>s is 6-ttXov 6 dv9pa>7TOS 9 
ovrco roc Kal is Kepas 6 ravpos TeOvpLWTat. fides 
Be 'EtpvOpatot, Kivovvi rd 1 Kepara <L$ aira. 

21. Yij p,ev AtSiOTTis (yecTa>v Be Kal pAXa 
dya66s Kal d^toC^Xos to twv Qecov Xovrpov, o 
"0{J,7)pos rjfjuv y £lKeav6v aSei) ovkovv ^Se rj yrj 
SpaKovrcDV fitfrrjp iorl fxeyiOeo pLeylartov Kal 
yap rot /cat is rptaKovra opyvids TTpoiqKovoi, Kal 
to ovofia fiev to drro yeveds ov KaXovvTav, foveas 
he iXe<f>dvTwv <f>aalv avTOvs, Kal dpuiXXcovTac Trpos 
yfjpas to pLrjKiOTov otBe ol BpaKOVTes, Kal Xoyoi 
fxev AWloTres ivTavOd fioi loTavTai. Xeyovai Se 
<!>pvyioc Xoyoi Kal iv <I>pvyla ylveaQai 2 hpaKovTas, 
Kal TTporjKeiv avTOvs is Se/ca opyvids, Kal fieoovv- 
tos Oepovs 6cr7}p,epai jLtera irXrjOovaav dyopdv 
igipneiv tcov <f>a)Xea)v, Kal napa tqj iroTajJLO) rco 
KaXovp,evcp 'PvvhaKcp to p,4v tl Trjs airelpas 
drrripetaav is ttjv yrjv, to Xocttov Si acofia dva~ 
QTiqaavTes nrav, aTpepua Kal rjavxr] tt}v <f>dpvyya 
dvaTelvavTes Kal p,evTOi Kal to OTOfia dvol£avTes s 
eh-a ra irT7\vd eXKOVow olovel ivyyi tco acr^art. 
ra he is Tas eKetvcov ioTcbnTei yaoTepas vtto tt}s 
Trap* avTtov iKnvofjs crvpofxeva avTots 7TTepoXs. 

1 Jac: Kal. 2 Schn : ydveaOai. 

a On the coast of Ionia opposite Chios. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 19-21 

thighs, smooths it with her tongue, fashions it into 
limbs, and little by little brings it into shape ; and 
when you see it you would say that this is a Bear's 

20. All Bulls have inflexible and rigid horns, and J^™^ 
this is why, just as a man puts passion into his 
weapons, so a bull puts passion into its horns. But 

the oxen of Erythrae a can move their horns as they 
do their ears. 

21. The land of Ethiopia (the place where the gods 

bathe, celebrated by Homer under the name of an a phrygia 
Ocean? is an excellent and desirable neighbour), 
this land, I say, is the mother of the very largest 
Serpents. For, you must know, they attain to a 
length of one hundred and eighty feet, and they are 
not called by the name of any species, but people say 
that they kill elephants, and these Serpents rival 
the longest-lived animals. Thus far the accounts 
from Ethiopia. But according to accounts from 
Phrygia there are Serpents in Phrygia too, and these 
grow to a length of sixty feet, and every day in mid- 
summer some time after noon they creep out of their 
lairs. And on the banks of the river Rhyndacus c 
while supporting part of their coils on the ground, 
they raise all the rest of their body and, steadily and 
silently extending their neck, open their mouth and 
attract birds by their breath, as it were by a spell. 
And the birds descend, feathers and all, into their 
stomach, drawn in by the Serpents' breathing. And 

» Hom.JZ. 1.423. , . 

6 The Rhyndacus rises in mt Olympus in Mysia and flows 
N into the Propontis. 



Kal ravra fxev t'Sta 1 iKelvois Bpdrai is TjXLov 
Bvapds* etra iavrovs oi BpaKovres aTTOKpvxjsavres 2 
cAAo^aio-t rds 7Tolp,vas Kal ix rijs vop/rjs hfi rd 
avXia lovaas aipovvi? Kal ttoXvv fyovov^ ipyaad- 
puevoi Kal <rous"> 5 vofieas avvBU<j>Qeipav rroXKaKts, 
Kal exovcrt Behrvov a<j>Qovov re Kal apL(j>iXa<f)4s . 

22. Tat? d<f>vaig 6 tttjXos yiveals iarr St' 
aXXrjXcov Be ov tIktovgw ovBe imytvovrai, TrrjXos 
Be iv ttJ daXdrrrj Kal rrdw IXvdnBiqs orav avcrrf} 
Kal yevryrai pueXas, dXeatveral re 6 <j>vvei nvl 
diropprirco re Kal ^cooyovco Kal pera^aXXerai Kal 
is fa)a rperrerai Trdp,7ToXXa. /cat at ye a<f>vai 
ravrd ian, orKwXrjKayv BIktjv iv rq> fiopfiopcp Kal 
rots fivcrapois rcKropuevajv iKeivaxv. yevopbevai Be 
at d<f>va(, vrjKTiKWTarov XPlf 1 ^ elvi, 7 /cat Bpwaw 
6 7T€</)VKaaiv , etra dyovral nvi atrta Oavpuaarfj is 
rd awrrjpia, ev6a egovcn GKerrr\v Kal 7rp6j3Xr)pa, 
fj pueXXei, pcwcrtfia avrals eaeaOat. etrj 5° dv rj 
Kara<f>vyrj rj Tver pa - dvear&aa iirl peya Kal 
vxjyqXov rj oi KaXovpuevoi Kptfiavor 8 etev 8' dv 
avrai 9 KoXrrwBeis irerpai fipajdeiaai 10 re V7TO rwv 
Kvpudrcov rep XP° va) Kai KOiXai yeyevrjpievac. 
ravra Be dpa avrats rj <f>vats eBetge Kprjor^vyera, 
wore vrro rod adXov prj TralecrOat prjBe a<^avtfeo-0at* 
daOeveis yap eloi Kal rjKiara rrpos rds iKelvwv 
ifjLTrrwcreis avrlrvrroi, rpo^s Be Beovrat ovBe 
iv, drroxprj ye prjv dAA^Aa? TrepiXixprjcraoOai. 
dypa Be avrcov vr\para ayav Xenra Kal ippa<j>ivra 

1 I8ia. 2 VTTOKpvipavres. 

3 Wyti : atpovaiv, 4 <$>dopov. 

5 <rotfc> add, H. « T e vfi ^Bovrjs eavrov. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 21-22 

these singular practices they continue until sun- 
down ; next, the Serpents hide and lie in wait for 
the flocks, and as they return to the sheepfolds from 
the pasture they fall upon them, and after a terrible 
slaughter they have frequently killed the herdsmen 
as well, thus obtaining a generous and abundant 

22. Sprats are born of mud ; they neither beget The sprat 
nor are begotten of one another, but when the mud 
in the sea becomes altogether slimy and thick and 
turns black, it is warmed by some inexplicable and 
life-giving principle, undergoes a transformation, and 
is changed into innumerable living creatures. The 
Sprats are these creatures, resembling worms which 
are generated in mire and filth. And as soon as born, 
Sprats are excellent swimmers, and they do it natur- 
ally. Then by some mysterious agency they are led 
to safe places where they will find shelter and pro- 
tection, so that it will be possible for them to live. 
And their place of refuge is likely to be either some 
rock that rises to a great height or what are called 
' baker's pots * ; these would be rocks full of em- 
brasures which the waves have in time eaten away 
until they have become hollow. These then are the 
retreats to which Nature has pointed them so that 
they shall not be battered and demolished by the 
swell of the sea ; for they have little strength and 
are powerless to resist the impact of the waves. 
They need no food, indeed it is enough for them to 
lick one another. The way to catch them is to use 
exceedingly fine thread with thin pieces from the 

7 eort. 8 Kplfiavoi vtto ro)v aXiecov. 

• 3ht at. 10 tteiske : ppiOovaau 



rovrots dpatd GTrjfxovia twp Ifiarccov. 1 Kal Texvrjfjua 
fiev €17] av 2 rovro Kal fidka ye dpKovp 3 is atpeGw 
re Kal aXaxnv avrwv, is oe d'XXcov lyBvow drjpav 

23. T6v aavpov el Tratoas 4 etre e/cd>v etre /cat 
Kard Tvyy]v pdfiow fjbiaov StaT^tots", ovhirepov 5 
avrco rwv jjiepwv wnoTeQvr\Kep dAAd ^a>/>ts /cat 
/ca#' eavrd TfpoeiGi re /cat £t? iirtovp6ii€- 
vov to rjjjLirofAov 6 /cat €K<zlvo Kal tovto. etTa 
orav avveXdj] (ortaiox ydp 777)0? to Aet7rov to 
€T€pov rroXkaKis), GvvhvaaQevTe avv7]X9irrjv e/c 
ttJs Biaipiaecos* Kal ivcadels 6 Gavpos, rov p,ev 
rrddovs to i^yos avra> Kanqyopel r) ovXtf, TrepiOiwv 
ok Kal rr)v dpxalav fiiOTrjv k'x 0JV eot/ce rwv TTpoei- 
pTjpuevcov fir) TreTrevpapiepq). 

24. *lds fiev 6 rcov ipTTeroiv Secvos ion, Kal 6 
ye rrjs doTtLhos in juaAAov. /cat rovrov 7 dvTtrraXa 
Kal dp,WT7)pia paoccos ovk av evpot tls, el Kal 
crocfxnraros etrj KTjXeuv re oSvvas Kal d<f>avl£ew t 

* Uv Se dpa Kal iv avOpcoTTip n$ 16s aTropprjTos, 
/cat 7re(f>d)parat top Tpoitov eKeivov. e^tv el Xd- 
fiocs, Kal tt&vv evXaficos Te Kal iyKpaTws rov 
TpaxtfXov KaTaaxotSi Kal oiaoTrjoas to OTopa 
etTa avTW 8 7rpocrnTvaeia$ 3 is tt)p vtjSvv /caroAt- 
oQdvei to TTTvaXov, Kal yiveTal 01 togovtov /ca/cov 
d)$ G-ryrrew top e^tv. evdev 9 rot /cat dvOpchinp 

1 Gov) : dpaicov GTrjfiovtoiv ret tfidna MSS, ipe&v Bemhardy, 
TiAjuana JSaupt. 

2 ravrais. 

3 apuovv jj^yavrjiia. 

ON ANIMALS, II. 22-24 

warp of garments laced in. This device should be 
quite sufficient for catching and securing them, 
though for the capture of other fish it would be 
utterly inadequate. 

23. Should you strike a Lizard with a stick and 
either on purpose or by accident cut it in two, 1 
neither of the two parts is killed, but each moves 
separately and by itself, and lives, both the one and 
the other trailing on two feet. Then when the 
parts meet— for the forepart frequently unites with 
the hinder — the two join up and coalesce after their 
separation. And the Lizard, now one body, al- 
though a scar gives evidence of what it has suffered, 
yet runs about and maintains its former method of 
life exactly like one of its kind that has had no such 

24. The poison of serpents is a thing to be dreaded, Jhe Asp, 

, n 1 * . xt j • its poison 

but that of the Asp is far worse. Nor are remedies 
and antidotes easy to discover, however ingenious 
one may be at beguiling and dispelling acute pains. 
Yet after all there is in man also a certain mysterious 
poison, and this is how it has been discovered. If 
you capture a Viper and grasp its neck very firmly 
and with a strong hand, and then open its mouth and 
spit into it, the spittle slides down into its belly and Human 
has so disastrous an effect upon it as to cause the spi e 
Viper to rot away. From this you see how foul can 

* Traicra? Kara rov fipdyfiaros most MSS, koto, to fteW V. 

5 ovOirepov. 

6 iJjatTOftov twv £<£a>v. 

7 em rovr<av. 

8 eV avrcp. 9 o$€V. 



hrjyfxa dvQpeorrov puiapov ion Kal KivSweoBeg 
ovSevas 6-qplov puetov. 

25. *Ev &pa Oepelep, 1 dp/qrov Kar€LXrjtf>6ros Kal 
rebv araxvcov rpifiopiivtov h rep Sivep, Kara iXas 
ovviaaw ol pLvpp,7]K€S, KaQ* eva lovres Kal Kara 
Bvo Be, aAAa Kal is rov rplrov arotxov 2 epxovrai, 
rovs eavreov olkovs Kal rds ovvrjOeis oriyas aVo- 
Xelrrovres' etra iKXiyovcri reov rrvpobv Kal ra>v 
KpiBebv, Kal rrjv avrrjv ^ajpoucrti/ drparrov. Kal 
ol fiev amaenv iirl rrjv rwv irpoeiprniivaiv avX- 
XoyrfV, ol Be kojm^ovvl rov cf>6prov, Kal rrdw 
aiBeoLp,eos Kal Tree^eiapuivajs aXXtfXocs V7racj>iorav- 
rai 3 rijs 6Bov, Kal puaXAov rots dx6o<f>6pois ol 
KOv<f>or KareX66vr€S Be is rd otKeia rd a<f>ir€pa 4 
Kai TrXypcoaavres rovs iv rep pjvx& o<j>lcn aipovs, 5 
€Kaurov anippLaros Btarpyjaavres ro p,iaov, ro 
[Lev eKrrecrov BetTivov ylverai rep fxvpfirjKC iv red 
r€WSj ro Be Xoittov dyovov ion. rraXapieovrai Be 
dpa ol yewatoi ocKovopuoo Kal cf>povpol rovro } Iva 
fir] rcov ofxfiptov Trepippevodvrojv, elra eKepvow 
oXoKXrjpa meiva ovra Xdfir} rivd Kal dvaOrjXr], Kal 
rovrcov yevofievwv drpochia Kal Xifiep Bid ^et/xcDvos 
TTzpwriejtooi, Kal avrois i^apb^Xeoorj rj arrovB^. 
thvaetos p,ev Brj Kal p,vpp,i]Kes Xafieiv Bcopa evrvxq- 
oav Kal ravra, ebs aAAa. 

26. OvBerrore deros ovre TTiqyrjs Betrai ovre 
yXtxerai Kovtorpas s dXXd Kal Bli/sovs dpuelvcov 
earl, Kal Kafidrov <f)dpfxaKov ovk dvapbiven, rropi- 

1 Qepdtp rrepl ras aAa)?. 


2 to . . . GTouxeiov. 

ON ANIMALS, II. 24-26 

be the bite of one man to another and as dangerous 
as the bite of any beast. 

25. In the summertime when the harvest is in The Ant 
and the corn is being threshed on the threshing-floor, 
Ants assemble in companies, going in single file or 

two abreast— indeed they sometimes go three 
abreast—after quitting their homes and customary 
shelters. Then they pick out some of the barley 
and the wheat and all follow the same track. And 
some go to collect the grain, others carry the load, 
and they get out of each other's way with the utmost 
deference and consideration, especially those that 
are not laden for the benefit of those that are. 
Then they return to their dwellings and fill the pits in 
their store-chamber after boring through the middle 
of each grain. What falls out becomes the Ant's 
meal at the time ; what is left is infertile. This is a 
device on the part of these excellent and thrifty 
housekeepers to prevent the intact grain from put- 
ting out shoots and sprouting afresh when the rains 
have surrounded them, and to preserve themselves 
in that case from falling victims during the winter 
to want of food and to famine, and their zeal from 
being blunted. : It is to Nature then that Ants 
too owe these and other fortunate gifts. 

26. At no time does the Eagle need water or long The Eagle 
for a dusting-place ; he is on the contrary superior to 
thirst and looks for no medicine for weariness from 

3 a<j>iaravrai 17. 

4 o<f>erepa ot yewatot. 

5 Jac 1 oipovs TWpcov re Kal Kpi>8&v> 

I2 5 

aOev e£w9ev, V7T€pcf>povajv Be /cat rcbv vBdriov Kal 
rrjs dvairavoeoos rov aWeptov ripvei rroXov, 1 Kal 
o^vrara opa €K ttoXXov rov aWepos Kal vifcrjAov. 
/cat rov ye rcbv Trrepcbv avrov pot£ov kclI to rcbv 
drjpiwv drpeTrrorarov 6 BpaKcov aKovaas ptovov 
7rapaxpfjp>a 2 KareBv /cat dvptevcos rjcpavtoQT] . 
fiaoavos Be ol rcbv veorrtbv rcbv yviqatwv £k€lvt) 
iartv. dvrtovs rfj avyfj rov rjXlov larrjcrtv avrovs 
vypovs 3 en /cat dVrTjvas* /cat edv ptey aKapBaptvgr) 
ris rrjv aKptrjv rrjs aKrivos BvucoTrovpevos > i^ecoaOr) 
rrjs KoXtds 3 /cat a7T€KpL6iq rrjcrBe rrjs cartas' iav 
Be avrtfiXeifcr] /cat ptdXa drpeirrcoSy dptewwv iarlv 
virovolas /cat rots' yvi)Gu>i$ iyyeyparrrai, iirel 
avrcb Trvp to ovpdviov r) rov yevovs dBeKaaros re 
/cat amparos 4 dXrjOcbs icrrtv iyypa<j>rj . 

27. 'H arpovOos r) fjLeydXrj Xaortots pev rots 
irrepots irrrepwrat, dpBrjvat Be Kal is fiadvv depa 
pLeretopicrdfjvat <f>vcrtv ovk e^et. 6et Be co/ctara, 
/cat rds rrapd rrjv TrXevpdv ifcarepav rrrepvyas 
dirXol, /cat ipmtrrrov to irvevpua koXttoZ BIktjv 
icrrlwv avrds? 

28. Trjv tbrtBa <ro> 6 £cbov opvtdcov etvat ^tXtir- 
TTorarov aKOVco. Kal to 7 paprvpiov, rcbv ptev 
dXXcov £<x)u>v Kal ev Xeipttbot Kal iv avXcbai vepopte- 
vcov Kara<f>pover lttttov Be orav Qedaiqrdi, yjBtara 
irpOGTrererat Kal rrXrjatdCet Kara rovs rcbv dvBptb- 
ttoyv t7T7repaGrd$ . 

1 rov depa refivec ttoXvv. 2 koX irapaxprjua. 

8 Joe: apyofe. .. ; * Pawwi aypairros. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 26-28 

any outside source, but scorning water and repose he 
cleaves the atmosphere and gazes with piercing eye 
from the vast expanse of heaven on high. And at 
the mere sound of those rushing wings even that 
most intrepid of all creatures, the great serpent, dives 
at once into its den and is glad to disappear. And 
this is the way in which the Eagle tests the legitimacy 
of his young ones. He plants them, while they are 
still tender and unfledged, facing the rays of the sun, 
and if one of them blinks, unable to endure the 
brightness of the rays, it is thrust out of the nest and 
banished from that hearth. If however it can face 
the sun quite unmoved, it is above suspicion 'and is 
enrolled among the legitimate offspring, since the 
celestial fire is an impartial and uncorrupt register of 
its origin. 

27. The Ostrich is covered with thick feathers, but The ostrich 
its nature does not permit it to rise from the ground 

and mount aloft into the sky. Yet its speed is very 
great, and when it spreads its wings on either side, 
the wind meeting them causes them to belly like 

28. Among birds the Bustard is, I am told, the The Bustard 
most fond of horses. And the proof of this is that it 

scorns all other animals that live in field or glen, but 
that when it catches sight of a horse, it delights to, 
fly up to it and to keep it company, just like men 
who are devoted to horses. 

5 auras, Trrrjatv Se ovk otSev. 
. e <rd> add. E. 
7 rovrov. 


29. Mvia iprreaovua is vhcop, el /cat 1 Ja>tm> 
iorl Opaavrdrrj, dXXd yovv ovr eirirpex^^ ovre 
vrjKrtKrf sun, Kal Sia ravra diTOTTV %y 'erai. el Se 
avrrjs i£eXocs rov veKpov, Kal ri<f>pav ipTrdoeias 
Kal KaraSelrjs 3 iv r)X£ov avyfj, avafiidbar) rr)v 

30. 'AAeKTpvova eire rrpidpevos elre Swpov 
Xafiwv is ri)v dyeXrjv rrjv aeavrov Kal rovs 
opviOas rovs r)9d8as iOeXocs dpiOpetv* ovk drroXv- 
aeis ovhe d<f>rjaeis eiKrj Kal d>s ervftev avrov* el 
hi p,r\ s <f>vyds rrapaxp^pd olxtfcrerai is rovs 
oIkzIovs Kal rovs avvvopovs, et Kal rtdvv rrop- 
patSev €17) oSros. Bet Se dpa avrw (f>povpdv 
TrepifiaXetv Kal heaped d<f>avr] vrrep rd 'Hcfyalcrrov 
rd 'Oprjpeia. Kal 6 ye Xeyco roiovrov ion. 
rpdrreCav i<f>* fjs ioBieis is peaov KaraBels Kal 
rov opviOa Xaficbv Kal rpls avrov rrjv 7rpoeipr]- 
pevrjv OKTjvrjV irepiayaywv, pedes rd ivrevOev 
d<f>erov dXacrdat ovv rots opviai rots owcerats" o 
Be ovk diraXXdrr erai, atorrep ovv 7T€7re8Y)pevos. 

31. *H oaXapdvopa ro £<x>ov ovk eon pev rcov 
7rvp6s iKyovcov^ worrep ovv ol KaXovpevoi rrvpl- 
yovoi, Bappei he avro Kal X^P^ T V <f>Xoyl opooe, 
Kal <Ls avrirraXov riva orrevhei KaraywvloaoOai. 
Kal to paprvpiovf Ttepl 7 rovs fiavavoovs KaXw- 
hetrai Kal rovs ^etpcova/CTa? rovs ipnvpovs* is 
daov pev odv ivaKpd^ei to irvp avrois, Kal ovvep- 

1 et Kal] Kal yap €t. 2 dvrexei, 

3 KaTa8ijo€L$. * dpidjjLelv ko.1 e^eiv. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 29-31 

29. When a Fly falls into the water, though it is^aiiy 
of all creatures the most daring, yet it can neither 

run upon the surface nor swim, and hence it drowns. 
If however you pick out the dead body, sprinkle 
ashes upon it, and place it in the sunshine, you will 
bring the Fly to life again. 

30. If you want to add a Cockerel, whether bought 
or presented, to your flock of domestic fowls, you 
must not release him nor let him loose at random 
and in a casual way; otherwise he will immediately 
desert and go back to his own kin and mates, how- 
ever far away from them he be. So you must set 
upon him a guard and fetters more invisible than 
those of Hephaestus in Homer [Od. 8. 274-]. What 
I prescribe is this. Place the table at which you eat, 
in the open, seize the Cockerel, and when you have 
taken him three times round the aforesaid platform, 
then let him go free to wander with the fowls of the 
house. He will not go away any more than if he were 
chained up. 

31. The Salamander is not indeed one of those ■g£f£ a - 
fire-born creatures like the so-called ' Fire-flies,' « 

yet it is as bold as they and encounters the flame and 
is eager to fight it like an enemy. And the proof of 
this is as follows. Its haunts are among artisans and 
craftsmen who work at the forge. Now so long as 
their Are is at full blast and they have it to help 

a See ch. 2, 

5 iityovayv ovBe e£ avrov TiVrerat. 
/cat rovrov rd fiaprvpia. 
7 napd. 



ydv 1 rfj TGjfyji exovatv avro Kal kolvcovov rfjs 
ao<j)las, yirep rovBe rov £tpov ovBe £v <f>povri£ovaiv\ 
orav Be to fjuev dirocrfieGdfj Kal p,apav6fj, pArrjv Be 
at </>vaai Karanveaycrw, evravda 97877 to faiov to 
elp^puevov dvriirparrov atf)ioiv 'Ivaai koXcos. dvi^X" 
vevcravres oSv to Orjplov /cat ripia>pr)ddfxevoi y to 
Tivp ivrevOev avrols e^aTrrerai, /cat earw evireiQes, 
/cat ov ofievwrai rfj crvvrjdeta rpe<f>6fjLevov . 

32. Kvkvos Be, ovjrep ovv /cat Oepdirovra *Arr6X- 
Xoivi eBouav 7roL7jral /cat Aoyot p,erptov d<f>eipLevoc 
ttoXXoI, to. fxev dXXa ottcos p,ovar)$ re /cat <1>8t}s 
e^et ehreiv ovk otBa' TTeirlarevrai Be vtto twv 
dvco rov xpovov ore to KVKveiov ovra> KaXovpuevov 
aaa$ etra aTroOvrjarKet. Tt/xa Be apa avrov rj 
<j>v&is Kal rGiv KaXcov /cat dyaBcov dv8pco7ra>v 
fxdXXov, /cat eiKortos' el ye toutousv /xe^ /cat 
eiraivovai /cat Oprjvovoiv dXXoi, eKeivoi Be elre 
rovro iOeXots elre eKelvo, eavrots vepuovcriv. 

33. Kpo/coStAos jitei> oWo? ej^et peyedovs /cat o 
reXeios Kal 6 €KyXv<f>els rrpcorov, /cat \ievroi Kal 
yXcorrrjs oVa)?, Kal el Kivei 2 rrjV yewv y Kal 
rroripav rfj erepa 7Tpoadyei y ttoXXoI Xeyovai. 
Kareyvcocrav Be apa rov £toov rovBe rcves on 
tlkt€C 3 Toaa£»Ta cod ocracs dv 4 rjfjiepais errcod^ov 5 
etra eKyXvtprj rd veorr ta* yjBrj Be eyayye rfKovaa, 
6 KpoKoBiXog orav aVo^aVrj, 6 vKOpirlov i£ avrov 
riKreadai, Kevrpov Be apa ovpalov avrov e^etv 
Xeyov aw lov TreirXT] pajpuevov. 

1 avvepyov avrots. 2 a /am] Eeiske ; em/aveT, 


ON ANIMALS, II. 31-33 

their craft and to share their skill, they pay not 
the smallest attention to this animal. When how- 
ever the fire goes out or languishes and the bel- 
lows blow in vain, then at once they know full 
well that the aforesaid creature is working against 
them. Accordingly they track it down and exact 
vengeance ; and then the fire is lit, is easily coaxeel 
up, and does not go out, provided it is kept fed with 
the usual material. 

32. The Swan is assigned by poets and many prose- The Swan 
writers as servant to Apollo, but in what other rela- andltss01 
tion it stands to music and song I do not know. Yet 

the ancients believed that when it has sung what is 
called its ' swan-song,' it dies. In that case Nature 
honours it more highly than it does noble and up- 
right men, and rightly so, for while others praise 
and lament them, Swans praise or, if you will, lament 

33. Many writers tell us about the size of the ^ o e codile 
Crocodile both when fully grown arid when first 
hatched, and further, about its tongue, and whether 

it moves its jaw and which jaw it closes upon the 
other. There are those too who have observed that 
this animal lays as many eggs as the days during 
which it sits upon them before hatching out its young. 
And I have myself heard that when a Crocodile dies 
a scorpion is born from it; and they do say that it 
has a sting in its tail which is full of poison. 

3 Tt/cret jLiev. * av /ccu.^ 

5 iTTipd^ovaw opveLs, 6 Jac: owens av airodavoi. 


34. Et aa</>r} ravra Kal firj dp,<f>t\oya, 'IvSow 
Aoyot veideraxrav a he vvv ip&, rr^s iKeWev 
</>rj(J,r}$ $LaKOiut;ovo7}$, ravrd iariv. 6fia)W(j,ov t£ 
</>vrq) KiwdfjLcofLOV opviv eywye rov wuSos jov 
NiKOfxdxov Xeyovros T)Kovva. Kal rov p,ev opviv 
Kopi^ew 1 to <j}€pa)WfJbOv rovro 8^ <}>vt6v 2 is 
'IvSoife, eiSeW Se dpa rovs dvOpojirovs ottov re 3 
Kal ottojs <f>verat ovBe ev. 

35. Klyvirnoi KXvopbara Kal KaOapaw yaarpos 
ovk €K twos imvolas dvdpa)7rlvrjs Xiyovai fiaOetv, 
StSaovcaAoi> Si o<f>ioi rod Idpuaros rovSe rrjv lf$iv 
aSovviv. Kal ottojs ige-rfalSevae rovg irpdirovs^ 
Idovras, ipel aXXog- veXrjvrjs Be avgrjoiv /ecu 
fidaxiLV on otBe, Kal rovro yKovcra. Kal ore ty]v 
rpo<f>rjv iavrfj v<f>aipet Kal Trpooridrjov Kara rrjv 
T-rjs Oeov KaiXrjgiv Kdl rrpocrdeow, TrvBeoBai troBev 
ovk elpl eljapvos. 

36. Kevrpov mKporarov Kal kIvBvvov <f>epov 
dwdvrojv fiaXXov rj rpvywv rj 4k rrjs daXdrrqs 
€X€i. Kal to p,aprvpiov 3 el puev is BivBpov reBrjXds 
Kal ed fidXa dvadeov ifnrrjgetas avro, ovre is 
dvafioXds ovre XP° V( P vorepov aXX ijSrj adov to 
BevBpov el Be ri rwv Ccocov dpuvijeias, aTreKretvas. 

37. e H pcvyaXrj 4 is oaov p,kv rr)v aXXcos TTpoeioi, 
tfqv e'xet, Kal iotreLaaro avrfj rj <f>vois, idv ye fir) 
dXXrj rivl rvXTI KaraXr}<f>Bfj Kal dtToXrjrar i-ndv 

1 Bernhardy : Ko/u£eur evr€v9ev. 

2 to (j>vr6v. 3 Reiske : ye. 

4 jjLvyaXr) koX yap rovro noiTjixa v\rjs* 


ON ANIMALS, II. 34-37 

34. If these facts are certain and beyond dispute, The 
then let this story from India carry conviction. biS^ 011 
What I propose to tell has been brought from thence 

by report and is as follows. I have learnt from the 
son of Nicomachus [Arist. HA 616 a 6] that there is a 
bird named Cinnamon like the plant, and that the 
bird brings this plant, which is named after it, to the 
Indians, but that these people have no knowledge 
where and how the plant grows.* 

35. The Egyptians assert that a knowledge °f ^|^ ters 
clysters and intestinal purges is derived from no dis- an 
covery of man's, but they commonly affirm that it 

was the Ibis that taught them this remedy. And 
how it instructed those who were the first to see it, 
some other shall tell. And I have also heard that it 
knows when the moon is waxing and when waning ; 
and I cannot deny that I have learnt from some source 
that it diminishes or increases its food according as 
the goddess herself diminishes or increases. 

36. The Sting-ray in the sea has a far fiercer and | t h ^ g . ray 
more dangerous sting than all other creatures. The 
proof is that if you fix it in a nourishing tree that has 
grown to a great height, then without any delay, 
before any time has elapsed, the tree immediately 
withers. And if you allow the sting to scratch any 
living creature, you kill it at once. 

37. So long as the Shrew-mouse proceeds as chance The Shrew- 
directs, it can live, and Nature is on friendly terms 

with it, unless it is overtaken by misfortune from 

See 17. 21. 



he is apiiarorpox^ i^Trdarj , olovel rrehrj KareL- 
Xrj7TT€Li koX fu£Aa a<f>aveL, Kal redvrjKe. S^eWi 
he vtto fivyaXrjs <t>dpfiaKov itcetvo. e« rfjs rcov 
rpox&v hiahpojXTjs rj i/sa^os dpQelaa 
rq> §rjyp,an 9 Kal ecrcoae 7rapaxpfjfia. 

38. Kai ravra he virep rfjs kiywrrjlas ifteais 
rrpocraKrjKoa. lepd rfjs acA^s f) opvis iori. 
rooovrcov yovv 1 rjfxepwv rd <ha eKyXv<j>ei, oaa>v 
rj 6eos avgei re Kal X-qyei. rfjs he klyvrrrov 
ovirore a7ToB7]fji€l. to Se afocov, vorta)rdr7] xo>P&v 
airaa&v Myvrrros ion, Kal 17 aeXyiq he voriwrarnq 
rcov irXavwfievayv dorpcov rremcrrevrai. ^ eKovoa 
fxev odv ovk dv d7rohr}fM-qaeiev rj tfiis' €t Se^-uy 
imOefievos avrfj Kara rd Kaprepov iJ;aydyoi,J\ he 
dpivverac rov e-mfiovXevcFavra, is ovhev avrcp rrjv 
o-rrovhrjv irpodyovcra^ iavrrjv ^ yap drroKrelvei 
Xtfia), Kal dvovrjrov rrjv TTpoOvfilav diro^aLveL t<£ 
TrpoeipTjfjLevw. jSa8t£« he rjOV X fj Kal KopiKwj, Kal 
ovk av avTqv Bdrrov 7} pdhrjv rrpo'iovoav dedoairo 
ns. Kal rovrojv at fieXaivat rovs rrrepmrovs 
d<f>eis e£ 'ApajStas is Myvirrov irapeXBelv jvk 
iTTiTpeirovai, rfjs yfjs rfjs <t>lXr}s TrpOTroXefiovaar 
al he erepai rovs i£ kid lonias Kara ^v rov 
Ne&W i-rrUXvcnv d(j>iKvovpievovs aTravr&oai 8ta- 
</>6elpovviv. rj rl dv iKwXvcxe hid rfjs eWiw 
imh-qpiCas rovs klyvirrlovs drroXcoXevai ; 

39. *kKova) he n Kal yeuos derwv, Kal 6vop,a 
avrcp xP VG ^ TOV ^Oevro, dXXoc he doreplav rov 

1 Beishe : o$v. 2 irpoayayovaa. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 37-39 

some other quarter and is killed. When however it 
falls into a rut, it is caught, so to say, in quite 
invisible fetters and dies. The remedy for a man 
who has been bitten by a Shrew-mouse is as follows. 
Take some sand from the wheel-track, sprinkle it on 
the bite, and it cures him immediately. 

38. Here is another story relating to the Egyptian The ibis 
Ibis which I have heard. The bird is sacred to the 
moon. At any rate it hatches its eggs in the same 
number of days that the goddess takes to wax and 

to wane, and never leaves Egypt. The reason for 
this is that Egypt is the moistest of all countries and 
the moon is believed to be the moistest of all planets. 
Of its own free will the Ibis would never quit Egypt, 
and should some man lay hands upon it and forcibly 
export it, it will defend itself against its assailant and 
bring all his labour to nothing, for it will starve itself 
to death and render its captor's exertions vain. It 
walks quietly like a maiden, and one would never see 
it moving at anything faster than a foot's pace. The 
Black Ibis does not permit the winged serpents from 
Arabia to cross into Egypt, but fights to protect the 
land it loves, while the other kind encounters the 
serpents that come down the Nile when in flood and 
destroys them. Otherwise there would have been 
nothing to prevent the Egyptians from being killed 
by their coming. 

39. There is, I am told, a species of eagle to which The Golden 
men have given the name of ' Golden Eagle,' though Eagle 



avrov KaXovaw Spar at, Se ov noKXaKis* Xeyet 
Se 'ApiaroreXrjs avrov d-qpav Kal vefipovs ml 
Xayws koI yepdvovs Kal xfyas it; avXfjs. ^ fieytaros^ 
Se dercov ehai rrertlor evrai> Kal XeyovoL ye 1 Kal 
ravpois irnrtOeaBai avrov Kara ro Kaprepov, Kal 
rtepvryyovvrai ro epyov rov rpoirov rovrov. o ftev 
KeKV</>cbs Kara) viper at 6 ravpos* 6 Be deros em 
rco revovn rod £<x>ov KaOloas eavrov natei rw 
arofian avve^i^ Te Kal Kaprepats rats rrXrjyais' 
6 Se &arrep olorprjOels i^dirrerai, Kal $ ttoScov 
e%ei <f>vyfjs apx^rai. Kal ecus fxev eartv evrjXara, 
6 deros 7}crvx6s eon Kal iirvrrorarai rtapafyvXdr- 
row orav Se rov ravpov deaayrai TrXrjcrlov 
Kprjfivov yeyevrjfievov, KVKXwaas ra rrrepa Kai 
vireprelvas avrov rwv o^OaXfiwv, iirolrjcre rd iv 
7Toal fj/Yj TTpoiSopievov 2 KarevexOrjvai, jStatorara. 
elra ifivrecrcov Kal dvapprjgas rrjv yaarepa, paSlws 
XpTjrat rfj dypa 3 is ocrov ideXei. Btfpas Se aAAo- 
rpias oi>x drrrerai Ketfievrjs, dXXd %at/>et rots 
eavrov ttovols, Koivayvtav re rrjv irpos dXXov rfKiora 
ivSex^rac. KOpeaOels Se elra rod Xomov rrovripbv 
daSfia Kal SvawSiorarov Karauvevaas } dppojra 
rols dXXois rd Xekfsava ia. Kal fievrot Kal dX- 
Xi]Xo)V dTTcpKiaiLevas oIkovoi KaXids virep rov prq 
Sia<j>epeodai vrrep dripas [/cat Xvirovpivovs Xvirelv 
TToXXaKis] . 3 

40. *Hi> <Se> 4 dpa yevos der&v Kal rrpos rovs 
rpe(f>ovras <f>iX6aropyov , aiorrep odv /cat o rov 
flvppov. rovrov rol <£aat /cat irrwrrodavelv 5 rep 

1 ye els rovs Kprjras. 2 0. Hoffmann : 7r/wetS-. 

3 [ko.1 . . . 7roAAa/«s] del, H. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 39-40 

others call it Asterias (starred). And it is seldom 

seen. Aristotle says a that it hunts fawns, hares, 

cranes, and geese of the farmyard. It is believed to 

be the largest of eagles ; at any rate men say that it 

attacks bulls with violence, and its method of attack 

they describe as follows. The bull is feeding with 

his head down, and the Eagle alights upon his neck its method 

and with its beak delivers a rain of powerful blows. bun3 taCMne 

And the bull goes wild as though stung by a gadfly, 

and sets off to run as fast as he can go. So long 

as the land makes going easy the Eagle bides its 

time, flying above him and watching. But directly 

it sees the bull near a precipice it makes an arch with 

its wings, covers the bull's eyes so that he cannot see 

what is before him, and down he goes with a fearful 

crash. Whereupon the Eagle pounces, rips open his 

stomach, and has no difficulty in enjoying its prey to 

its heart s content. But the prey killed by some 

other creature it will not touch : rather it delights 

in its own labours and will not for one moment admit 

any other creature to share them. Later when it 

has gorged itself, it breathes over the rest of the 

carcase a foul and most ill-smelling air, leaving the 

remains unfit for any other animal to eat. What is 

more, Eagles build their nests far apart from one 

another so as to avoid quarrelling over their prey [and 

being a constant source of mutual hurt]. 

40. It seems that Eagles are full of affection even Ba ^ e » 

11*1 i-nii 1 * 8 devotion 

towards their keepers ; witness the Kagle that to its keeper 
belonged to Pyrrhus, which (they say) on the death 

The passage is not to be found in his extant works. 
* <Se> add. H. 6 Jac : ivairodavetv. 



hearrorrj rpo(f>fj$ arroaravra. rjSr] he Kal dvhpds 
thicorov aeros rpofafxos Kaofievov rod heoyorov 
£$ rrjv rrvpdv iavrov ive/SaXev ol Se ovk dvhpos, 
dXXa yvvacKOS to dpep^fxa elval <£aox. ^Xorvrrcora- 
rov he apa rjv 1 £aiov aeros 7rp6$ rd veoma. idv 
yovv dedarjral nva rrpoaiovra, d-rreXdeiv dri^dipy]- 

TOV OVK hrVTpiwi' TTaiei yap TOIS 7TT€pOlS CLVTOV 

Kal rots ow^i Xufjuatverat, Kal eirir'Sf\aiv ol 

<TT€<f>€l<TfJL€VWS TTJV hlKrjV OV yip XPV rai T $> VTOfAaTl. 

41. "EoTfc he OaXarrlcov £aW rpLyX-q Xiyyorarov, 
koX is to aTToyevaaadat, rravros rod Traparvxovros 
dvap,<f>iX6ya)s d^eiheurarov . Kal rives KaXovvrai 
Xevrpwheis avrcov, arrdaaaai to ovofia €K rcov 
X<opla>v, airep odv irerpas €%et Xe-rrpds 2 re Kal 
dpaids, Kal <j>VKia fieaa rovroiv haaea, feat ttov 
koI VTroKdO-qrat ttt}X6s rj t/fajxixos . </>dyoi 8 s av 
rplyXrj Kal dvOptbirov veKpov Kal iyBvos* <f>cXr]hovcri 
he [xaXAov rots. iLejiiaoiievois Kal KaKoafiots . 

42. ®7]pdaai Kal /xaAa ye iKavol Kal ovhev rt 
yuelov rcov dertov UpaKes eluiv, rjfiepcoraroi Se 
opvldcov 7re<f>vKaai Kal faXavdpWTroraroi, to peyeQos 
dertov ovk ovres oXcytorepoi. aKovco he on ev 
rrj ®paK7} Kal dvQ pamois elal avvBiqpoL iv rats 
iXeiois dypais. Kal 6 rpotros, ol p,£v dvOpcorrot ra 
hiKrva airXtbaavres rjavxdCovcrw, ol he lepaKes 
VTrepTreropievoi <f>of3ovcn 3 rovs opveis 4 Kal avvoidov- 
ow e$ rds rcov hiKrvcov irepifioXds. rcov ovv 
fjprjfAevwv ol &paK€s jxipos drcoKplvovai Kai efcet.- 
vois, Kal exovaiv tf>lXov$ 5 mcrrovs' psr] hpdaavres 

1 Kal t^Xorvrranarov fy. 2 Ges : Xetrras. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 40-45 

of its master abstained from food and died too. And 
there was once an Eagle reared by a private citizen 
which threw itself on to the pyre where its master's 
body was burning. Some say that it had been reared 
not by a man but by a woman. The Eagle is appar- 
ently the most jealous guardian of its young. Atanatoits 
any rate if it sees anyone approaching them, it does young 
not allow him to depart unpunished, for it beats him 
with its wings and lacerates him with its talons ; and 
the punishment it inflicts is moderate, for it does not 
use its beak. 


41. The Eed Mullet is of all sea animals the most The ned 
gluttonous and indisputably the most unrestrained in 
tasting everything it comes across. And some of 
them are known as 4 roughs/ deriving their name 

from places where there are rough rocks full of holes 
and thick growths of seaweed in them, and where 
there is a bottom of mud or sand. A Red Mullet 
would eat the dead body of a man or of a fish, and 
its special delight is in filthy, ill-smelling food. 

42. Falcons are excellent at fowling and are no The Falcon 
whit inferior to eagles ; they are by nature the tamest 

of birds and the most attached to man ; in size they 
are as large as eagles. And I am told that in Thrace 
they even join with men in the pursuit of marsh-fowl. 
And this is how they do it. The men spread their 
nets and keep still while the Falcons fly over them 
and scare the fowl and drive them into the circle of 
nets. For this the Thracians allot a portion of their 
catch to the Falcons and find them trusty friends ; 

3 Kal <f>ofSo€ai. 

5 avrovs. 



Se tovto iavTovs twv ov\l\iAxojv iareprjaav. 
jtta^erat he 6 TeXeios Upai; /cat wpos dXojireKa /cat 
7rp6s a€TQV } /cat yvrrl px^erat 7roAAa/cty. /ca/>Stav 
8e ov/c av <£ayot Trork Upag, reXeoTiKOv htfnov 


avdpQJTrov IBwv lepa^ } (f>s Xoyos, TrdvTws empaXXet 
yrjs T(p a,Td(f>q) (kcu tovto fiev avTCp ov KeXevei 
HoXwv ovhe 2 aa)jj,aTOS a^erat. fteWt <Se> 3 
ayevaros 1 /cat ttotov, idv is auAa/ca inox^revr) et$ 

CrjfJLlOVV V<f>aLpOV[Jb€VOS €/C T7j$ €K€LVOV XP € ^ aS VOOJp* 

el he trXelovs eirdphoiev, d<f>6ovlav tov pevpaTos 
opcbv, d>$ </>iAorqalas twos avTcbv fteraAajit/?dWi, 
/cat Trivet rjoecos. 

43. "Eort <f>vXov lepaKCOV, /cat KaXeurat Keyxp^ls, 
Kal 7totov Setrat ovhe ev. 4 opevnqs Be yevos aXXo 
avTCov /cat eK&Wepos 5 ecm Setv&s 1 (juXodrjXvs, /cat 
eireTat Kara tovs SvoreptOTas , ovoe aTroXevrreTai. 
el he rj yvvrj direXdoi ttov TrapaXadovoa, 6 he 
VTrepaXyeX Kal fioa } /cat eot/ce XvTrovpbevo) ipoiTiKcos 
ed /xaAa. KapovTes he ttjv oiftiv tepaKes, evQv tow 
alpbaoriajv tacrt, /cat Trjv dypcav 8pthaKtvr)v dvaaTrw- 
ol, /cat tov ottov avTrjs iriKpov ovTa Kal hpipuvv 
virep rcov 6</>6aXii(x)v alcopovai row o<f>eTepa>v s /cat 
XeifiofJLevov Se^ovrat, /cat tovto avTOts vyceiav 
epydteTat. Xiyovoi he Kal tovs laTpiKovs xPV a ^ at 

1 Itoktev, ois *A$7]vatocs C7rat8a>cre Spdv. 

2 Jac : d be. 

3 <Se> a^. Ges. 

4 Secrat cw;8ei>. 

5 Sckn : e/axoros 1 . 


ON ANIMALS, II. 42-43 

if they do not do so, they at once deprive themselves 
of helpers. Now the full-grown Falcon will fight 
both with a fox and with an eagle ; with a vulture 
it frequently fights. But a Falcon will never eat 
the heart, thereby presumably fulfilling some mystic 
rite. If a Falcon sees the dead body of a man 
(so it is said), it always heaps earth upon the un- 
buried corpse, though Solon laid no such injunc- 
tion upon it, and will never touch the body. And it 
even refrains from drinking if a solitary man is 
engaged in leading off water into a channel, feeling 
sure that it will cause damage to the man who so 
labours if it purloins the water which he needs. But 
if several men are engaged in irrigating, it sees that 
the stream is abundant and takes its share from the 
loving-cup, so to speak, which they offer, and is glad 
to drink. 

43. There is a species of hawk known as the Kestrel The Kestrel, 
which has no need whatever to drink. Another |^ ites 
species is the Orites Hawk. Both species are remark- 
ably addicted to the female bird and pursue it after 
the manner of lovesick men and never cease from the 
pursuit. But should the female chance to disappear 
without the male noticing it, he is overcome with 
grief and cries aloud and is like one in the depths of 
woe from love. 

When Hawks are troubled with their eyesight they The Hawk 
go straight to some stone wall and pull up some wild troubles 
lettuce and then holding it above their eyes allow 
the bitter, astringent juice to drip in; and this 
restores their health. And men say that doctors use 

Solon, of Athens, c. 640-c. 560 B.C., reformed the laws and 



rq>he rw (jxtpfxdfcw is rfjv xpdav rcov Ka\wdvroiv 
rrjv avytfv, /cat e/c ra>v opvtdwv rj laats /ce/cA-qraf 
/cat ovk dpvovvrat fiaBrjral aKovovres opvLBow ol 
dvdpamot, aAAa SfioXoyovcn. Xeyerat he /cat 
SeocrvXrjv iv AeX(f>ots iXeygat rrore lepa£ , i\vrrvnrow 
re avrip /cat iralcov rrjv Ke^aX-qv, marevovrdt Be 
efvat tepa/ces /cat v6Qot } dvrtKpidivres 1 irpos ras 
rcov dercov <f>vXds. rjpos he apxopiivov ol iv Ai- 
yvrrrco rcov airavT(x)v hvo 7Tpoaipovvrat } /cat arro- 
uriXXovcri KaraorKeiffOfJtevovs, vrjvovs rtvds iprjfjtovs, 
ahrep 2 oSv rrjs Atfivrjs TtpoKetvrat. elra viroarpe- 
<j>ovaw ovroij /cat rjyovvrai rrjs Trrrioetas rots 
aXXois. ol he rfKovres 3 eoprrjv virep rrjs ernS^ta? 
rots 4 iv rfj AtjSw? 7rapexovtrr alvovrat yap ovhe 
iv. irapeXOovres he is ras vrjerovs, as ol irptorot 
Oeaodfievot rcov dXXa>v imrrjheiorepas o<f>latv 
eKpivav, ivravda Kara TroXXrjv rrjv yaXrjvrjv re /cat 
rjcrvxlav 5 drrorLKrovat /cat iKyXvcf>ovvi } /cat drjpcov- 
rat arpovdovs /cat TreAetaSas, /cat rovs veorrovs 
iv d<j>dovots itcrpetpovcrw etra yjhrj rrayevras /cat 
iKvenQO-lfjuovs yeyevrjfievovs TrapaXafiovres is rrjv 
AHyvTirov drrdyovaiv 3 coairep ovv is rd ot/ceta 
<Va)> 6 irarpcoa ras iv rots avvrpochots ^to/nots" 
StarptjSas 1 . 

44. At lovXihes Ix^vs elat rrerpats evrpochot, /cat 
exovcrtv lov to crrofia efirrXecov /cat orov dv tx@vos 
aTroyevocovrai, dfipcorov aW^vav avrov. 77877 he 
/cat ol aAtets rjfjttfipcorcp /ca/n'St ireptrvxovres , /cat 

1 avaKpidivres* 2 ocraiTrep. 

3 Jac : zkovtgs, 4 Jac : a.TTO$7)ij.las rijs. 

5 T7}V rjovxlav. 6 (rd"} add. H. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 43-44 

this drug for the benefit of those whose sight is 
affected, and the remedy derives its name from these 
birds. And men do not refuse to be called the 
disciples of birds ; rather they admit as much. 

It is said that once upon a time a Hawk at Delphi Hawt^ 
proved a man guilty of sacrilege by swooping upon sacrilege 
him and striking his head. It is also believed that 
Hawks are bastards, if they be compared with the 
various kinds of eagles. 

At the beginning of spring the Hawks of Egypt Hawks of 
select two from all their number and despatch them 
to reconnoitre certain desert islands off the coast of 
Libya. When they return they act as leaders to the 
rest in their flight. And their arrival is the occasion 
of rejoicing on the part of the Libyans at their 
sojourn, for they do no damage whatever. And hav- 
ing reached the islands which the original scouts 
decided were the most suitable for them, they there 
lay and hatch their eggs in complete security and 
peace ; and they hunt sparrows and pigeons and rear 
their young in an abundance of food. Then when 
these have grown strong and are able to fly, they 
take the young birds with them back to Egypt as 
though they were going to their own homes, that 
is to their haunts in regions they have grown to 

44. Rainbow Wrasses are nurslings of rocks, and 
their mouth is full of poison, and whatever fish they Vrasse^ 
touch they render uneatable. Indeed if it should 
happen that fishermen, coming upon a half-eaten 
prawn and fancying that their catch is unsaleable, 

A certain species with short, round leaves was known as 
Hieracion, for the reason stated; cp. Plin. HN 20. 7. 



d&woavres 1 to Orjpafta drrparov ov, el wiroyev- 
aaivro avrov, Kkovovvrai ttjv yaorepa^Kal crpi- 
<£ovr<u. Xvirovoi Se Kal rovs iv rats vhpodrjptaK 
VTTohvotiivovs re koX vqxopevovs , K ™ 
hrjKTiKcd TTpooiTi'rrrovuai, <h$ avroxPW a r V s 
yrjs at fJLViar Kal Set oofieiv avjas fj^ KoXd&oQai 
iodiopuevov aofiovvTt he Ik tt\s doxoXlas diroXwXe 
to k'pyov. 

45. Aayd)s Se daXdrrcos fipooOels Kal ddvarov 
7]veyK€ TToXAaKis, Ttdvrcos Se rrjv yaorepa wSvvt]oev. 
rlKrerai Se dpa 2 iv >rrqX& y Kal ovk oXiyaKts rats 
d<f>vais ovvaXLaKerar eliq 8* aV /cara tov KoyXlav 
tov yv\ivbv to elSos* 

46. Tvifj veKpw TToXifjLtos. iadlet yovv ifnreecbv 
<bs *X®P ov Ka ' L garret -reOvrjtjopevov. Kal pevroi 
Kal rats eTcS^/xot? uTpariais etrovTai yvnes, Kai 
tidXa ye puavTtKWS oti 3 is TroXepov x^povvw 
elhores, Kal on pidxn rrdaa ipyd^erat veKpovs, /cat 
tovto eyvwKOTes, yvira Se dppeva ov <£aox ywe- 
a0at 4 TroTe, aAAa O^Xetas dirdoas- oirep emord- 
fxeva ra £a)a Kal ipyplav t4kv<x)v SeSiora ^ is 
iTTiyovrjv 5 rotavra Spa. dvTiTrpcppoi r<b voto) 
ireTOvrar el Se fiy eh) voros, t$ €ypq> /cex^aov 
Kal to Trvevpa icrpeov TrXiqpob avras, koI kvovch 
rpiwv ircov. Xeyovoi Se veoTTidv pr} vTroirXeKeiv 

1 iavrtov imd irevtas a£iwcravr€S. 

2 Se apa~] yap. 

3 ye fiavrtKcos ort] [i. on ye. 

4 ysviadai. 

5 Jac : imyovfjv reKVwv. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 44-46 

should taste it, they are assailed by convulsions and 
torments in their stomach. And the Wrasses also 
molest those who dive and swim in pursuit of fish, 
falling upon them in great numbers and biting them, 
exactly like flies on land ; so that one must either 
beat them off or be tormented by being eaten up. 
But while one is busy beating them off, there is no 
time to attend to one's work. 

45. The Sea-hare when eaten has often been the ^ Sea - 
cause even of death ; in any case it causes pains in are 
the stomach. It is born in the mud and is not infre- 
quently caught along with sprats. In appearance it 

is not unlike a snail without its shell. 

46. The Vulture is the dead body's enemy. At The Vulture 
any rate it swoops upon it as though it were an adver- 
sary and devours it, and watches a man who is in 

the throes of death. Vultures even follow in the 
wake of armies in foreign parts, knowing by prophetic 
instinct that they are marching to war and that every 
battle provides corpses, as they have discovered. 

It is said that no male Vulture is ever born: alUH Vutees 
Vultures are female. And the birds knowing this 
and fearing to be left childless, take measures to pro- 
duce them as follows. They fly against the south 
wind. If however the wind is not from the south, 
they open their beaks to the east wind, and the in- 
rush of air impregnates them, and their period of 
gestation lasts for three years. But the Vulture is 
said never to make a nest. The Aegypius a however, to , 
which is on the border-line between the vulture and 
the eagle, is both male and female, and is black in 
Perhaps the Lammergeier. 



yvira. tovs alyviriovs, iv fieOoploj yvnoov 
ovras Kal aer&v, etvat Kal dppevas Kal ttjv ypoav 
TT€<f>VKivai fiiXavas. /cat tovtcov pukv aKovu) /cat 
veoTTta? hetKwadai' yvrras Se fxrj (La tIkt€W 


yeveas KaraTTrepol elai, Kal rovro rjKOVcra, 

47. 'Iktlvos is apTrayrjv a<f>eiMoraros . oiBe 1 
tcov fj,ev i£ dyopds iiiTroXiqBivTOJV KpeaSlwv idv 
yivwvrai KpeiTTovs, riprraaav TrpoaTTecrovres , rwv 
8e €K rrjs rod Ato? lepovpylas ovk dv TTpoa&ifsawro . 

' H cSe opeios apirr) tcov opvLQoov Trpocrreaovaa 
tovs 6cj)6aA{jLOvs a^aprrd^ei,. 

48. K.6paK€s AiyvTTTLOi, octol rco NetAaj rrapa- 
StatTtovrat, 2 rdV TrXeovrwv ra irpCora iotKaow 
t/cerat etvaiy Xafieiv ti atrovvres* /cat Xafiovres 
fjcev rjcvxa^ovow, arvxtfcravres Be &v rp-ovv 
crvjjLTrirovTai, Kal iavrovs KaSlaavres em to Kepas 
rfjs vecbs tcov ayotvuyv iaOlovaL re Kal BiarifJivovcrt 
ra afjufiara. Aleves Be KopaKes, orav ot avdpoorroi 
cf>6pa> Biifiovs vBpevadp,evoi 7rXf]pooaco(n rd dyyela 
vSaros, Kal Kara tcov reycbv divres idacoai ra> 
dipi to vBcop <f>vXdTT€iv darjTTTOv, ivTavOa is 
ocrov fiev avToXs ra pdfJL<f>7] Kareiaw iyKVTTTOVTes, 
XpcovTai tw 7TOTW- otov Be VTToXtf^r), ifrrjfovs 
KopuLt,ovai Kal tw oro/mrt Kal tols ow£;i, Kal 
ifjifidXXovarw is top Kipapuov Kal at fiev €K tov 
fidpovs wSovvTat Kal v<f>i£dvovai, to ye firjy vBoop 
OXifiofjievov dvarrXei. Kal irlvovaiv ed pAXa ev- 


1 otSe el Seot. 

ON ANIMALS, it 46-48 

colour, and I am told that their nests are pointed out. 
But I have been informed" that Vultures do not lay 
eggs, but that in their birth-pangs they produce 
chicks, and that these are feathered from birth I have 
also heard. 

47. There is no limit to the robberies of the Kite. The Kite 
If they can manage pieces of meat on sale in the 
market, they pounce upon them and carry them off; 

on the other hand they will not touch sacrifices 
offered to Zeus. But the Mountain Kite* pounces 
upon birds and pecks out their eyes. 

48. The Ravens in Egypt which live beside the 
Nile at first appear to be begging of the people sailing 
on the river, soliciting to be given something. And 
if they are given, they stop begging ; but if their 
solicitations fail, they fly in a mass and perch on the 
sailyards of the ship and proceed to eat the ropes and 
to cut the cords. 

But the Ravens of Libya, when men through fear ^Li^ya en 
of thirst draw water and fill their vessels and place 
them on the roof so that the fresh air may keep the 
water from putrefying, the Ravens, I say, help 
themselves to drink by bending over and inserting 
their beaks as far as they will go. And when the 
water gets too low they gather pebbles in their 
mouth and claws and drop them into the earthen- 
ware vessel. Now the pebbles are borne down by 
their weight and sink, while the water owing to their 
pressure rises. So the Ravens by a most ingenious 

« See 1. 35 a. 

2 7rppoht,aLTa>VTaL t -hiatpovvrai. 



fjLTjxdvcos ol KopaKes, elBores <f>vaei rwi aTropprfrq) 
Bvo crwfiara \iiav x^pcw fw? BexecrOai. 

49. Aeyeo *ApurTOT€\r]$ etSeVat rovs KopaKas 
Sia<f>opdv yrjs evBalfJiovos re /cat XvTTpds, Kal ev 
fiev rfj 7Tap,<j>6pcp re Kal 7roXv<f>6pw Kara re dyeXas 
Kal TrXrjOrj ^epeadai, ev Be rfj dyovcp Kal arepi^rj 
Kara Bvo. rovs ye p/rjv veorrovs rovs eKrpa<f>ev- 
ras 1 rrj$ eavrcov eKaaros KaXcds <f>vydBas a7ro<f>al- 
vovaw virep orov (avrol iavrotsy 2 rpo<frr)v 
p,aarevovai y Kal rovs yeivap,evovs a<j>ds fur) 

50. 'Yirovvgavres I6v d^taatv IxOvcov KO)fii6s 
Kal BpaKcov Kal ^eAtSa^, ov firjv is Odvarov -q 
rpvycbv Be dtxoKrelvei irapaxpf}p>& rep Kevrpq). 
Kal Xeyei ye AecovlBrjs 6 BvCdvnos lyQvow <t>vcrea)s 
re Kal KptorecDS aVetpov dvOpcorrov aprraaavra €K 
BiKrvov rpvyova [&ero Be dpa 6 Bvcrrvx^s iprjrrav 
etvat) (f>epovra* emKoXmov epL^aXeiv Kal j&x8tfetv, 5 
a>S rt dyaOov evpovra Kal is epbTToXrjV KepBaXeov 
eavrcp 6 aprrayiia. rf Be dpa rjXyrjcre me£op,evr}, 
Kal 7ratet rd) Kevrpo) rretpaoa, 7 Kal e^e\ee T °v 
ovarvxovs KAeirrov ra oirAayxvO'- /cat e/cetro 7rapa 
rfj rpvyovi veKpos 6 <f>a>p, ivapyfjs eXeyxos &v 
ovk elBcos eBpaarev. 

51. '0 Kopag, ovk dv avrov e$ roXfxav dOvfiore- 
pov elirois rd>v derwv, Sfxoae yap /cat avros rocs 

1 €KTpa<f>epTas duo/covert, /eat. 

2 <ovrot eavTot$y add. Schn. 3 €KTp4(f>ovaw. 

4 (f>€povra <hs etx^v, 5 jSaSt^etv tva XaOr). 


ON ANIMALS, II. 48-51 

contrivance get their drink; they know by some 
mysterious instinct that one space will not contain 
two bodies. 

49. Aristotle asserts [HA 618 b 11] that Ravens TheEayen 
know the difference between a prosperous and a 
barren country, and in one that produces all things in 
plenty they move about in flocks and great numbers, 

but in a barren and unfruitful country in pairs. As 
to their young ones, when fully grown, every Raven 
banishes them from its nest. For that reason they 
seek their food <for themselves) and neglect to care 
for their parents. 

50. Among fishes the Goby, the Weever, and the 
Flying Gurnard emit poison when they prick one; 
not that they are deadly; whereas the Sting-ray 
with its barb kills on the spot. And Leonidas of 
Byzantium tells how a man who knew nothing of 

fishes and could not distinguish them, stole a Sting- A sting-ray 
ray from a fishing-net— the poor fellow must have 
taken it for a flounder — , took it and put it in his 
bosom and walked off as though he had found some- 
thing good, some spoil whose sale would be profitable 
to him. But the Sting-ray hurt by the pressure, 
struck and pierced him with its sting, causing the 
wretched thief's bowels to gush out. And there the 
thief lay dead beside the Sting-ray, clear evidence 
of what he had done in his ignorance. 

51. Of the Raven you might say that it has a spirit g^gj* 
no less daring than the eagle, for it even attacks 

9 iavrcp «?X€iv. 

7 Sietpaca. 



Cwots xiopet, ov fievrot, rots f$paxvTaTOt,s ) <iAA* 
ova) re Kal ravpw' KaQtyral re yap Kara rwv 
revovrcov Kal KOirrei avrovs, ttoXXcov Be Kal 
(rovs*) 1 6<f>6a\fjLov$ e^eKoxjsev 6 Kopa£. fxdxerat 
Be kcu opvidi la-^vpw, to* KaXovfievq) aladXajvc 
Kal orav dedarjrai aXajTreKL pLa^ofievou, Tt/xtopetrat* 
irpos yap eKeivrjv e^ei nvd <f>iXiav. r\v Be apa 
opvidcov TroXvKXayyoraros re /cat 7roXv<j>cov6raros' 
fiaOcbv yap Kal dv6pa)7rlvrjv Trpotiqoi <f>a>vrjv. 
<j>6eyfj,a Be avrov Trat^ovros fiev aXXo, OTrovBd£,ovTOS 
Be erepov el Be V7TOKplvoiro rd €K twv Oewv, 
lepov ivravOa Kal fiavriKOV (f>6iyyerai t 'loam Be 
Bid rov Oipovs evoxXovfxevot, pvaet yaarpos, Kal 
Bed ravra eavrovs vypas rpo<f>f\s dyevarovs 
<f>vXdrrovaLV . 

52, Aeyet Be s ApiaroreXr)5 rcov ^coo>v rd /xe> 
^woTOKa etvai, rd Be (La T r iKTew s ra Be crKojXrjKas' 
Kal £aia fiev dvQpamovs yevvav Kal rd Aot7ra ooa 
TotvcDv eariv eTrnfioXa, Kal rd KTirtoBTj rcov 
evvopcov tovtcov oe ra puev avAov y ppay%ia oe 
ovk k'xew, olov BeX<f>iva Kal cfxxXXatvav . 

53. Mvaols dyovaiv d^Orj j36e$, Kal Kepdrojv 
dfioLpol eiai. Xeyoj Be rrjv dyeXrjv aKepcov 6pao~ 
Sat 2 ovKert Bid Kpvos, aXXd rwv fiocbv rcbvBe 
IBta (f>v(jei, z Kal to fiaprvpiov Trapd ttoBcls' 
ylvovrai yap Kal iv TtKvdaLs Kepdrwv 4 ovk dyepa- 

1 <tovs> add. E. 

2 X4y<o . . . opaadai'] Xeyovrai ... opdv. 

3 Reishe : IBta <j>vm$> 


ON ANIMALS, II. 51-53 

animals, and not the smallest either, but asses and 
bulls. It settles on their neck and pecks them, and 
in many cases it actually gouges out their eyes. And 
it fights with that vigorous bird the merlin, and when- 
ever it sees it fighting with a fox, it comes to the fox's 
rescue, for it is on friendly terms with the animal. 

The Raven must really be the most clamorous of its various 
birds and have the largest variety of tones, for it can tones 
be taught to speak like a human being. For playful 
moods it has one voice, for serious moods another, and 
if it is delivering answers from the gods, then its voice 
assumes a devout and prophetic tone. 

Ravens know that in summer they suffer from its diet 
looseness of the bowels ; for that reason they are 
careful to abstain from moist food. 

52. Aristotle tells us [HA 489 b 1] that some ani- J^ a a ™ 3 
mals are viviparous, others oviparous, that others amma s 
again produce grubs. The viviparous are man and 

all other creatures that have hair, and among marine 
animals the cetaceans. And of these some have a 
blow-hole but no gills, like the dolphin and the 

53. In Moesia * the Oxen draw loads and are horn- Horn] ess 
less. And I maintain that it is not due to the cold Moesia 
that herds are to be seen without horns, but that it 

is due to the peculiar nature of the Oxen. And the 
proof is to hand, for even in Scythia there are oxen 

a Moesia (Gk. Mvota), bounded on the N by the Danube, 
on the S by the Balkan mts, corresponded (roughly speaking) 
to the northern half of the modern Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. 

Eeiske : Kepdrcnv h> X. 


or 01 jSoes". iyo) Be aKovco XeyovTos twos iv avy- 
ypa(f>fj Kal fieXlrras HiKvOlBas etvai, iTrateiv re rov 
Kpvovs ovBe <=v y Kal fievroi kol TrvrtpaoKew is 
M.vgovs KoixL^ovras IlkvOcls ovk oBveiov o<f>t,cnv 
aAAa avuvyeves fteAi /cat Krjpia €77t^;cu/>ta. ei oe 
ivavrla e H/>o8oYa) Xeyoo, p,!) ftoi d^OeoOa)' 6 yap 
ravra 1 eliriov laropiav aTToBeiKvvaBai aAA' ovk 
aKoijv qBew €</>aro rjfuv afiacrdviGTOv . 

54. Ta)v OaXarrtcov irvvBdvopLai \iovov rov ovea- 
pov rfjv rpo(f>rjv dvairXiovaav hrzodUiv , wanep 
odv Kal ra ^Xrj^rjrd, a Br) Kal fxapvKaaOai Xeyovaw. 

55. *0 yaXeos wBlvet Bva rov arofiaros iv rfj 
9aXdrrrj y irdXw re ioBix^rat ra fipifaq, Kal 
dvepbeZ rats avrats SBols t.wvra Kal aTraBrj. 

56. Mvos rjwap Kal ftdXa €kttXt]ktiku>s re Kal 
wapaB6£a>$ ttj$ p,kv aeXtfvrjs av£avop,evrjs Xofiov 
iavTw rtva €ttitikt€l 6ar)p,€pat fiixP 1 Bcxopuqvov 
etra ad trdXiv vtroXyyet, pueiovpiivov rov purjvos rov 
laov Xoyov, 2 ear 3 av is 4 atopta KaroXlcrBrj dvel- 
Beov. olkovw Be iv rfj ®7]/3atBi ^aAaf^? TTecrovorjs 
irrl rrjs yr}$ opdaBah puvas, Sv to p,ev 7rqX6s 
ecr iv en, to oe aapg 17077. eya) oe avros €K ttjs 
'IraXiKTjs Necis TroXews iXavvwv is At/cata/>^tav 
vodrjv parpdxoos, Kal to p,£v puipos avrcov to vrpos 
rfj Ke</>aXfj etprre, Kal Bvo iroBes r\yov avro, to Be 

1 Schn : roiavra. 2 Beishe : AojSoV. 

3 v7ra<f>avC^ov ear'. 4 els ev. 

a The original Greek name of Puteoli. 


ON ANIMALS, II. 53-56 

not destitute of the glory of horns. And I have 
learnt from one who records the fact in his history 
that there are even Bees in Scythia and that they do geaato 
not mind the cold at all. And what is more, the 78 
Scythians bring and sell to the Moesians honey, 
which is no alien produce but native, and honey- 
combs of their own country. 

If I contradict Herodotus [5. 10], I hope he will not 
be angry with me, for the man who reported these 
things vowed that he was presenting the results of 
his own enquiry and not merely repeating what he 
had heard and what we could not verify. 

54. I learn that of saltwater fishes the Parrot fg^f** 
Wrasse alone regurgitates its food and eats it after- 
wards, as sheep do, which are said to chew the cud. 

55. The Shark brings forth its young through its ^f* ark 
mouth in the sea and takes them back again and then young 
disgorges them by the same channel alive and 

56. The liver of the Mouse has the most astound- The Mouse 
ing and unexpected habit of growing a lobe day by aadlt3hver 
day as the moon waxes, up to the middle of the 
month. Then again in proportion as the month 
declines, so the lobe gradually dwindles until it loses 

its shape and disappears into the body. 

And I am told that when it hails in the Thebaid, Asbowarof 
mice are to be seen on the earth, and one part of 
them is still mud while the other is already flesh. 
And I myself on a journey from Naples to 
Dicaearchia encountered a shower of frogs, and the of frogs 
forepart of them was crawling, supported by two feet, 



iTteavpero en airXaorov, Kal iwKei €K twos vXys 
vypds ovv€OT(OTi. 

57. To rwv fioaiv apa irdyxp^rov rjv yivos 1 
Kal is yecopytas Kowcovlav Kal is dyojyrjv <j>6prov 
8ca<f>6pov. Kal yavXovs 2 ifjurXTjcrat fiovs dyaOos 
iariy Kal j3a>[JL0V$ KoafjueL, Kal dydXXet TTavTjyvpeis, 
Kal iravQoiviav Trapiyti. Kal amoOavibv 8e /3ovs 
yevvaiov rc ^p^/xa Kal a^teVacvov. /xeAtrrat yovv 
€K rcov iKelvov X<ei\fsdva>v €K(j)vovraL } £coov faXepyo- 
rarov Kal tojv Kapirwv rov dpiarov re Kal yXvKiarov 
iv dvdpa>7roLS trapacrK€vd£ov s to fiiXi. 

1 yivos Kal avdpwnois £aW AucireAeararov. 

2 ReisJce : ydXaKros 


ON ANIMALS, II. 56-57 

while the other part trailed behind, still formless, 
seeming to consist of some moist substance. 

57. Oxen are after all the most serviceable crea- g e ge °^ d 
tures. At sharing the farmer's labours, at carrying t S 1CeS 
loads of various kinds, at filling the milk-pail — at all 
these things the Ox is excellent. He graces the 
altars, gladdens festivals, and provides a solemn 
banquet. And even when dead the Ox is a splendid 
creature deserving our praise. At any rate bees are 
begotten of his carcase — bees, the most industrious of 
creatures, which afford the best and sweetest of fruits 
that man has, namely honey. 




1. Mavpovatcp Be dvBpl 6 Xecav Kal oBov 
Kowajvei Kal Trivet rrjs avrrjs Trrjyrjs vBcop. olkovo) 
Be on Kal is rds olKias rwv Mavpovalcov ol 
Xeovres <f>oiTcb<jw } orav avrots aTTavrnqar} dO^pla 
Kal Xtp,6$ avrovs lcr)(vp6$ 7repiXdpr]. Kal idv fxev 
Trapfj (Sy 1 dvrjp, dveipyei rov Xeovra Kal dvaareX- 
Xei BuLkow dvd Kpdros* idv Be 6 p,ev 07777, fiovrj 
Be 7} yvvrj KaraXeKfydiji Xoyots avrov ivrpeirTiKois 
lo^ei rod irpocra) Kal pvOpblCei, craxf>povl£ovcra 
eavrov Kpareiv Kal fir) <j>Xeyp,aivew vtto rov Xipiov. 
iiraiei Be dpa Xeojv <f)a)vr}s Mavpovcrlas, Kal 6 
vovs ri]s iiriTrXri^euys rij yvvatKi rijs rrpos to 
Orjplov rotoaBe iarlv y <b$ iKetvoc Xeyovac ( av Be 
ovk atBfj Xecov cov 6 raiv £<pa)V paaiXevs errl rrjv 
ifjurjv KaXvftrjv ld)V } Kal yvvaiKO$ Beopuevos tva rpa- 
<f>fj$ 3 Kal Blkyjv dvdpdmov XeXa)/3r}pLevov to acbpua 
is -)(eipas yvvaiKeias diropXeTrevs y tva o'Ikto) Kal 
eXeco TvxjjS' Sv Berj ; ov 2 Beov is opeiovs opp/rjaat 
Btarpifids iiri re eXd<f)OVs Kal fiovfiaXlBas Kal rd 
Xonrd oaa Xeovrcov BecTrvov evBo^ov. kvviBlov Be 
dOXlov <f>vcr€L 3 aya7ras* Traparpa^rivai? Kal r) 
puev eiraBet rot-aura, 6 Be watrep odv irXr^yels rrjv 
ifwxqv Kal V7T07rXr]Gdels alBovs ^VXV Kai K< ^ r(J ° 
ftXerrcov aTTaXXdrreratj rjrrrjSels ra>v BiKatayv. el 
Be L7T7TOL Kal Kvves Bid rrjv avvTpo<f>iav aTTeiXovvrajv 
1 <d> add. Jac. 2 ov del, Cobet, 3 j>va€i irpoaeoLK&s- 


1. A Lion will accompany a Moor on his journey 
and will drink water from the same spring. And I 
am told that Lions even resort to the houses of 
Moors when they fail to find any prey and are over- 
taken by the pangs of hunger. And if the master of 
the house happens to be there, he keeps the Lion off 
and drives him away, pursuing him vigorously. If 
however he is out and his wife is left all alone, then 
with words that put the Lion to shame she checks his 
approach, restrains him, and admonishes him to con- 
trol himself and not to allow his hunger to incense 
him. The Lion, it seems, understands the Moorish 
tongue; and the sense of the rebuke which the 
woman administers to the animal is (so they say) as 
follows. * Are not you ashamed, you, a Lion, the 
king of beasts, to come to my hut and to ask a woman 
to feed you, and do you, like some cripple, look to a 
woman's hands hoping that thanks to her pity and 
compassion you may get what you want ? — You who 
should be on your way to mountain haunts in pursuit 
of deer and antelopes and all other creatures that 
lions may eat without discredit. Whereas, like some 
sorry lap-dog, you are content to be fed by another.' 
Such are the spells she employs, whereupon the Lion, 
as though his heart smote him and he were filled 
with shame, quietly and with downcast eyes moves 
off, overcome by the justice of her words. 

Now if horses and hounds through being reared in 



avdpdynoyv ovvidai Kal KaraTrrrjaoovat, Kal Mau- 
povalovs ovk av OavpLacraifu Xeovroyv ovras 
ovvTpo<f>ovs Kal 6{jLOTp6<f>ovs avrols vrr* avrcov 
€K€tva)v aKovecdat. rots ydp rot fipe<f>€GL rots 
iavrcov fjbaprvpovGLV ore rovs oKvpuvovs rcov 
Xeovrwv ryjs tcrrjs re Kal opbolas Stamj? d^touat 
Kal koItt}s fitds Kal oreyrjs* Kal eK rovrwv Kal 
(fxovqs rijs 7TpoeiprjpLevr]s aKOveiv rovs Orjpas, ovhev 
ovre dmarov ovre 7rapdho£ov. 

2. "Ittttov he rrjs Aipvoorjs irepi Aifivwv Xeyov- 
ro)V &Kova) roiavra. wKiaroi puev eioiv vrrTtayv, 
Ka\idrov he 7] 1 ti alorddvovrat 2 <?}> 3 ovhe ev. 
Xerrrol he Kal ovk evaapKOL, emrijheiol ye px)v 
Kal $epew oXtycoplav heorrorov eluiv. ovre yovv 
avrols KOfJL&rjv iTpoo<f>i.povcrw ol heairorai, ov 
Karai/fcovTes* ov KaXwhrjOpav epyaadpuevoi, oz>x 
orrXds CKKaOatpovres , ov fco/xay Krevi^ovres, ov 
Xairas VTroirXeKovres > ov Xovovres Kapb6vras 9 aXXa 
ajita re hirjwaav rov f rrpoKeip,evov hpopuov, Kal 
arrofiavTes vepueodai laoi. Kal Xeirrol fxev Kal 
avxfJ^coSeis ol Atfives, eirl roiovrojv he Kal tmratv 
oxovvrat. aofiapol he. MrjSot Kal dfipoC, Kal 
puivroi Kal ol eKewaiv 5 lttitol. cjialrjs av avrovs 
rpv<f>av avv rots hecrrrorats Kal rep p,eye6ei rod 
uwpuaTOS Kal rw KaXXet, 07877 he Kal rfj x^V Ka ^ 
rfj BepameLa rfj e£a>6ev. G ravrd rot /cat itepi rcov 
kwcov erreiai voetv pboi. kvcov Ys.prjuaa Kov<f>7] Kal 
aXriKrj Kal dpeifiaviais avvrpo(f>o$' /cat p.ivroi 

1 Beiske : 817. 2 Schn : ataBovraL. 

3 <ij> add. Beiske. 4 Karaifsaivres Kajiovras. 

6 €K€Lv<av roLovroi. 



their company understand and quail before the 
threats of men, I should not be surprised if Moors 
too, who are reared and brought up along with Lions, 
are understood by these very animals. For the 
Moors profess to treat lion-cubs to the same kind of 
food, the same bed, and the same roof as their own 
children. Consequently there is nothing incredible 
or marvellous in Lions understanding human speech 
as described above. 

% Concerning the Libyan Horse this is what I have The Horses 
learnt from accounts given by the Libyans. These of Llbya 
Horses are exceedingly swift and know little or noth- 
ing of fatigue ; they are slim and not well-fleshed but 
are fitted to endure the scanty attention paid to them 
by their masters. At any rate the masters devote 
no care to them : they neither rub them down nor 
roll them nor clean their hooves nor comb their 
manes nor plait their forelocks nor wash them when 
tired, but as soon as they have completed the journey 
they intended they dismount and turn the Horses 
loose to graze. Moreover the Libyans themselves 
are slim and dirty, like the Horses which they ride. 
The Persians on the other hand are proud and deli- of Persia 
cate, and what is more, their Horses are like them. 
One would say that both horse and master prided 
themselves on the size and beauty of their bodies and 
even on their finery and outward adornment. 

And here is a point which occurs to me to note in Hound^of 
connexion with Hounds. The Cretan Hound IS countries 
nimble and can leap and is brought up to range the 

6 e£cu0€v Kal rfj Bpviftei eot/cacrtv ataOavofitvoLs peyedovs t€ tou 
a<f>€repov Kal /caAAous Kal on xAtStDat tw KOGfia). 


VOL. I. G 


Kal avrol Kp^re? roiovrovs avrovs TrapahetKvvaac, 1 
Kal aoetrj ^rf^rj. dvpnK<hraros oe kvvwv MoAoct- 
Gos/iird Ovficobeararot Kal ol dvSpes. dvrjp Se 
Kapjuavto? Kal kvcov dpu^orepot dypioyrdroi Kal 
fxeiXixdrjvai dreyKrw y 2 <f>acriv. 

3. "ISia Se apa $vaews £oW /cat Tai?Ta 

& ovre dypiov ovre -fjp,epov iv 'IvSots ylveaOat 3 
Aeyet K-nyoxW, Trpofiara Se ra iKelvtov ovpds 

4. 0£ p,VplJL?)K€S OL IvStKol <Ot> 4 TOV XP^ "^ 

<f>vXdrrovre$ ovk dv hiiXdoiev rov KaXovpevov 
YLapwrvXwov tcoTapLOv . 'Iacr^Sove? rovrois ovvoi- 
kovvt€s 5 rot? fAvptirjgt, . . . 6 KaXovvraC re Kal 

5. <Dayo£jcra o<f>ews x € ^ v l KaL e7rtTpayo£>cra 
dpiydvov igdvTTjs ylverai rod KaKOV, o irdvrais 
avrrjv 7 dveXelv epueXAev. 

Hepiarepdv Se dpvLOcov aax^poveardrrjv Kal K€- 
KoXao-jxiv7]V is dcf>poBtrr]v pbaXiora aKOva) Xeyov- 
rojv ov ydp irore aAA^Acov hiaGTTwvrai, ovre rj 
drjXeia, idv p,rj d<j>aipedfj rv^Q rLV " L rov * vvvvop,ov, 
ovre 6 dpprjv, idv 8 prj XVP 05 ye'i^rai. 

HepdtKes Se aKpdropis elow d^pohtrqs- ovkovv 
ra <ha rd yewdi\ieva d<j>aviCovGw , ha p^ aywcrw 

2 Schn : aypicoraroL . . . arey/cra. 

3 Schn : y€V€u6ai. 

4 <ot> add. Jac. 

5 avvocKovvres ye. 

6 Lacuna. 



mountains. Moreover the Cretans show the same 
qualities, such is the common report. Among 
Hounds the Molossian is the most high-spirited, for 
the men also of Molossia are hot-tempered. In 
Carniania too both men and Hounds are said to be 
most savage and implacable. 

3. The following also are examples of the peculiari- indi% ^ 
ties of animal nature. Ctesias reports that neither pi J 
the wild nor the domestic Pig exists in India, and he 
says somewhere that Indian Sheep have tails one its sheep 
cubit in width. 

L The Ants of India which guard the gold will not The Ants of 
cross the river Campylinus. And the Issedonians 6 Ihdia 
who inhabit the same country as the Ants . . . they 
are called, and so they are. 

5. If a Tortoise eats part of a snake and thereafter Marjoram, 

. , 1 n , -1 antidote to 

some marjoram, it becomes immune Irom tne poison snake poison 
which was bound to be quite fatal to it. 

I have heard people say that the Pigeon is of all'^^ OT » 
birds the most temperate and restrained in its sexual nence 
relations. For Pigeons never separate, neither the 
female bird unless by some mishap she is parted from 
her mate, nor the male unless he is widowed. 

Partridges on the other hand are unrestrained in The _ 
their indulgence. For that reason they destroy the iteineonti- 
eggs that have been laid, in order that the female nence 

Not identified. . 

1 The Issedonians appear to have inhabited a region to the 
NE of the Caspian Sea. 

7 avrrjv £k Tijs Tpo<fyr}s* 



at OrjXeiai 7raiBorpO(f>ovaat rrjs Trpos avrovs 
SfiiXtas aff%oAtW, 

6. Avkoi 7Tora^6v Biaveovres, vrrep rov /x-77 Trpos 
f$Lav £k rrjs rov pevpuaros ifi^oXijs dvarperreaOat 
epfia IBtov avrois rj (f>vcrt$ avp^trXdaaaa iBcBd^aro 
aojrrjplav drropoyv /cat p,aAa evrropov. rd$ 
ovpds ra$ dAA^Acov ivSaKovres, etra avrnrunTOVGi 
tco pevfian, Kal dXvTrcos 1 Stevrjgavro koI do*<f>aXa)s. 

7. "Ovois drjXelais f3pa>}jL7}<jw r) <f>vats ovk 
evevpue, (£aat. Kvvas Be d<j>covov$ ditofyalveiv rats 
valvals 2 rj avrrj rrapeayev. 'etWSta Be Kal puvpov 
yvi/jiv aZrta Oavdrov. kvkvcov Be Kwveiov oXeQpos* 
Kap/qXov Be a>$ BeBowev Ittttos eyvoy Kvpos re /cat 
Kpoiaos, <%>s </>aaw. 

8. Td fipe<j>r} ra rwv lttttcov orav at fjbrjrepes 
KaraXc7TO)(n rrpo rrjs eKelvaw iKOpiiffecos otov 
6p<j>avd, €KTpe<f>ov<ji fjuerd r&v oIkgIcov naiBLayv 
olKTeipovaai at aAAat aura. 

9. KopcDvat dAA^Aats elal mar6rarai y /cat orav 
is Kowcovlav vvveXdaxji) nrdw o(f>6Spa dyarrcocn 
a<j>as } Kal ovk dv IBol tis puyvvpieva ravra rd 
dveBrjv Kal cos krvyev. Xeyovcri Be ot ra vrrep 
tovtcov aKpifiovvres on dv 3 drroOdvr} to erepov, 
to Aot7rov yripeveL. aKovw Be rovs TrdXai Kal ev 
Tot? yapbOLS fiera rov vp,evaiov Tiqv Kopwvrjv 

1 aXvTTtos ye MSS, d. re JReiske. 

2 ras vaivas orav avrals rrjv cr/aav emftakr). 

3 KOV* 



birds may not be too busy with nursing their chicks 
to have time for sexual intercourse. 

6. When Wolves swim across a river Nature has Wolves 
devised for them an original safeguard to prevent cross a riTer 
them from being forcibly carried away by the impact 

of the stream and has taught them how to escape 
from difficulties, and that with ease. Fastening their 
teeth in one another's tails they then breast the 
stream and swim across without harm or danger. 

7. It is said that Nature has not bestowed the Autoai anti- 
power of braying upon she-Asses. Nature too has pa 65 
enabled Hyenas to stop hounds from barking. The 
fragrance of perfumes causes death to Vultures; 
hemlock is the bane of Swans ; Cyrus and Croesus 
learned how Horses dread camels, so the story 


8. When Mares desert their foals and leave them, Mares and 
like orphans, before they are fully weaned/ other foal3 
Mares take compassion on them and bring them up 

with their own foals. 

9. Crows are exceedingly faithful to each other, The oow 
and when they enter into partnership they love one fidelity 3uS& 
another intensely, and you would never see these 
creatures indulging freely in promiscuous intercourse. 

And those who are accurately informed about them 
assert that if one dies, the other remains in widow- 
hood. I have heard too that men of old used actually, 
at weddings to sing * the Crow ' after the bridal 

Cp. Qarm. pop. 31 (BieM, Anth. lyr. Or.) and L-S 9 s.v. 



aoW, 1 avvB^pua opuovoias rovro rots ovviovaiv 
iirl 2 iraihoiroda StSoVras. oi he 3 ehpas dpvCBcov 
Kal TTTrjoeis Trapa<f>vXdrrovres ovk evovp,/3oXov 4 
OTTvLovaiv 5 etval c/>aaiv vrraKovaat, Kopcovrjs /xia?. 6 
irrel Be rj yXav£ iarw avrfj iroXepbiov, Kal vvKrojp 
imfiovXevet, rots (Lois tt}s Kopcovrjs, rj Be pbeB* 
77/xepav £k€ivt]v ravro Spa rovro, elBvta exew rrjv 
oifjw rrjviKavra rrjv yXavKa doBevij. 

10. 'E^t^w rov -^paatov ovk dao<f>ov ovS* 
dpaBfj ra/xtetas* tt}s is rrjv XP^ av V ^vais iTroCqcrev. 
irrel ydp Setrat rpoc/yrjs Bcer^aLov, rd Be cbpata ov 
naaa a>pa BlBcoaiv, eavrov ev rats rpaaiats kvXUi? 
c^acrc, Kal ra>v laxdBwv rds rrepirrapeLaas 3 at 
7roAAat e\xmr\ywvrai 8 rats' aKavBais, r}crv)(7j KOfil^ec 
Kal dTTodrjaavptaas <j>vXdrret, Kal e^ei Xafietv gk 
rov (fxjoXeov, ore rropluai ovx otov re etjtoOev eanv. 

11. "HS17 fievroL 9 Kal rwv ^tpuw rd dypiwrara 
rrpos rd ovfjcrai, Svvdpieva elpTjvata kal €VG7TOv8d 
ian, rfjs av[x<l>vovs KaKias is rrjv XP^ av ^apaAu- 
Bevra. 6 yovv KpOKoBiXos vr\yeral re dpca Kal 
Kiypprev, ipm'vnrovow odv at jSSeAAat is avrdv 
Kal Xvirovoiv. oirep elBcos larpov Setrat rod 
rpox^Xov rrXrip-qs ydp avrwv yevop,evos, irrl rrjv 
oxBrpr TTpoeXBoiv Kara rrjs aKrtvos Kexqvev. 6 
roiwv rpox^Xos ipufiaXwv ro pdp,<f>os i£dyei rds 
7Tpoeipr]p,evas 9 Kaprepet Be axfreXovpLevos d KpoKoBc- 

1 KoXetv. 2 em 77/. 3 t€. 

4 evotipfioXov els jiavrelav. 

*■ Pierson : orrevovow mss and E t who regards xmaKovaat as 



song by way of pledging those who came together 
for the begetting of children to be of one mind. 
While those who observe the quarters from which 
birds come and their flight, declare that to hear a 
single Crow is an evil omen at a wedding. Since the 
Owl is an enemy of the Crow and at night has designs Owl and 
upon the Crow's eggs, the Crow by day does the same Grow 
to her, knowing that at that time the Owl's sight is 

10. Nature has made the Hedgehog prudent and The 
experienced in providing for its own wants. Thus, e ge ° g 
since it needs food to last a whole year, and since 
every season does not yield produce, it rolls among 
fig-crates (they say), and such dried figs as are pierced 

— a great number become fixed upon its prickles — it 
quietly removes, and after laying up a store, keeps 
them and can draw from its nest when it is impossible 
to obtain food out of doors. 

11. It is a fact that the fiercest of animals will, ^ o e codile 
when the need arises, lay aside their natural savagery rocodlle 
and be peaceful and gently disposed towards those 

that can be of service to them. For instance, the 
Crocodile swims with its jaws open; accordingly 
leeches fall into them and cause it pain. Knowing 
this it needs the Egyptian Plover as doctor. For and the 
when it is infested with leeches, it moves to the bank pf^r ian 
and opens its jaws to face the sun. Whereupon the 
Egyptian Plover inserts its beak and draws out the 
aforesaid creatures, while the Crocodile endures this 

Oow : KopwvTj fi(a mss, H. 7 Eeishe : kvXUw. 

TrrjywvraL. 9 fJt,4v. 



Xos Kal drpefiet. Kal 6 fxev e X ei Belirvov rds 
fiWXXas, 6 Be avivarai, Kal ro fi-qSh dBiKrjvai rov 
rpox^ov Xoy liberal ol p,ia9ov. 

12. Ko\oioi>s Be evepyeras vo^ovvi Kal 0eT- 
raXol Kal 'IXXvpiol teal A^vtot, /cat Brjfioalas ye 
avrois rpo<f>a$ e^fWm, 1 eirel r&v aKplBcov, at 
Xvpiaivovrai 2 rovs Kaprtovs ro%s rrpoeLpn] pivots, ra 
wa dfavi&voi re ol koXoioI /cat Bia<f>6elpovai ry 
eirtyovfjv avrois . fieiovrai Brj Kara ttoXv ra ra>v 
aKplBojv vi<f>7}, Kal rots Trpoeiprjfiivois pivei ra 
wpata dcrivr}. 

13. At yipavoi yLvovrai /xev eV Bpa/qj, rj Be 
Xeip.epiwrarov x^P^ * ar ^ Ka \ ^pv^wBiararov 


yeyovaoi, faXovm Be /cat eavrds, Kal vifxovai to 
p4v rt rot? -rjOeart rots irarpcpots, ro Bi rt rij 
a<f>cov avrwv ucorrjpla. rod fiev yap Oepovs Kara 
X<opav fjbdvovoL, ^OivoTrwpov Be 7]Br) {levovvros^ is 
Myvrrrov re Kal Atj&V dnalpovai /cat^ Aidiomav, 
watrep ovv yrjs rrepioBov elBvtat /cat <f>vaets depcov 
Kal cbptov Sta^opa?. Kal X € W& V0 > VP™™ Sidya- 
yoforat, TTaAt^ orav vrrevSia dpgyai Kal elpt]vala 
rd rov depos, VTroorpefovaiv 077tW. 7Totovvrat^ 
Be rjyepbovas rrjs rrrrjcrea)s ras ^[Si^ rijs 6Bov 
Trerreipapiivas' elev S' dv <hs to eiKos at rrpeofivre- 
pat. Kal ovpayeiv Be ras ryXiKavras diTOKpiyov(n* 
/xeW Be avrwv at viai rerd X arai. <f>vXdgaoai 
Be dvejiov odpov Kal </>lXov u^iat Kal Karomv 
peovra, xptfij&ewu °' L 7ro f t ' 77 ^ Ka * «ra>0o wri is^ro 
vrpocra), elra pbivroi rplycovov ogvydviov to o X W a 


service and remains motionless. So the bird gets a 
feast of leeches, while the Crocodile is benefited and 
reckons the fact that it has not injured it as the bird's 

12. The inhabitants of Thessaly, of Illyria, and of Jhe^ 
Lemnos regard Jackdaws as benefactors and have an ci Locusts 
decreed that they be fed at the public expense, see- 
ing that Jackdaws make away with the eggs and 
destroy the young of the locusts which ruin the crops 

of the aforesaid people. The clouds of locusts are 
in fact considerably reduced and the season's produce 
of these people remains undamaged. 

13. Cranes have their birthplace in Thrace, which Cranes and 
is the most wintry and the coldest region that I know migrations 
of. Well, they love the country of their birth, but 

they love themselves too; so they devote part of 
their time to their ancestral haunts and part to 
their own preservation. In summer they remain 
in their country, but in mid-autumn they leave for 
Egypt, Libya, and Ethiopia, appearing to know the 
map of the earth, the disposition of the winds, and 
the variations of the seasons. And after spend- 
ing a winter like spring, when again conditions 
are becoming tolerably settled and the sky is calm, . 
they return. To lead their flight they appoint those 
that have already had experience of the journey ; 
these would naturally be the older birds, and they 
select others of the same age to bring up the rear, 
while the young ones are ranged in their midst. 
Having waited for a fair and favouring wind from 

1 IfqfyiowTO cwSe at TrdActj. 2 Meishe : iXv^iaivovro. 



rrjs Trrrjoeais wrrofffrjvajcrai, Iva ifimTrrovaat rip 
depi hiaKorrraivw avrov /Sacra, rrjs rropelas 
exovrai. ovrco fxev hrj 9epl£ovcri re teat x^^dCovac 
yepavoi* ao<f>lav he tfyyvrai avQpwrroi 8avfiaarrjv 
rov Uepacov fiaat,Xea>$ is hriarriprqv depa)v 
KpdcrecoSj 1 Eoucra Kal 'Efc^Sarava ahovres Kal ra$ 
hevpo Kal eKeXcre rov Hepaov redpvXrjpuevas fiera- 
f}dvei,s. orav he 7rpoa<f>epop,evov derov ac yepavot 
Oedcrcovrai, yevofxevai KVKXoae 2 Kal KoXrrcocrdfie' 
vat 3 aTreikovaiv <hs dvrtra£6p,evai* 6 he 4 Kpover ai 
to trrepov. dXXrjXoiv he rots wvyalois eirepelhovaat 
rd pdpL<f>7), etra fievrot rpoirov nvd rrjv TTTrjcrw 
avvheovcri, Kal rov KapLarov a<f>cacv evKapuarov 
d'rro$>aLvovGi ) ire^eLapLevws dvaTTavofievat e$ aA- 
XrjXas at avrai. ev he yfj pbrjKiarr) . . . 5 7rrjyr}s 
orav rvxataw, dvartavovrai vvKrcop 6 Kal Ka6ev~ 
hovai, rpets he rj rerrapes irpo(f>vXdrrovat rwv 
XoiTTtov Kal vnep rov pur) Karafcotju-tcrat rrjv <f>vXaK7jv 
iardai p,ev aaKa)Xid£ovaai } rep ye pbrjv pLerecLpw 
nohl XLQov Karexovcrt rots ow^l pudXa eyKparws re 
Kal evXafitbs, Iva edv irore XdOcoavv eavrds es 
vttvov V7ToXio6dvovaai } irecrcov Kal V7TOKrv7r^cras 6 
XtOos aTTohapBdveiv KaravayKaarj . yepavos he 
Xldov ovrrep ovv Karairivei vnep rov exeiv epp^a, 1 
Xpvcrov fidaavos eanv > orav otov oppucrafievT) Kal 
KaraxOetaa 8 etra puevrot, dvepLearj avrov. 

2 Lobech : kvkXos. 

8 Ko\<7T<tioau,€voi uwoetSes to piiaov aTro^iJraoat. 

4 o 06 avax<ap€L /cat. 

5 Lacuna, 

6 vdicroip at Aowrat. 



behind, and using it as an escort to speed them for- 
ward, they then form their order of flight into an 
acute-angled triangle, in order that as they encounter 
the air they may cleave it with the least difficulty, 
and so hold on their way. This then is how Cranes 
spend their summer and winter. (Rut mankind 
regards as marvellous the Persian king's compre- 
hension of temperature, and harps on Susa and 
Ecbatana a and the repeated stories of the Persian's 
jpurneyings to and fro.) When however the Cranes 
observe an eagle bearing down upon them, they form 
a circle and in a bellying mass threaten him with 
attack ; and he retires. Resting their bills upon 
each other's tail-feathers they form in a sense a con- 
tinuous chain of flight, and sweeten their labour h 
as they repose gently one upon another. And in 
some distant land . . . when they light upon some 
water-spring they rest for the night and sleep, while 
three or four mount guard for all the others ; and in 
order to avoid falling asleep during their watch they 
stand on one leg, but with the other held up they 
clutch a stone firmly and securely in their claws. 
Their object is that, if they should inadvertently drop 
off to sleep, the stone should fall and wake them 
with the sound. 

Now the stone which a Crane swallows to give itself 
ballast is a touchstone for gold when regurgitated by 
the Crane after it has, so to say, come to anchor and 
reached land. 

3 Identified with the modern Hamadan ; it lay at the foot 
of mt Orbntes, some 200 miles N of Susa, and was a summer 
residence of the Achaemenid kings. 

6 Eur. Bacc. 66 Kafxarov evKafxarov. 

KaraxOdaa ev8a ^ffcet. 



14. KvfiepvrjTrjs lB<hv eV rreXdyei (xiaco yepdvovs 
vrroorp€(f>ovcras Kal rrjv eyimaXiv Trerofxevas, owet- 
$ev ivavriov TTpoa^oXfj TTvevfiaros eVce/ras aTroorrj- 
rat rov <np6aco* Kal rcov opviojv ojs av ewrot? 
fxadrjTrjs yevofievos 7raXifX7rXovs yX8e, Kal rrjv 
vavv 7T€pi4oa)G€. /cat rovro 7Tpcorov yevofievov 
fjiddrjfxd re Sfiov Kal TraiSevfxa (vrroy 1 rwvSe 
^rcovy 2 opvtdcov rots dv8pd)7TOis 7Tape866rj . 

15. YLepiarepal iv pbkv rats TtoXeai rots dv6 } pd>~ 
rrois ovvayeXdCovrai, /cat etat rrpaorarac, Kal 
elXovvrai Ttepl rots ttooiv, iv Se rots iptffiois 
X<opiois cwroStSpaoTcoucrt, /cat rovs dv9pd>7rovs ov% 
V7rofj,£vovcrt. dappovcri fxev yap rots TrXrjBeoiy Kal 
on firjSev rreloovr ai Si/cr^epes tcaat KaXXiara. 
oirov Se opvidodfjpai, Kal SUrva Kal imftovXal 
kot avrcov, drpeora oIkovoiv ov/cert, Xva €vna> to 
eV avrcov €K€WOiv X&ydkv l&VplTTlSr}. 

16. "Orav fieXXaxxt TripSiKts vrpos to tiktzw 
etrat, TrapacrKevd£ovarw iavrots €K nvcov Kap<f>6bv 
rrjv KaXovpi€V7]v aXco. TrXdyfia Se eWt kolXov Kal 
iyKaOlaai fidXa imrtfSeiov. Kal kqviv iyxdavres, 
Kal fiaXaK'qv nva olovel Kovrqv ipyao*dp,€VOi 9 /cat 
h>§vvT€s, etra iirqXvydoavres iavrois dva)0ev 
Kdp<j>eatv vrrip rov Kal rovs opviBas XaBetv rovs 
dprraKriKovs Kal rcov dvBpojTrcov rovs Brjpeurds 3 
Kara rroXXrjv rrjv elprjvrjv diroriKrovcnv^' etra rd 
cbd ov Tnor&oovoi rfj x^P a r fj a ^ r fj> i^dpa, 

1 <vtto> add. H. 2 <twv> add. Reiske. 

- 3 Beiske : KaraKkivovoiv. 



14. If a pilot observes on the high seas a flock of Cranes give 

, , i • -i warning of 

Cranes turning and flying back, he realises that they storms 
have refrained from advancing further owing to the 
assault of a contrary wind. And taught, as you 
might say, by the birds he sails home again and 
preserves his vessel. So the pilot's art, being a 
lesson and a discipline first acquired by these birds, 
has been handed on to mankind. 

15. In cities Pigeons congregate with human The Pigeon 
beings ; they are extremely tame and swarm about 

one's feet ; but in lonely places they flee away and 
cannot endure human beings. For it is crowds that 
give them courage, and they are well aware that they 
will be unmolested. Where however there are bird- 
catchers, nets, and schemes to take them, ' they 
dwell ' no more ' without fear/ to quote what 
Euripides says [Ion 1198] of those same birds. 

16. When Partridges are about to lay they make g£. rMge 
themselves what is called a ' threshing-floor * (i.e. and its nest 
nest) out of dry twigs. It is plaited, hollow, and well- 
suited for sitting in. They pour in dust and con- 
struct as it were a soft bed; they enter and after 
screening themselves over with dry twigs so as to 

avoid being seen by birds of prey and by human 
hunters, they lay their eggs in complete tranquillity. 
Next, they do not entrust their eggs to the same place 
but to some other, emigrating a as it were, because 
« Cp. Arist. HA 613 b 15. 



OLOV€t fJL€TOLKt,£6{jL€VOL lf $€$olf«XGL yap 2 [LT\ 7TOT€ 

apa <j)copa$cdotv. veorrevovres Be 3 rovs veorrovs 
ovras drraXovs vttoOoXttovul Kal rots eavrcov 
TrrepoZs aXealvovaiVy olovel airapydvois rots tttlXols 
TreptafiTrexovres' ov Xovovoc Be avrovs, dXXd 
Kovlovres ipyd^ovrai cj>aiBporepovs . idv Be rrepBit; 
ZBrj nvd rrpouiovra Kal irri/SovXevovra Kal avrco 
Kal rots ppecfceaw, ivravOa avros p,ev iavrov Trpo 
rcov ttoBcov KvXiei rcov rod Oiqparov Kal evBiScocriv 
iXmBa rov BvvaaQav ovXXafietv elXovpuevov, Kal 6 
p,ev irnKvirrei is Trjv dypav, 6 Be igeXlrrec 
iavrov Kal BtaBtBpdcrKei Kal yiver at irpo 6Bov 
<ra j8pe<£7?>. 4 oirep oftv ovwotfoas 6 7repSt£, 
Bappcoy TjBr] rrjs doxoXtas rrjs fiaraias diraXXdrrei 
rov opvidodrfpav avairrds, Kal id 5 rov dvBpa 
K€x?}v6ra. etra iv dBetq. rj fj/qrrjp yevofxevrj Kal 
iv KaXw orrdoa ra /3pe<f>y] KaXet. ol Be avrfj 
TTpooirerovrai yvcoploavres ro c\>cov*q\ia. nepBit; Be 
cbBtva diToXvew [leXAcov rretpdrai XaOelv rov ovv- 
vopLOVy tva yurj rd cod ovvrptipr}' Xdyvos yap cov 
ovk id rij 7raiBorpo<f>ta oxoXd^etv rrjv pjqrepa. 
ovrco Be ionv aKoXaarov ro rcov rrepBiKcov yevos. 
orav avrovs aTroXiTTovoai etra iucpd^cooLv at 
BiqXeLai, ol Be €7rCr7]Bes is opyfjv dXXi]Xovs i£d- 
irrovui, Kal TraiovGL re Kal rraiovrai iriKporara' 
Kal 6 ye wrrinOels oveverai [cbs opvcs], 6 Kal Bod 
rovro aveor\v <o Kparrjoas}/ ear av v<p erepov 
Kal avros rjrrrjdels etra is rds ofxolas Xafids 

1 fi€Tot,Ki£6fxevoi ifcetvd re hrdyovrai, 

2 yap ev ravr<p hiarpLfiovres. 

3 Be ev ^eopots erepots wnaipovris re ad. 



they are afraid that they may perhaps be detected. 
And when they hatch their young they impart heat to 
them, being callow, and warm them with their wings, 
enveloping them in their feathers, as it might be 
swaddling-clothes. They do not however wash them, 
but render them more sleek by putting dust on them. 

If a Partridge sees someone approaching with evil an<nts 
intent against itself and its young, it thereupon rolls 
about in front of the hunter's feet and fills him with 
the hope of seizing it as it moves this way and that. 
And the man bends down to catch his prey, but it 
eludes him. Meantime the young ones slip away and 
get some distance ahead. So when the Partridge is 
aware of this, it takes courage and releases the bird- 
catcher from his fruitless occupation by flying off, 
leaving the man gaping. Then when the mother- 
bird is secure and advantageously placed, she calls 
her chicks, and they recognising her voice flutter 
towards her. 

The Partridge when about to lay her eggs en- The male 
deavours to hide from her mate for fear that he may 
crush them, because he is lustful and tries to prevent 
the mother from devoting her time to rearing her 
young. So incontinent a creature is the Partridge. 
When the females leave the males and brood their 
eggs, the male birds of set purpose provoke one 
another to anger and deal and receive the most 
violent blows ; and the vanquished bird gets trodden, 
the victor performing unsparingly, until he in his turn 
is vanquished and is caught in like clutches. 

* <t<x Bp£<fri> add.H.^ 

5 teal ea] teal rovs veorrovs KaraAafi&v Kal ideas. 

6 [<as Spvcs] ' verba sus^cta," H. 

7 <d Kparqoasy odd. Jac. 

' ns 


17. Aiyei jtiev odv l&vpiTrlBiqs Bvcrcowpbov tov 1 
ovov oStos Be apa ivoiKet Kal tqjv £a>a)v eoriv 

ots. 6 yovv yaXewTTjs, a>s </>7]<ji @eo<f>paaTOs, orav 
aTroBvarjTai to yy\pas 3 iiriOTpa^els etra fievToi 
KaraTTtwv d<j>avl^ei avro' BoKet Be iTrtXtftpecos 
elvai to yrjpas to TovBe tov £<Lov dvrwraAov. 
olBe Be Kal eXa<f>os to Sector Kepas e^ojv is ttoXXol 
dyaOov, Kal \ievToi <7au> 2 KaTopvTTei re clvto Kal 
ovnoKpvTTTei <f>96va> tov toctovtcov 3 Tiva diroXavaat, 
Ivyyas Be epcoTiKas tw 'ttcoXko avvTiKTOvaa lttttos 
oiBe* TavTa tol Kal ajtta tco Tevdrjvai to &pi<bos 
rj oe to em Tip pb€TOJ7Tq) oapKiov aireTpayev, 
V7TTr6\iav€s avdpomoi KaXovaw avTo. Kal oi yorjTes 
t<x ToiavTa $avw 6pp,ds Ttvas £Xktiko\s is [il^w 
afcaracr^eTOV Kal oloTpov d<f>poBlcriov Trapexew Kal 
i^diTTew* ovkovv TTjv Xttttov iQiXeiv dvSpcoTTOVS 
lieTaXayxdvew tov yor}T€vp,aTos TovBe, cbarrep odv 
dyadov pLeyLorov <f>0ovovaav. ov yap; 

18. 'Ei> Tfj 'J&pvdpa QaXaTTTj 4 IxOvv AeojviByjs 
6 Bvf dvTios ylveuOal 5 </>y}GL, Ktofitov tov TeXelov 
p,eiova ovBe ev* eyew Be ovfe 6 6<f>9aXfxovs avTov 
ovre aTOfia iv vopLcp t<o twv lx9va)v. Trpouiri- 
<f>VK€ Be ol Ppdyx^ Kal o^qpLa Ke^aXrjs, cos 
et/caaat, ov firjv iKfjb€fi6p(/)OJTai elBos* kotco Be 
apa vtto Tjj yavTpl avT<p ivTe9Xaarai tvttos 
koXtto)Bv]s ^jcrvx^j> Ka l iKirepmei crfiapdyBov %p6av. 
tovtov odv elvat, Kal 6<f>9aXfMov ot <f>7]cri Kal arojLta. 

1 ovra tov. 

2 <*m'> add. E. 

3 Joe : rocrovTov. 

* Baharvft Ko\ir<p Se t# 'Apaftta>. 



17. Euripides says [Jr. 403 N] that jealousy is an feajw 
accursed thing. It seems that there are certain 


animals in which this quality resides. For instance, 
the Gecko, according to Theophrastus [Jr. 175], when 
it has sloughed its skin, turns and makes away with 
it by swallowing it. It seems that the slough of this 
creature is a remedy for epilepsy. And the Deer 
too, knowing that its right horn serves many pur- 
poses, goes so far as to bury it and secrete it out of 
jealousy lest anyone should benefit thereby. The 
Mare also knows that with the birth of a foal she is 
producing love-spells ; and that is why the moment 
the foal is born, the Mare bites off the piece of flesh 
on its forehead. Men call it ' mare ^-frenzy.' And 
wizards maintain that such things produce and excite 
impulses to unrestrained sexual intercourse and a 
lecherous passion. So the Mare does not wish men 
to have any of this spell, as though she grudged them 
a boon beyond compare. And is it not so ? 

18. Leonidas of Byzantium asserts that there The^ 
occurs in the Bed Sea a fish & of exactly the same ^ 
size as a full-grown goby : it has neither eyes nor 
mouth after the manner of fishes, but grows gills and 

a kind of head, so far as one can guess, though its 
form is not perfectly developed. But lower down 
beneath its stomach is a slightly indented depression 
which emits the colour of an emerald ; and this, they 
say, is both its eye and its mouth. But anyone who 

« See 14. 18. 

6 Probably the Tetrodon or Globe-fish. 

6 Schn : yeveo&ai* 



oar is Be avrov yeverai^ crvv rq> KaKw rep eavrov 
eOrfpaaev avrov, Kai tt}s Bia(j)9opas 6 rponos, 6 
yevodp,evo$ SBycrev, etra rj yaurrjp Kareppa^e, Kai 
6 avdpcoTTos diroXcoXe. BIBcoat, Be Kai avros dXovs 
Stfcay. 7rpwrov puev e£a> rov Kvpuaros yevofxevos 
otoatvei, Kai ei ris avrov ysavcretev, o be en Kai 
fiaXXov rtlpmparai. Kai el ris hm,p,elveie ifjaXdr- 
rojv, yLverai rr&s vtto crtfiffeojs Biavyeararos, <hs 
vBepicbv etra reXevrwv Bieppdyrj. el Be avrov 
eOeXoi n$ ere £a>vra is rrjv dakarrav pLeSetvai, 6 
Be imvrjx €Tai ^ K7 ] v xvcrrews dpOeiarjs Trvevfiari. 
Kai <f>iqatv on eK rov wdOovs <j>voaXov eKaXovv 

19. <$>d)Kir} Be, cos 1 aKova), rrjv river lav rrjv 
eavrrj? e^cjuet, 3 tva p/rj rois eTTiXrjrrroLs rj IdaOaL. 
fidcrxavov Br) ro £cpov r) (f>a)K7] } vat fid rov* 

20. 01 7TeXeKdv€S <ot> 4 ev rocs rrorapioTs frets') 
Koy%as rrepi)(aivovres etra KararrlvovGW } evBov 
Be Kai ev (rcpy 5 (av^w rfjs yaarpos vrrodaX- 
tftavres dvefxovai, Kai rd p,ev oorpaKia €K Trjs 
dXea$ BtecFrrjy a>a?rep ovv (ra) 6 t<Sv e<f>9wv, oi Be 
e^opvrrovai rd Kpea, Kai exovai BeZuvov. Kai 
fxevroi Kai ol Xdpoi, <hs QvBrjfxos ^rjcri, rovs 
KoxXlas fxerewpiCovres Kai viftov alpovres rats 
rrerpais fiiaiorara TTpoaapdrrovacv. 

21. Aeyei EvSt^os 1 , ev Uayyaiq) rtp QpaKta) 
Kolrrj Xeovros epYjp,cp <f>vXaK7}s imaraoav dpKrov 

x yeucrerat. 2 ^avaot. 5 Ge$ : e/cpo^et. 



eats it has fished to his own undoing. And this is 
how he is destroyed: the man who has eaten it 
swells up ; then his stomach bursts and he dies. But 
the fish itself when caught pays for it, for first, when 
it is out of the water, it swells, and if one touches it, 
it swells even more ; while if one continues to handle 
it, it turns to corruption and becomes quite trans- 
lucent, like a man with dropsy, and finally bursts. If 
however one is prepared to return it still alive to the 
sea, it swims on the surface like an inflated bladder. 
Leonidas says that in consequence of this property 
men call it the ' inflater/ 

19. The Seal, I am told, vomits up the curdled milk ™e Seal 
from its stomach so that epileptics may not be cured 
thereby. Upon my word the Seal is indeed a 
malignant creature. 

20. Pelicans that live in rivers take in mussels and ?he Pelican 
then swallow them, and when they have warmed 

them deep within the recesses of their belly, they 
disgorge them. Now the mussels open under the 
influence of the heat, just like the shells of things 
when cooked, and the Pelicans scoop out the flesh 
and make a meal. So too Sea-mews, as Eudemus 
observes, lift snails into the air and carry them high 
up and then dash them violently upon the rocks. 

21. Eudemus records how on mount Pangaeus in £ w f^ d 
Thrace a Bear came upon a Lion's lair which was 

4 <oi> . . . <ras> add. H, cp. Axist. HA 614 b 27. 
» <w> add. H. 
6 <ra> add. H. 



(rods') 1 OKvyuvovs rod Xeovros Biatf>9eipai Bid ro 
fxiKpovs re elvai en /cat dfivval <x<f>iaw dBvvdrovs* 
€7T€i Be df^iKovro 2 €K rtvos dypas o re Trarrjp Kal 
rj firjrrjp, Kal etBov rovs rratBas ev rats thovaiS) 
ota ettcos -rjXyovv, Kal enl rrjv dpKrov tevro' rj Be 
Betoaoa els ri BevBpov fj ttoBcov eiyev dveOei, /cat 
KaOrjcrro rrjv eTripovXrjv rrjv ig eKeivcov eKKXtvai 
rreipcopievr] . cos Be eBoKovv rod Tifiajpijoaodcu rov 
Xvpiecova rfKeiv Bevpo, evravBa rj fiev Xeaiva ov 
Xelirei rrjv <f>vXaKrjv, aAA' vtto rep irpepivcp KaOfjcrro 
eXXoxtoaa /cat v<f>aipLov dvco /JAeVoucra, 6 Be Xecov, 
ota dBrjpLOVCov /cat dXvcov vtto rov a)(ovs? ev rots 
opeoiv rjXdro, Kal dvBpl vXovpyco Trepirvy^avei' 6 
Be eBeiae Kal dchirjtn rov rreXeKW, ro Be Brjplov 6 
Xecov eoaive re Kal eavrov dvareivas rjOTrdCero, 
cos otos re fyj Kal rfj yXcorry ro rrpootoirov 
icbaiBpvvev avrw. Kal eKeivos VTreBdppiqoev } 6 re 
Xecov TrepifiaXtov ol rr\v ovpdv ryyev avrov, Kal 
d<f>evra 4 rov rreXeKW ovk eta, dAAd eorjfiatve rep 
noBl dveXeoOai. cos Be ov owlet , 6 Be rep aropuari 
eXdpero, Kal cope^ev ol } Kal elirero eKeZvos, dyet 
re avrov errl ro avXiov. Kal rj Xeaiva <a>s> 5 etBe, 
Kal avrrj rrpoaeXdovoa VTreoaive^ Kal ecopa 
oiKrpov, Kal dvefiXerre irpos rrjv dpKrov. trvviBibv 
odv 6 dvdpcoiros Kal ovfifiaXcbv rjBiKrjorOaC n rov- 
rovs e£ eKelvins, cbs etye ptbtim re Kal veipcov, 
e^eKoipe ro oevopov. /cat ro puev averpa7rrj ) rj be 
Karrjvexdrj- Kal Bieorrdoavro ye 1 ol dijpes avrtfv* 

1 <tous> add. H. 2 a^cero. 

3 axovs o)s avdp<oiro$ etra* 

4 d(j)L€vra. 

6 <c6y> add. H. 



unguarded and slew the Lion's cubs, they being small 
and unable to protect themselves. But when the 
father and mother returned from hunting somewhere 
and saw their young ones slaughtered, they were 
naturally filled with grief, and set upon the Bear. 
She in terror ran up a tree as fast as her legs could 
carry her and sat there trying to escape their fell de- 
sign. But as they came there with the intention of 
wreaking vengeance upon the murderer, the Lioness 
did not relax her watch but sat down beneath the 
tree-trunk, lying in wait and gazing upward with a 
look that meant blood. Meantime the Lion in 
anguish and distraught with grief roamed the moun- 
tains and came upon a woodcutter. The man was 
terrified and dropped his axe, but the animal fawned 
upon him and reaching upwards greeted him as well 
as it could, stroking his face with its tongue. And the 
man took courage, while the Lion, wrapping its tail 
around him, led him on and would not permit him to 
leave the axe but signified with its paw that he was 
to pick it up. But since the man failed to under- 
stand, the Lion took it in its mouth and offered it to 
him ; the man followed and the Lion led him to the 
lair. As soon as the Lioness saw him she too came 
up and began to fawn upon him with a piteous 
expression as she looked up at the Bear. So the man 
grasped their meaning and guessing that they had 
been somehow injured by the Bear, began to fell the 
tree with all the strength of his hands. And the tree 
was overturned and the Bear brought down and the 
Lions tore her to pieces. As for the man, the Lion 

« Beiske: iTrtorjiiawev MSS, vTrecrrjve Jac. 



rov Si 1 dvOpamov 6 Xecov drraOrj re Kal dacvrj 
7rdXiv irravr^yayev is rov -^chpov, od rrporepov 
ivdrvxev avrcp, Kal direSaiKe rfj i£ dp%fjs vXoropLta, 

22. PdyvirrLcov p-dx*} Orjplwv d&irlSos kol vxyev- 
fiovos. 2 Kal 6 fjuev Ixvevjicov ovk dfiovXais ovSi 
eKrrXrjKrcos irrl rov dywva d<j>iKveirai rov irpos rov 
dvriTraXov, dAA' d>s dvrjp TravoTrXia <f>pa£dp,evos s 
ovtods £k€wo$ rw 7T7]X(p iyKvXlvas 3 iavrov Kal 
avairXiqcras rov rrepirrayevros eotKev eyeiv dpKOvv 
7rp6f3X-r}[j,a Kal crreyavov. el Si dnopla et-q rrrjXov, 
Xovaas iavrov vSan Kal is dpup.ov fiadetav vypov 
en ipfiaXwv, ifc rijaSe rfjs iirivolas to dfjuvvrrfpcov 
i£ drtopoyv arrdaas, iirl rrjV p>dyr\v ep^erai. rfjs 
re pLvos to aKpov diraXov oV Kal 4 iy^picrei rfj rijs 
ogttISos rpoTvov rwd eKKeifxevov <j>povpei rrjv 
ovpdv 5 dvaKXdaas Kal d7ro<f>pdi;a$ oV avrijs avro, G 
feat eav jxiv rj dams' rovrov Tvyr\> T ° v dvrayoovt- 
orrjv KadecXev el Si fjurj, iidriqv rovs oSovras r<x> 
7TrjXq> Troveirai, rrdXw re 6 Ixyevfiwv rrpocrepTrvoas 
dBoK'jrws Kal rov rpaxqXov XafiopLevos d-nirrvi^e 
rrjv damSa. vt/ca Si 6 vrpcoros <f>0daas. 

23. Tpd(f)€iv p,iv rovs irarepas ireXapyol yeyrjpa- 
Koras Kal iOeXovcri Kal ifjLeXdrrj&av KeXevei Si 
avrovs vofMos dvOpcomKOs ovSi els rovro, dXXd 
atria rovrcov <£vat?. 7 ol avrol Si Kal rd iavrwv 
eKyova <j>iXovoi- Kal to 8 p,aprvpiov } orav 6 

1 T€. 

^ 2 The sentence is incomplete : >a^<y> , , . ivvevaovos <a£on 
dxovaaiy- 6 fiev t., ex. gr. H r 
3 Schn : KvXiaas, 



brought him back untouched and unscathed to the 
spot where it first met him and restored him to his 
original task of cutting wood. 

22. A battle between two animals of Egypt, the 
Asp and the Ichneumon. ... The Ichneumon does 
not attack his adversary without delfteration or 
rashly, but like a man fortifying himself with all his 
weapons, rolls in the mud and covers Irimself with a 
hard coating, thereby obtaining, it seems, an ade- 
quate and impenetrable defence. But if he is at a 
loss for mud, he washes himself in water and plunges 
still wet into deep sand— a device which secures his 
protection in difficult circumstances— and goes tortn 
to battle. But the tip of his nose, which is sensitive 
and somewhat exposed to the bite of the Asp , lie pro- 
tects by bending back his tail, thereby blocking the 
approach to it. If however the Asp can reach it, the 
snake kills its adversary ; otherwise it plies its fangs 
against the mud in vain, while the Ichneumon on the 
other hand makes a sudden dash, seizes the Asp by 
the neck, and strangles it. And the victory goes to 
the one that gets in first. 

23 When their parents have grown old, Storks tend The stork 
them voluntarily and with studied care ; yet there is 
no law of man that bids them do so ; the cause ol 
their actions is Nature. And the same birds love their 
offspring too. Here is the proof: when the lull- 

dwAoV ov Kdt del. H. 
ovpav vnoKaiirlias jaaAAov Kai. 
avro ovro)5 yap Tzoieti' eta>0«\ 
<j>fois ayad^. 8 rovrov. 



reXetos ivBerjs fj rpo(f>fjs airrijcrtv en /cat a,7raAois 
rols veorrots iv rfj /caAta TrapadeZvai, yevofievrjs 
avr<p Kara riyr\v divoplas, 6 Be rrjv iavrov 
xOl^v dvejxeuas eKewovs rpe<f>et. /cat rovs ipw 


\ievroi, TrpocraKovco Be rovs treXapyovs /cat avrovs 1 
crvfi(f>evyeiv rat? yepdvots /cat avva-noBiBpacrKeiv 
rov xf^va- rrjs Spas Be rrjs fcpvpucoBovs BteXOov- 
orjs, orav viroar pe 'tftcoariv 2 is rd t'Sta /cat ot§€ /cat 
ape, rr)v eavrwv eKagros /caAtav dvayvcoptCovcnv, 
cos rr)v oIkLov avBpamoi. 'AAegavBpos Be 6 
MvvSlos (f>7](nv, z orav is yrjpas d<f>Ucovrai, rrapeX- 
Sovras 4 avrovs is 5 ray '^/ceavtrtSas vrjvovs 
ap,elfieiv rd e'iBrj is dvQpdcmov pLop<j>rjv, /cat 
evvefieias ye rrjs is rovs yeivapevovs dBXov rovro 
ivxew, cV&tos re 3 <>t rt> 6 iych voto y /cat VTrodeaOai 
rcov Oecov fiovAopuevcov rovro yovv rcov dvdpcoirtov 
rcov ii<el9i ro^ yevos evoefies /cat oatov, i^el 
(ovxy^ otov re rjv iv rfj dXXrj rfj vft r)Xlcp 8 rocovrov 
Biafitovv. /cat ov fioi BoKeX fxvOos etval. r) rl /cat 
fiovAofxevos 6 'AXegavBpos rovro dv ireparevcraro 
KepBalviov firjBe ev ; dXXcos re ovS' av ervperrev 
dvBpl avvercp ^po rrjs dXrjOetas rroirjaaadac rd 
fevBos^ovBe em KepBec rco pLeyivrtp, firj ri yovv 
is Xafids^ ifirreorovfieva) rds vrrep rwv roiovrcov 

^ 24. *H ^eAtSa^ ore 9 evrropolr] trqXov, rots 
ovv^i^ <f>epet /cat cw pirrXdr fei rr)v KaXtdv el Be 
drropla eir) y cos } ApiaroreXiqs Xeyet, iavrov ppexet, 

1 aVTOt$ t 3 V7TOGTp€<f>a)GLVi 



grown bird is in want of food to give to its still un 
fledged and tender chicks, some accident having 
occasioned a shortage, the Stork disgorges its food of 
yesterday and feeds its young. And I am told that 
Herons do the same, and Pelicans also. 

I learn further that Storks migrate along with its migra- 
Cranes and all together avoid the winter. But when 
the season of frost is over and both Storks and Cranes 
return to their own homes, each kind recognises its 
own nests, as men do their own houses. 

Alexander of Myndus asserts that when they reach g^ ormed 
old age they pass to the islands of Ocean and are human 
transformed into human shape, and that this is a re- bein s 
ward for their filial piety towards their parents, since, 
if I am not mistaken, the gods especially desire to 
hold up there if nowhere else a human model of piety 
and uprightness, for in no other country under the 
sun could such a race continue to exist. This is in 
my opinion no fairy-tale, otherwise what was Alexan- 
der s design in relating such marvels when he had 
nothing to gain from it ? Anyhow it would have ill 
become an intelligent man to sacrifice truth to false- 
hood, be the gain never so great, still less if he was 
going to fall into an opponent's grasp, from which 
act nothing whatsoever was to be gained. 

24. Whenever there is plenty of mud the Swallow SggjSJT 
brings it in her claws and builds her nest. If how- 
ever mud is lacking, as Aristotle says [HA 612 b 23], 

3 ^fftv, rwv ircXapytov tovs apa pu&aavras. 

4 ireaieXBovras. 5 cos. 

6 id rt> add. H. 7 <ov X > add- Oes. 

8 Jac: v<jyqM(o. 6 Qes : orav. 



Kal is kovw ip/neaovoa 1 <f>vpei ra iTrrepd, Kal rod 
7T7jXov TrepimyivTOS , ivrevOev VTraTroifjrjxovcra rco 
pdp,<j>ei rrjv 7TpoK€t[jL€vr)v oiKoBopbtav xeipovpyei. 
cwraAa re ovra ra veorria Kal rwv tttlXcqv yvpuva 
olBe kciXqjs irrl ipiXcov Kap<f>a>v el dvanavoiro on 
KoXaoOrjcrerai aXyovvra. ovkovv irrl ra va>ra rcov 
irpoftdrcov l£dveL, Kal dirooira rov puaXAov, Kal 
ivrevdev rots iavrfjs fipe<f>ecn to Ae^os* fxaXaKov 

25. AiKaiovs rj p^^rjp 17 xeAt8d>j> tovs iavrfjs 
veorrovs ipyd£erai, ro luori\iov avrois Bca, rfjs 
rpo<j>fjs rfjs to-qs <f>vXdrrovoa' pbtav Be apa ov 
Kop,i£ei TTaoiv, irrel fxrjBe Bvvarai' aXXd fUKpa 
puev Kal oXlya iorlv oaa ayei s rov rrpcorov Be 
reyQevra irpcorov rpe<f>ei, Bevrepov Be rov irr* 
iKeivcp, Kal rplrov oirit.ei rov rfjs rptrrjs (LBtvos, 
Kal liixP 1 T °v / ^if J '' 7TT0V rrpoeiai rov rpoirov rovrov* 
ovre yap Kvet ^AtScuv irXeiovas ovre riKret. 
avTT) Be rocrovrov Karavira rrjs rpoc^fjs, ooov av 
iv rfj AcaAta KepBdvai BvvrjOfj rrapappevuav avrfj. 
fipaBecos Be eKfSXeTrei ra 2 ravrrjs Ppify, cos Kal 
ra, rcov kvvcov aKvXaKta' rcoav Be Kopbt^ei Kal 
jrpoadyei, ra Be vrravafiXeTrei, etra arpepi'qcravra 
oXtyov iKTrerrjaLpua ovra 7Tp6etot rfjs KaXcds irrl 
rrjv vop/ffV? ravrrjs rfjs rroas avdpcoiroi yeveoBai 
iyKparels Biiffcocri, Kal ovBerrco 4 rfjs cmovBfjs 

26. Ot eTroires elaw opv'Scov dm\veoraroi y Kal 
p,oi Bokovol rcov itporepcov rcov dvOpcomKcov iv 

1 e/z7reorouaa after mepd. 



she souses herself in water and plunging into dust 
befouls her feathers. Then when the mud has stuck 
to her all over, she scrapes it off by degrees with her 
beak and constructs her proposed dwelling. And as 
her young are tender and unfledged, she knows €ull 
well that if she lets them rest on bare twigs, they will 
suffer and be in pain. Accordingly she settles on the 
backs of sheep, plucks some wool, and with it makes 
their bed soft for her offspring. 

25. The mother Swallow trains her young ones to ^|f™ llow 
be just by carefully distributing food in equal por- y0UDg 
tions. So she does not bring one meal for all, be- 
cause she is not able to do so, but brings small objects 

and a few at a time; she feeds the first-born first, 
after it the second, thirdly her third offspring, pro- 
ceeding as far as the fifth in the same way ; for the 
Swallow neither conceives nor hatches more than five. 
She herself only consumes as much food as she can 
obtain in the nest, that is, anything that is dropped 
beside it. Her young are slow to open their eyes, m 
the same way as puppies. But she collects and 
brings a herb « and they by degrees gain their sight ; 
then after remaining quiet for a while, when able to 
fly, they leave the nest to seek for food. Men long 
to possess this herb but have not yet obtained their 

26. Among birds Hoopoes are the most savage ; The Hoopoe 
and in my opinion it is due to the recollection of their 

a Pliny {HN 8. 27 ; 25. 8) calls it chelidonia, i.e. Greater 

2 not ra. 

3 Ges : rrjs vojxtjs.. 4 ovScttco vvv. 



lAvtffJW) Kal iiivroi Kal pbCaet rod yivovs rod rcov 
yvvatKcov VTrotrXeKew rag KaXids iv rais iptffiois 
kcli rots irdyois rols y^Aois" Kal VTrep rod firj 
TTpoaiivai rov$ dvOpconovs avrwv rots f$p£<j>eow ot- 
Be avrl rod 7rr)Xod xplovai rds KaXids, diroTrdrripia 
dvdpcoiTov ireptfiaXovres 3 rfj SvorcoBta re Kal Ara/co- 
ayzta dveLpyovres Kal dvaoreXXovres to fwov rd 
iavroLS -TToAepLLov. erv%e Be Kal £v rq> reixpvs 1 
ip-qiioripco oBe 6 opvis iraiBoTrov^odpievos k'v rivt 
p7]yfxart Xidov vtto rod -^povov Biaordvrt. ovkovv 
o rod rev%ov$ p,€XeBo)v6$ tBd>v evBov rd fipe<f>7] 
KarrjXeiijse rov yyipap^bv rw 7n)A<J>. Kal virovrpdiftas 
o GTTOiffj d>s etBev avrov diroKXeiodivray rroav 
iKOfiLcre, Kal TTpoorjveyKe rep TrqXcp* 6 Be Kareppvrj, 
/cat irpoorjXQe irpos rd avrov eKelvos reKva, etra 
im (rtyy 2, vopbrjv fj^ev. adOis o$v 6 avros eTTYjXei- 
iftev avBpwrros, Kal o 3 opvis rfj avrfj iroa dvicp^e 
rov yr\pa\Lov Kal ro rplrov eTTpdyBr\ rd avrd. 6 
rowvv rod ret^ovs (f>vAa£ IBcbv ro irparro^evov, 
rrjv -rroav 4 dveXopevos ^xpfjro & T( * 0,-drd, 

aAA dviipyev 5 firjBdv ol TrpoarjKovras Orjaavpovs* 

27. f H HeXoiTovviqcFos Xeovraw dyovos ion- Kal 
ota 6 €lko$ "OfATjpos ireTraiBevftevr) <f>pevl avviBtbv 
rovro rrjv "Aprep,vv €Kei6c Orjpcooav aSwv etirev 
on dpa e-rreioi rov re Tavyerov Kal rov ^pvpuavBov 

repTTOfievT] Kairpoiai Kal toKelrjs iXd<f>oicriv. 

1 rdxovs A y rov r. most MSS. 

2 <r^> add. H. 

3 j, 

* avvredeicrrjs rrjs rroas, 

5 avoLyaiv* 6 oca ye, 



former existence as human beings and more especially 
from their hatred of the female sex « that they build 
their nests in desolate regions and on high rocks ; 
and to prevent human beings from getting near their 
young they smear their nests not with mud but with 
human excrement, and by dint of its disgusting and 
evil smell they repel and keep away the creature that 
is their enemy. 

It happened that this bird had raised a family m 
the deserted part of a fortress, in the cleft of a stone 
that had split with age. So the guardian of the for- 
tress, observing the young birds inside, smeared the 
hole over with mud. When the Hoopoe returned 
and saw itself excluded, it fetched a herb and applied 
it to the mud. The mud was dissolved ; the bird 
reached its young, and then flew off to get food. So 
once again the man smeared the spot over, and the 
bird by means of the same herb opened the hole. 
And the same thing happened a third time. There- 
fore the guardian of the fortress, seeing what was 
done, himself gathered the herb and used it not for 
the same purpose ; instead he laid open treasures that 
were none of his. 

27. The Peloponnese does not breed Lions, and The Peio- 
Homer (as you would expect) with his trained intelli- 

devoid of 

gence realising the fact, says in singing of Artemis Lions 
and her hunting there that she passes over Taygetus & 
and Erymanthus 

* delighting in boars and swift-footed stags * 

5 5 -[Od.6.104]. 

b Mountain range to the W and S of Sparta —Erymanthus, 
mt on the borders of Achaia and Arcadia. 



€7f€L be eprjjjba Aeovroxv raoe ra oprj, /cat fjidAa ye 
gIkotws ovk ifivrjarOrj avrwv. 

28. YLverai Be ev rfj 'Ept>#/>a BaXdrrr} l'x8vs ) 
Kal ova ye elBevai ep,e, eOevro Uepaea <ot> 2 

€7Tt,){<JL)pLOl OVOfia aVTCD. KCLI OL fJL€V "JZXXrjves 

avrov ovro), KaXovm Be /cat "Apafies ofioicos rots, 
"EAAtjov A toy yap vlov Kal eKeivoi ahovai tov 
Uepaea, Kal am avrov ye tov L%dvv vpuvovat 
XeyeoOat. fieyedos fxev ovv eon Kara tov dvBlav 
tov iiiyiOTOVy IBeiv Be opuotos XdfipaKi* ypvrros ye 
(Mrjv rjaruxy ovras, /cat f (Lvacs TreTroiKiXrai ^puo*<5 
TTpoveiKaupLevais' apyovrai Be diro rrjs Ke^aXifs 
emKapatoi at f cbvai, Kal is rrjv yaoripa Kara- 
Xiqyovai. ire^paKrai Be oBovac fieydXots Kal 
ttvkvols. Xeyerat Be lyQvaw irepieivai pcofij] re 
crcofxaTOS Kal j8ta* dXXd ovBe roXpbrjs ol ivSel. 
drjpav Be avrov Kal aypav etnov aAAa^o^t. 

29. 'H TTLwrj OaXdrrtov £<pov, Kal eon ra>v 
ooTpelwv. Keyy\ve Be rfj Staoraaet rtov vepiKeL- 
p,evo)v oarpaKwv, Kal irporeLvei oapKiov i£ iavrrjs 
olovel BeXeap rots TrapavriyopLevoLs rwv l)(6va)v. 
KapKwos Be avrfj Trapafievei ovvTpo<f>6s re Kal 
crvwopios. ovkovv orav ns rtov lyQvtov TTpoaver], 
6 Be VTrevv^ev tJozt^t} o,vrqv Kal rj Ttivvr] jiaXXov 
dvew^ev eavrr\v s Kal iBetjaro eaco rod emovros 
IxSvos rrjv Ke<f>aXrjv (Kadirjoc yap ws eirl rpo<j>fj) 
Kal eadiet avrijv. 

1 €7reiSrj* 2 <ot) add. Schn. 

Not in any surviving work. 


And since these mountains are destitute of Lions he 
was quite right not to mention them. 

28. There occurs in the Red Sea a fish, and, so far The 

1 (*' Perseus 

as I know, the people there have given it the name ol fish 
Perseus, And the Greeks call it so, and the Arabians 
in like manner with the Greeks. For they too call 
Perseus the son of Zeus, and it is after him that 
they declare the fish is named. Its size is that of the 
largest anthias ; in appearance it is like a basse ; its 
nose is somewhat hooked, and it is dappled with rings 
as it were of gold round its body, and these rings be- 
gin at the head at right angles to it and cease at the 
belly. It is armed with large teeth set close. It 
is said to surpass other fish in the strength and power 
of its body, neither is it wanting in courage. How to 
fish for it and how to catch it I have explained else- 

29. The Pinna is a marine creature and belongs to ^ a and 
the class of bivalves. It opens by parting the shells 

that enclose it, and extends a small piece of its flesh 
like a bait to fish that swim by. The Crab however 
remains by its side, sharing its food and its feeding- 
ground. So when some fish comes swimming up, the 
Crab gives the Pinna a gentle prick, whereat the 
Pinna opens its shell wider and admits the head of the 
approaching fish — for it lowers its head to feed — and 
eats it. 



30. 'Hv Be apa olrceia rep 7re7TaiBevpL€Vtp Kal 
ravra elBevav. crocpcoraros 6 kokkv£ Kal rrXeKeiv 
evrropovs e£ aTTopojv fjL7])(ava$ Beworaros. eavrco 
{lev yap aweir Car arai eTTcod^etv ov Bvvafievcp Kal 

€KX€7T€iV Bid ifwXpOTqTO, T7)$ €V rep OtO JJLCLTl 

ovyKpdcrecos , cos <f>aoLV. ovkovv orav tiktt}, ovre 
avros veorndv viroTrXeKei ovre ridrjvecrat rd ftpecfay], 
<f>vXdrrei Be apa rovs rcov veorritov Beanoras 
dcf>eurcoras Kal TrXavcopLevovs 3 Kal rrapeXBcov is 
Karaycdyrjv oOvelav ivriKrei. ov rrdvrtov he dpvi- 
9wv KaXiaZs tTCLTTrioa ovros ye, dXXd KopvBov Kal 
<f>drrrjs Kal ^Aco/hSos" Kal rrdrrrcQV rovrois yap 
avverrtararai o/xota avrco cod tiktovoi. Kal Kevcov 
fiev avrwv ovacov, ovk dv irapeXOoi* tbtov Be evBov 
ovrcov etra p^evroi rd iavrov TTapevipbi^ev \ idv 
Be rj rroXXd rd iKelvcov, rd p,ev eKKvXlaas r)tj>dviue 3 
rd Be iavrov KareXnre, BcayvcooOrjvai re Kal 
^copaQrjvai Bi opiOLorrjra firj Bwdpbeva. Kal oi 
uev opviOes ol rrpoeipiqiLevoL rd p/iqBiv a<f>iai 
TTpoarfKOvra iKyXvtfiovoiv, virornqyvvpLeva Be eKeiva 
iavrots ovveyvcoKora rr)v voBelav iKirireral re Kal 
rrapd rov yecvdfxevov oreXXerai' rcov yap irrepwv 
avrocs rrepiyvBevrtov yvcopi^erai dXXorpta ovra, 
Kal atfctferat mKporara. oparai 1 Be filav copav 
rov erovs rrjv dplorrjv 6 kokkv^ r\pos yap 
virapxoiievov Kal avros ep,<f>avrj$ ionv is dvaroXds 
Ttetplov, etra rrjs rcov rroXXcov oifietos dvexcop-quev \ 

31. 'AXeKrpvova (f>of$etrai Xecov. Kal fiaoiXtaKos 
Be rov avrov opvw, cos <f>aaw> oppcoBei, Kal KanBcov 
Tpepbei, Kal aKovcov aBovros crrrdrai re Kal aTroOvrj- 

1 Kal oparai, 



30. It seems after all fitting that an educated man The Ouckoo 
should be acquainted with these facts as well. The 
Cuckoo is extremely clever and most adroit at devis- 
ing ingenious solutions to difficulties. For the bird is 
conscious that it cannot brood and hatch eggs because 
of the cold nature of its bodily constitution, so they 
say. Therefore, when it lays its eggs, it neither builds 
itself a nest nor nurses its young, but watches until 
birds that have nestlings are flown and abroad, enters 
the strange lodging, and there lays its eggs. The 
rascal does not however assail the nests of all birds, 
only those of the lark, the ring-dove, the greenfinch, 
and the pappus , a knowing as it does that these birds 
lay eggs resembling its own. And if the nests are 
empty, it will not go near them, but if they contain 
eggs, then it mixes its own with them. But if the 
eggs of the other bird are numerous, it rolls them out 
and destroys them and leaves its own behind, their 
resemblance making it impossible to know them 
apart and detect them. And the aforesaid birds 
hatch the eggs which are none of theirs. But when 
the Cuckoo's young have grown strong and are con- 
scious of their bastardy , they fly away and resort to 
their parent. For directly they are fledged they are 
recognised as alien and are grievously ill-treated. y 

The Cuckoo is seen only at one season, and that the 
best, of the year. For it is actually visible from the 
beginning of spring until the rising of the Dog-star ; & 
after that it withdraws from the sight of man. 

. 31. The Lion dreads a Cock, and the Basilisk too* TheCock, 
they say, goes in fear of the same bird : at the sight L&nt^d 
of one it shudders, and at the sound of its crowing it B as m sk 

Unknown bird. 6 About mid- July. 

VOL. I. 




crfcet. ravra apa Kal ol rrjv Aifb&qv oBonropovvres 
rrjv T(xiv roiovrwv rpO(f>6v Beet, tov TTpoeipiqpLevov 
fiaoiXLaKov elra \l£vtoi <jvvi\mopov Kal Koivayvov 
rfjs 6Bov tov aXetcrpvova eirdyovraiy oaitep odv to 
ttjXikovtov kclkov drraXXd^ei avrots. 

32. e H Kprjrrj Kal tols Xvkols Kal rots ipTrerois 
Ot]pLois €%QLoTt} earLv. olkovo} (Bey 1 ®eocf>pdaTov 
Xeyovros Kal iv rco MaKeSoviKto ^OXvpmco tols 
Xvkocs ajSara etvat. atyes Be apa at K.€<f>aXXrjvlSes 
ov irlvovai \it]vG>v e£. ots Be TlovBtvds 2 ovk otfsei, 
XevK&s, &s <f>aai, fieXatvas Be rrdaas* Bia<f>opoT7]s 
Be apa tcov ^(pew Kal IBioTiqs €&] dv Kal ravrrj' 
rd fiev yap avrcbv eWt BaKerd koI evirjatv diro 
rov oBovros <f)dpp,aKov , fSX-qriKa 3 Se oca rratcravra 
etra /xeVrot Kal e/cetva to 4 toiovtov KaKov 

33. e H Ai/Waa S' dents y aKovoj, rov irpos to 
</>varr)[j,a avrijs dvTifiXeifsavra 5 tv</>Xol rrjv oi/jw 
rj Be dXXrj ov rv<f>Xoi fiev 3 diroKTeivei Be paara. 

KAyovTai Be /Joe? *H7TeipcoTiKal TrXeiarov ooov 
dpbiXyeuBai /cat olyes at TiKvpiai ydXa d<f>6ovd)ra~ 
rov 7rape^etv, ocrov ovk aAAat atyes 1 . at Be 
Alyvirriat, eariv at 6 7reWe aTroTiKrovat,? Kal at 
7rAet€7Tat BtBvfia. Xeyerai Be amo? o NetAo? 
etvat, evreKvoraTov irapexow vBcop. evQev roi Kal 
ra>v vopuecov rovs ayav <f>tXoKaXovs Kal tt}s TrolfJLvrjs 
rrjs a<f>eTepa$ ex ovra $ 7rej>povTiaiieva)s vBcop €K 
rov NetAov rat? iavTcov dyeXats dyew p,7})(av7} 

1 <8e'> add. H. 2 'Afofyvds. 

8 Schn : jBA^ra. * rt. 



is seized with convulsions and dies. This is why 
travellers in Libya, which is the nurse of such mon- 
sters, in fear of the aforesaid Basilisk take with them 
a Cock as companion and partner of their journey to 
protect themselves from so terrible an infliction. 

32. Crete is exceedingly hostile to wolves and rep- Jocai pecu- 
tiles ; and I learn from Theophrastus a that there are ian ies 
places on Macedonian Olympus where wolves do not 

go. Goats in Cephallenia go without drinking for six 
months. Among the Budini, & they say, you will not 
see a white sheep : they are all black. 

It seems that one peculiarity that distinguishes 
animals consists in this : some bite and inject poison 
from a fang, while others are given to striking, and 
having struck also inject a like deadly substance. 

33. The Libyan Asp, I am told, blinds the sight of in 
the man who faces its breath. But the other kind 

does not indeed blind but kills at once. 

It is said that the Cows of Epirus give a most 
copious supply of milk, and the Goats of Scyros a far g?^" 3 
more generous yield than any other goats. And r 
there are Goats in Egypt that produce quintuplets, in Egypt 
while most produce twins. The Nile is said to be the 
cause of this, as the water it provides is extremely 
progenitive. For that reason shepherds who like fine 
flocks and devote much care to them have a device 
for drawing as much water as is possible from the Nile 

° There is no such statement in his extant remains. 
. b The Budini were a tribe living N of the Sea of Azov. 

6 e/caonj. 7 dirort/cret. 



oaov Svvarov eari, Kal reus ye areptyais 1 eft /cat 

34. rtroAejuata> ra> Bevrepw <f>aalv i£ 'IvSwv 
Kepas eKopla9rj 3 /cat rpels dpL<f>opeas ixwprjcrev. 
olo$ 2 apa 6 fiovs rjv, <hs iK7T€<f>vi<dvai oi rrjXiKovrov 

35. UepBiKwv <f>deyp,a ev ovheiror dv aKOvaetas 3 
amavTwv, aAAa egrt Sid<f>opa. /cat *A9ijv7]al ye 
ot iireKewa rov KopvSaXXiwv hrtfiov aAAo 4 
rixovvi, Kal ol irrlraSe aAAo. riva Be ion rots 
<£#ey/xacrt rd ovopuara, ipet ®e6<j>paaros. iv Be 
rfj BotajTta /cat rfj dvriirepas Eu/?ota 6p,6<f)covol re 
even /cat coy av etVot ns o/zoyAa»TTOt. d<f>cova Be 
ian to Ttapdirav iv Kvprfvy pkv ol fidrpaypL, iv 
JVEa/ceSovta §e £s". /cat TCTTtycov rt yevos, d<f>a)vot 
/cat ofiroi. 

36. FeVos 1 <f>a\ayyiov <f>aalv etvav, koXovgi Be 
paya to <j)aXdyyiov, etre on pueXav ion Kal rep 
ovri TTpoaioiKe orafoXfjs payl Kal rrws opdrav /cat 
7T€pi</>€pis, elre St' air lav iripav? ylverai Be cv 
rfj Ki^vrjy Kal e^et TroSas" p,tKpovs Q ' aropua Be 
€i\r}%€V iv fiiarj rfj yaarpl, Kal eanv aTtOKretvai 

37. 'Ev Heptyco fidrpaxoi, to TTapdrrav ovk dv 
avrwv aKovcreias 7 <f>Qeyyop,€va>v\ el Be avrovs 
KopLLueias 8 aAAa^o^t, StaTopov tc 9 /cat rpa%vra- 

1 rats <rreplif>cu$ ye. 2 ottos C<wy . if, o Jtoj AL. 



for their herds, especially for animals that are 
barren. * 

34. They say that a horn was brought from the a wonderful 
Indies to Ptolemy II, and it held three amphorae.* Ho * n 
Imagine an ox that could produce a horn of that size, 

35. You would never hear the same note from all The 
Partridges, but they vary. At Athens for instance Parfcridge 
those on the far side of the deme Corydallus emit one 
note, those on this side another. What names these 
notes have Theophrastus will tell us [jr. 181]. But 

in Boeotia and on the opposite shore of Euboea they 
have the same note and, as it were, the same lan- 
guage. In Cyrene the Frogs are completely dumb ; 
in Macedonia, the Pigs ; and there is also a kind of 
Cicada that is dumb* 

36. There is a kind of Spider which they call the The Grape- 
* Grape-spider, 5 either because it is dark and does in spider 
fact resemble a grape in a bunch—it has a somewhat 
spherical appearance — or for some other reason. It 
occurs in Libya and has short legs ; it has a mouth in 

the middle of its belly, and can kill in a twinkling. 

37. In Seriphus you will never hear the Frogs The Frogs^ 
croaking at all. If however you transport them else- enp m 
where, they emit a piercing and most harsh sound. 

a About 26 gallons. 

4 aAAo ye. 

6 irepav, Karayvcovat, touto paov ovk ian. 
6 Qes : iiaKpovs, . 7 aKovaais* 

8 KOfiiacus. 


rov rixovaw. iv Hiepcp Be rrjs QerraXias Xlfivrj 1 
iariv, ovk aevaos> dXXd ^et/xajvos* e/c rwv ovp- 
peovroyv is avrrjv vBdrcov TtWerat. ovkovv idv 
ifjL^dXrj res fSarpdxovs is avrrjv, (ncoTrcoaw, 
dXXaxov (ftQeyyopLevoL. vrrep Be ra>v Hept^lcov 
fiarpaxoiv K0fjL7rdCovot Hept<j>ioi eXBeiv e/c rod 
Kara tt}s Topyovos dOXov rov Uepaea TroXXrjv 
rrepieXBovra yrjv 3 Kal ota etKOS Ka\i6vra dva- 
TravaaaBai rrjs XlpuvrjS TrXrjalov Kal KaraKXivrjvai 
vttvov Beopbevov. rovs Be fiarpdxovs fioav Kal 
ipeoxeXelv rov jjpwa Kal rov vttvov avra> Sia/coV- 
reiv 2 ' rov Uepoea Be ev^aaOai ra> war pi rovs 
fiarpdxovs Karacrtydcrat. rov Be viraKovoai Kal 
XCtptCofJievov ra> vlet rcov eKeWi f3arpdx&>v alawiov 
oiyr)v Kara^srj^ioaaQai. Xeyei Be ®eo<f>pacrros 
eKpdXXwv rov puvBov Kal Hepi<$>lovs rrjs dXa^oveias 
irapaXvaiv rrjv rov vBaros xffvxpovqra alrLav etvai 
rrjs d<f>a>vias rwv rrpoeipy\\x,evosv \ 

38. 'Ei> rocs vypots ^ajp/ots 1 Kal evQa vorcwra- 
ros 3 6 drjp vrrepdyav, ol dXeKrpvoves ovk qBovvi, 
(fttjcrl &e6<f>paoros * r) Be iv $>evea> Xlpuvr] lyBvaw 
dyovos ion. tpvxpol Be dpa ovres rrjv avyKpaaw 
ol rerriyes etra puevroi irvpovpLevot, rep rjXlco 4 
aBovow, eKetvos Xeyet. 

39. ToXfjurjporaros 5 <^Se)> 6 dpa ^epeov 6 alyiBiqXas 
rjv rwv p,ev yap opvfflwv vrrep<f>povei rwv puLKpwv, 
imrlderaL Be rats algi Kara ro Kaprepov, Kal 
fxevrot </ccu)> 7 rots ovOaatv avrwv TTpooTrerofievos 

1 Oesx XifMV7j 17. 

3 BiaKQTTTew Kal \v7tgiv 8k]Xov6ti. 



On mount Pierus in Thessaly there is a lake ; it is not 
perennial but is created in winter by the waters which 
flow together into it. Now if one throws Frogs into 
it they become silent, though vocal elsewhere. 
Touching the Seriphian Frogs the people of Seriphus 
boast that Perseus arrived from his contest with the and Perseus 
Gorgon after covering an immense distance, and being 
naturally fatigued rested by the lake side and lay 
down wishing to sleep. The Frogs however worried 
the hero with their croaking and interrupted his 
slumbers. But Perseus prayed to his father to silence 
the Frogs, His father gave ear and to gratify his son 
condemned the Frogs there to everlasting silence. 
Theophrastus however upsets the story [fr. 186] and 
relieves the Seriphians of their imposture by asserting 
that it is the coldness of the water that causes the 
aforesaid Frogs to be dumb. 

38. In moist places and where the air is excessively Local pecu- 
damp Cocks do not crow, according to Theophrastus iari 1 
[fr. 187]. And the lake at Pheneus produces no fish. 

It is because Cicadas are constitutionally cold that, 
when warmed by the sun, they sing, says the same 

39. It seems that the Goatsucker is the most ^^° at " 
audacious of creatures, for it despises small birds but suc er 
assails goats with the utmost violence, and more than 

that, it flies to their udders and sucks out the milk 

3 voTLcorepos- 

4 Jac : 7rvpovfi4vov rov rjXlov. 


6 <Se / > add. H. 

7 </«»'> add. B. 



etra eKpuv^a to yaAa, 1 Kal rrjv rifiwpLav rfjv e/c 
rov ahroXov ov Be8otKe 3 KaLroi 7rovrjp6rarov 
avrais jJLicrdov vrrep rfjs 7TXr)op,ovf}$ diroBiBovs* 
rv<f>Xol yap tov pbaarov, 2 Kal drroa^evvvai rrjv 
eKeWev impporjv. 

40. M^rpoBtBaKrov puev rov rvjs ^Ap-qrrjs 3 vlov 
rov rrjs dBeX<f>7]s rrjs 'ApiaTLTTTrov vpuvovotv ol 
7roXXoC* Xeyei Be ^ ApiaroreXr]? IBeiv avros rd 
veorria Trjs drjBovos vtto rijs pLTjrpds SiSaoxoiieva 
abeiv. iqv be apa opvwoyv rj arjocov eAevaepias 
ipdarpia loxvptos, Kal Bid ravra rj ivreXrjs rrjv 
rjXiKtav orav OrjpaOyj Kal Kadeipyfievrj rj, 4 " wBrjs 5 
d7T€X€Tai, Kal dpAjverai rov opviQoQr\pav virep rfjs 
BovXelas rfj aicowfj. ofirrep odv ol dv6pa>7Toi 
7re7r€(,pap,evoi } rds p,ev rjBr] irpeofivrepas^ /xefliacrt, 
(jTrovhdtovai Be Orjpdv rd veorria, 

41. "Ittttovs fiovoKepws yrj 'IvBlkt) Tt/crei, <f)acrl, 
Kal ovovs puovoKepOis r} avrrj rpe<f>ei y Kal ylverai 
ye €K ra)v Kepdrajv rcbvBe €K7rd>piara. Kal el ri$ 
e? avrd epifidXoi cj^dpfxaKov BavaTV)<f>6pov 9 6 vriwv, 
ovBev r) €7n^ovXrj Xvrrqaei avrov eotKe yap 
dfWVTrjpLov rov KaKov to Kepas Kal rov Ittttov Kal 
rod ovov elvai. 

42. '0 7TOp<f>vpLa>v wpaioraros re dfia Kal 
(f>epo}wp^d)Tar6s eon ^wcov, Kal ^atpct Koviopuevos, 

1 4k rov yaAaKToy. 

2 fMaarov orav cnraari MSS, ov av or. Jac. 

3 Cos : 'Aplonqs. 

4 $ iv tw OLKicrtcq) <f>vXdrrerac. 



without any fear of vengeance from the goatherd, 
although it makes the basest return for being filled 
with milk, for it makes the dug 4 blind' and staunches 
its flow. 

40. Many people sing the praises of the son of ^ e htiB ale 
Arete, the sister a of Aristippus, as being taught by lg mga e 
his mother. Aristotle says [HA 536 b 17] that he 

has with his own eyes seen the young of the Night- 
ingale being instructed by their mother how to sing. 
It seems that the Nightingale passionately loves its 
freedom, and for that reason when a mature bird is 
caught and confined in a cage, it refrains from song 
and takes vengeance on the birdcatcher for its en- 
slavement by silence. Consequently men who have 
had this experience let them go when they are older 
and do their best to catch the young. 

41. India produces horses with one horn, they say, The Horn 
and the same country fosters asses with a single horn, ^com 
And from these horns they make drinking-vessels, 

and if anyone puts a deadly poison in them and a man 
drinks, the plot will do him no harm. For it seems 
that the horn both of the horse and of the ass is an 
antidote to the poison. 

42. The Purple Coot is the most beautiful and the ^ t Pur P Ie 
most appropriately named of creatures, and it de- 

Arete was the daughter, not the sister, of Aristippus, and 
her son was called after his grandfather. 

5 Kal rpo<f}wv Kal <hBrjs. 

6 irpeopvrepas koX akovaa$. 



yBir] Be koI Xovrac 1 to rcbv rrepiarepcov Xovrpov 
ov rrporepov Be eavrov emBiBaicn, rats KovLorpais 
Kal rots Xovrpots, rrplv dv fiaBLarj nvd dpiOjxov 
fiaBlaeajv 2 dpKovvrd ol. virovpLevos Be errl fiaprv- 
pwv a'xOerai,, Kal Bid ravra dvaxoopei, Kal 
vrroXavOdvcov eoQtei. fyXorvTros Be eariv taxvpebs, 
Kal ras vrrdvBpovs r&v yvvaiKoiv 7rapa<f>vXdrrec, 
Kal edv Karayvtp fiocxeveadai rrjs otKtas rrjv 
hiGTrowav, dirdyxei iavrov. ov irerer ai Be vtp7]X6s. 
Xaipqval ye jmtjv ol avdpcoiroi avrq), Kal rpe^ovai 
7re<f>eicrp,eva)s Kal 7Tpop,r]0a>s avrov. Kal eotKev r\ 
aofiapas olKtas Kal p,eya rrXovatas dBvpfxa elvai, 
77 viroBexerai vews avrov, Kal d<f>ero$ dXdrai Kal 
tepos rrepieiGW eaco irepifioXov. rov ra&v puev 
ovv ojpatov bvra Kal KaraOvovori Kal acrovvrai ol 
dcrcoror rov yap opvtOos rd p,ev irrepa Koapuos 
eon, to 8c acopca 7] n rj ovBev. z rropfopic&va Be 
ovk otBa KaraOvcravra ovBeva £ttI Bet7TV(p, ov 
KaAAtav ov K.rrjoi7T7rov rovs 'Adrjvalovs, ov 
AevKoXXov 4 ovx ^Oprrjaiov rovs ^Pajfialovs* 
etirov Be oXlyovs £k ttoXXcov dawrovs Kal aKpare- 
ararovs rfj re dXXr) Kal p,evroi Kal irepl yaarepa. 

43. f O Kopa£ 6 rjBrj yepwv orav fir) Bvvt]rai 
rpe<j>ew rovs veorrovs, eavrov avrots irporelvei 
rpo<f>rjv ol Be eodiovat rov mrepa. Kal rr)v 

1 Aouerat. 2 /faSureas. 

3 Jac : ijv rt ovhev. 

4 AgvkovXAov most MS8, ewoXov A. 

* Callias : end of 5th cent. B.C., a wealthy and frivolous 
Athenian. Both Xenophon and Plato lay the scene of their 



lights to dust itself, and it also bathes just as pigeons 
do. But it does not devote itself to the dusting- 
place or to the bath until it has walked a certain 
number of paces to satisfy itself. It cannot bear 
being seen feeding, and for that reason it retires and 
eats in concealment. It is violent in its jealousy and 
keeps a close watch on the mated female birds, and 
if it discovers the mistress of its house to be adul- 
terous, it strangles itself. It does not fly high. Yet 
men take pleasure in it and tend it with care and 
consideration. And apparently it is either a pet 
in a sumptuous and opulent household, or else it is 
admitted into a temple and roams unconfined, moving 
about as a sacred creature within the precinct.- 

The Peacock on the contrary, which is a beautiful £be^ 
bird, is killed and eaten by voluptuaries. The eacoc 
feathers of this bird are a decoration, though its body 
is of little or no account. But I never heard of any- 
one killing a Purple Coot for a meal, not Callias a 
nor Ctesippus the Athenians, not Lucullus nor 
Hortensius the Romans. I have named but a few 
out of many who were luxurious and insatiate in other 
ways but especially where their bellies were con- 

43. When the Raven on reaching old age can no £ h ^ v f 
longer feed its young, it offers itself as their food ; 
and they eat their father. And this is alleged to be 

Symposia at his house. — Ctesippus, pleasure-loving Athenian, 
defended by Demosthenes in his speech against Leptines; 
became a butt for Comic poets. — Lucullus : 1st cent. B.C., 
conqueror of Mithridates; his name became proverbial for 
wealth. — Hortensius : 1st cent. B.C., famous as an orator, the 
rival of Cicero, and possessor of immense wealth. 



TrapoLjxlav ivrevOev <f>aai rrjv yeveoiv Xafielv rrjv 
Xeyovaav ^kclkov KopaKOS kclkov o>oV.' 

44. TiO)<f>pov4<jTaTCU opvLOcov at (jxxrrai aSovrat. 
o yovv dpprjv Kal 6 BrjXvs avvBvaaOevres Kal 
olovel ovpmvevoavres is ydpuov dXArfXcov exovrai 
Kal acx)(f>povod(n, Kal ovk av 68veiov Xe^ovs 
ovBerepos difjatro rwv opvldtov TWvBe. edv Be 
iTTO^daXfjudoraxJiv irepois y irepiep^ovTai avrovs ol 
XoiTTot, Kal tov puev dppeva ol ofioyevets BiavTrcbaw , 
al QiqXeiai Berov QrjXvv. odros dpa 6 tt]s crco<f>po- 
avvrjs v6(jlo$ Kal is rds rpvyovas d<j>iKveirai Kal 
arpCTTTos fxevet, 1 irXrp/ rod <p?> 2 6avarova8at 
eKaWepov tov opviv irrel tov p,ev dppeva aval- 
povGL, tov he OrjXvv qtKreipav Kal eiaaav arra^r}, 
Kal TrepLeivi XVP°s 

45. ^ApLcrroreXrjs Xeyei rcbv Trepicrrepcov rovs 3 
dppevas rats BiqXeiaLs rats TiKTOvcrais ovvojoivew 
Kal dXcopuevas rrjs KaXids e£co ovvcoOelv re Kal 
avveXavvew, Kal orav reKwuLv, irrwdCeiv eKpidCe- 
o6ai. OdXireiv he 4 /cat tovs dppevas rd veoTTia 
Kal GvveKTpefyew 5 rat? OrjXelacs 6 avTos <])7}ui t 
Kai vnep rod pur} KaKoalrovs elvai tovs veorrovs 
TTpwTTjv Tpo<f>rjv StSoVat 6 rots' f$pe<f>eai tovs yei- 
vap,evovs aXpuvpiBa yrjv, fjcmep odv yevadfieva elra 
fxevroi Kai rwv Xowwv aiTeiuQai eTolpiOJS to 
evrevOev avrd. BoKeZ 84 ttojs rats* rrepicrTepaZs 7 
7Tpos fiev tovs dXXovs opvtOas tovs dpiraKTiKOVs 
evorrovBa elvai, tovs pbevroi dXiaerovs Kal rovs 

1 tiivei Kal is ras irtpiorepas ras Acu^as. 

2 <^> add. H. 



the origin of the proverb which says * A bad egg of a 
bad raven.' 

44, Bingdoves are celebrated as the most cori- |^ gdove 
tinent of birds. For instance, when once the male 

and the female have paired and are, so to say, of one 
mind to wed, they cling to one another and are 
continent, and neither bird would touch a strange 
bed. If however they cast amorous glances at other 
birds, the rest gather round them and the male is 
torn to pieces by those of his own sex, the female by 
the females. This then is the law of continence 
which extends to doves and remains unchanged, 
except that they do not put to death both birds : 
when they kill the male they take compassion on the 
female and leave her unharmed ; and she goes about, 
a widow. 

45. Aristotle says [HA 613 a 1] that male Pigeons The Pigeon 
share the birth-pangs of the females, and if they 
wander from the nest the males will push and drive 

them in; and when they have laid their eggs the 
males will force them to brood them. But the male 
birds also keep the chicks Warm and help the females 
to feed them, according to the same writer. And to 
prevent the chicks from being underfed the parents 
begin by giving them saline earth, so that when they 
have tasted it, they then readily eat the rest of their 
food. It would seem that there is a treaty of peace 
between Pigeons and such others as are birds of prey , 
but they are said to live in fear of sea-eagles and 

3 /cat rovs. , 
5 avvhiarptyew. ^ * evSiSowu. 

7 Jac ; 7T€pL<rrepa2s to tvrevBtv. 


KipKovs ws 7T€<j)piKavl (fxzcri. npos Be rovs UpaKas 
oia 7raAafjLtovTai, aKovcrai a£iov. orav puev avrds 
Biwktj 6 fierdpcnos re Kal is vxJjos 7recf>vK<bs ire- 
reaBat, al Be VTroXiaBdvovaL 1 Kal Karcorepco 
eavras KaQeXKovac Kal to rrrepov 2 rreipGwrai 
irie^ew orav Be 6 Karcorepco Xax&v €K rijs 
<j>vaeojs rrjv TTTTjcrtv, at B e acpovral re Kal fierewpo- 
7Topov<7L, Kal vrrep avrov rreropLevai Bappovaw, 
avcoripa) dgai p,rj Bwapbivov. 

46. 'EAe^avros ttojXlco rcepirvyyavei XevKw ttco- 
XevrrjS *Iv86s, Kal rrapaXafiwv erpe<f>ev en veapov 3 
Kal Kara fiwpd aire<f>y}ve x €L P°^Bt] 3 Ka ^ ^a^etTo 
ayr(b } Kal yjpa rod KTqfjLaros Kal dvr7]pdro 3 dvB* 
tov edpeiffe rrjv dfxoifirjv KOfu£6p,evos iKetvos. 6 
roLwv fiaoiXevs roov 'IvBcov irvBofxevos yjrei Xafiew 
rov eXe<f>avra. 6 Be <I>s ipcofjievos fyXorvircbv Kal 
fievroi ^ </cai> 3 TrepiaXytov el e/xeXXe BewiTOGew 
avrov aAXos, ovk e<f>aro Bwcreiv, Kal &%ero dmwv 
is rrjv eprftiov, dvafids rov eXe<f>avra. dyavaKrel 
6 pacrcXevs, Kal rriiirrei Kar avrov rovs a^aiprjao- 
fxevovs Kal ap.a Kal rov llvBov etrl rrjv Blkt]v d£ov- 
ras. errel Be fjKov, eireipaivro $Lav 4 7rpoor<f>epew. 
ovkovv Kal 6 avdpayrros efiaXAev avrovs dvcoBev, 
Kat to Orjplov cos dBiKovpuevov GvvrjpvveTO . Kal ra 
fiev Trp&ra rjv rotavra- iirel Be fiXrjBels 6 'IvBos 
Kard)Xia9e, Trepifiaivei puev rov rpofiea 6 iXe<f>as 
Kara rovs VTrepaGiri^ovras ev rots ottXois, Kal r&v 
imovrow ttoXXovs direKrewe, rovs Be aXXovs 
erpetftaro- irepifiaXiov Be rep rpo<f>eZ rrjv Trpofioa- 

1 vnoXioddvovcri -rqv 7TT7jaLv. 2 Jteiske : mep&y S e '. 


ON ANIMALS, III.. 45-46 

falcons. But their method of dealing with hawks is a and Hawks 
tale worth hearing. When the hawk, which is accus- 
tomed to soar high in the air, gives chase, the Pigeons 
glide and sink lower and attempt to reduce their 
flight. When attacked however by some bird which 
by nature flies at a lower level than they, the Pigeons 
mount up and travel through the sky, and flying 
overhead they have no fear, because the other cannot 
harry them from above. 

46. An Indian trainer finding a young white |^; t 
Elephant took and reared it during its early years ; 
he gradually tamed it and used to ride upon it and 
grew fond of his chattel, which returned his affection 
and recompensed him for his fostering care. Now 
the king of the Indies hearing of this, asked to be 
given the animal. But the trainer in his affection 
was jealous and even overcome with grief at the 
thought of another man being its master, and declined 
to give it up; and so, mounting the Elephant, he 
went off into the desert. The king in his indigna- 
tion despatched men to take the Elephant away and 
at the same time to bring the Indian to judgment. 
When they arrived they attempted to apply force. 
So the mart struck at them from his mount, and the 
beast helped to defend its master as he was being 
injured. Such was the beginning of the affair. But 
when the Indian was wounded and fell, the Elephant 
bestrode its keeper after the manner of armed men 
covering a comrade with their shields, slew many 
of the attackers, and put the remainder to flight. 
Then, winding its trunk round its keeper, it raised 

3 Oat') add. H. 

Ges : Tretpav, 



KiSa, a'lpei re avrov Kal iirl rd avXia fco/ufei, 

KCU 7Tap€fX€lV€V COS (/>tXcp <f>lXoS TTIGTOS, KOL TTjP 

evvoiav irreheiKwro . w avOpcoiroi rrovrjpol Kal 
ire pi rpdrre^av puev Kal rayr\vov tff6<f>ov if del, €7r' 
apivrd re x°P € v° VT€ ?>'t 1 *v he rots KtvBvvots 
rrpohorai, Kal \idry]v Kal is ovhev to ttjs <f>tXtas 
ovopua x°>wovt€s- 2 

47. Aot€ fiot rovs rpaycoSovs TTpos rod 7rarpcpov 
Aios Kal TTpo ye iKelvwv rovs pLvOoiroiovs ipeaOai 
rt fiovX6p,evoi roaavrrjv dyvoiav rod rraibos rov 
Aatov Karaxeovac rod avveXOovros rfj puTjrpl rrjv 
hvarvxrj ovvohov, Kal rov TrjXe<f>ov 3 rov pur) 
ireipaOivros fiev rrjs opuXlas, avyKaraKXtvevros he 
rfj yeivapevr} Kal trpd^avros dv rd avrd, el purj 4 
OeLa 7TOfi7T7] hietptjev 6 hpaKoov el ye ^ </>vats rots 
dXoyois £wois rrjv roiavrrjv p,L^iv koX €k rov 
Xpcoros 5 ^ hlhcocn Karavorjaai, Kal ov hetrat 
yvtopiapdrayv ovde rov eKdevros is rov KiOaiptovaf 
ovk av yovv rrore rfj reKovarj optXijoreie 7 Kap,7]Xos. 
o 8* TOt vo ^^ s ' T Ji s ^y^Xrjs KaraKaXvijjas rov 
OqXvv cLs otov re rjv Kal aTTOKpvifias -ndvra ttXt)v 
rcdv apOpcov, rov iraiBa iirdyei rfj fiyrpi, Kal 
iKelvos Xddpios vtto opprjs rrjs TTpos p,L£iv ehpave 
to epyov Kal owq/ce. Kal rov p,ev alnov rrjs 
ofxtXtas ol rrjs iKdeapov haKVOiv Kal rrar&v Kal 

1 aei . . . xopevovrts corrupt, eVi paara>vqs Grasberger. 

2 Jac : xpalvovres. 

3 nal rov TyXtyov after Karaxeovat mss, transposed by H. 
* Jac: €l firj iroXXdras. 

6 xptOTO? TTpoaaijjaiizvois. 

6 Kt0atp<Sra <!>s 6 OIBCttovs 6 rov %o<f>oi<X4ovs. 

7 ofttAiJcrat. 



him and brought him to its stable and stayed by his 
side, as one trusty friend might do to another, thus 
showing its kindly nature. 

O wicked men, for ever busy (?) about the table 
and the clash of frying-pans and dancing to your 
lunch, but traitors in the hour of danger, in whose 
mouth the word ' Friendship ' is vain and of no effect. 

47. In the name of Zeus our father, permit me to J**^* 8 
ask the tragic dramatists and their predecessors, the 1 
inventors of fables, what they mean by showering 
such a flood of ignorance upon the son of Laius a 
who consummated that disastrous union with his 
mother ; and upon Telephus 6 who, without indeed 
attempting union, lay with his mother and would 
have done the same as Oedipus, had not a serpent 
sent by the gods kept them apart, when Nature 
allows unreasoning animals to perceive by mere con- 
tact the nature of this union, with no need for tokens 
nor for the presence of the man who exposed Oedipus 
on Cithaeron. 

The Camel, for instance, would never couple with 
its mother. Now the keeper of a herd of camels 
covered up a female as far as possible, hiding all but 
its parts, and then drove the son to its mother. The 
beast, all unwitting, in its eagerness to copulate, did 
the deed, then realised what it had done. It bit and 
trampled on the man who was the cause of its un- 

Oedipus, after having unwittingly slain his father Laius, 
married his widow Iocasta. 

* Telephus, son of Heracles and Auge. According to one 
story Teuthras king of Mysia, unaware of their relationship, 
gave his daughter Auge in marriage to Telephus who was 
equally unaware. 



rots yovacrt iratwv airiKrewev aAyeivorara, iavrov 
Be KOT€KprnwiG€V. ajxadrjs Be koX Kara rovro 
OtSlirovs, ovk aTTOKTzivas j 1 aAAa Tnqpdyaas ttjv 


arrqXkdxOai /cat fxrj tw olko) /cat rq> yevei Kara- 
pdbfxevov etra fievroc KaKcp dvTjKearq) IdaOat /ca/ca 
rd 7]$7] TrapeXOovra. 

1 aiTOKTewas (iaurov) Schn. 



lawful union, and kneeling on him put him to an 
agonising death, and then threw itself over a 

And here Oedipus was ill-advised in not killing 
himself but blinding his eyes; in not realising how 
to escape from his calamities when he might have 
made away with himself instead of cursing his house 
and his family ; and finally in seeking by an irremedi- 
able calamity to remedy calamities already past. 




1. 'AKoXaororaroi opvldcov ol iriphtKis etcn. 
ravrd roi Kal rcov BrjXeicov ipcoat Bpipuvrara, Kal 
rijs Xayveias rfrrcopuevot ovvex^orard eloiv ot'oV. 
ovkovv ol rptyovT€s rovs ddXrjrds iriphiKas, orav 
avrov? is rrjv \idxqv rr\v Kara dXArjXcov viroOrjyajcn, 
rrjv OrjXeiav Ttapeordvai ttoiovgw eKdcrrco rrjv avv- 
vojiovy a6<f>Lcrp,a rovro SecXlas Kal KaKys rrjs Kara 
Ti]v dytovLav dvrvnaXov avrols evpovres. ov yap 
rl ttov r}TTcop,€vos <f)avrjvai r] rfj ipcopbivrj 77 rfj 
yafijrfj 6 7re/>St£ VTrojievei* reOvrj^rac Se'/xaAAoV 
>naiop,€vo$ r) ofxoae ^a^owro? amor panels ISeXv 
roXprjaei ravrrjv doxrjixovcos , Trap* fj fiovXerai 
(■vb'oKcpetv. ^ rovro rot Kal Kpyjres ' vnep rcov 
ipcopdvcov Jvevoovv. aKovco yap Kprjra ipacrrrjv 
dyadov^ rd re aXXa Kal ra TroAipuia ej^tv pukv 
TraiStKa evyeves fxeipaKiov topa Biairpeires Kal rrjv 
foxrjv dvSpetov Kal irpos ra KaXXtara rcov pad-qua- 
rcov irecbvKos ev Kal koXcos, KaXovpuevov hk 6V 
^AwaW is oirXa ti-qM-rrco (el-rrov ye fjL-rjv dXXaxodi 
Kal rov ipaarov Kal rod KaXov ro ovopua) . dperas 
p,kv ofivjv rfj p,dyp rov veaviav dirohe^ aaOai 1 
tbaow ol Kpyres, dOpoas Se is avrov cbdovfievrjs 
rrjs rcov ixdpcov <j>dXayyos Trpov7Traioai veKpcp 
KCifLevtp, Kal Trepirpartrjvai Xiyovtnv avrov, rcov 
odv ns rroXepicov, 6 paXiura TrX-qotov, dvarei- 
1 Schn 1 airod(8oo8ai. 



1. Partridges are the most incontinent of birds *>^ ridg 
that is the reason for their passionate love of the 
female birds and for their constant enslavement to 
lust. So those that rear fighting Partridges, when 
they egg them on to battle with one another, make 
the female stand each by her mate, as they have 
found this to be a device for countering any cowardice 
or reluctance to fight. For the Partridge that is 
defeated cannot endure to show himself either to his 
loved one or to his spouse. He will sooner die under 
the blows than turn away from his adversary and dare 
in his disgrace to look upon her whose good opinion 
he courts. , 

The Cretans also have taken this view regarding {Jetan 
lovers. For I have heard that a Cretan lover, who 
had beside other qualities that of a fine soldier, had 
as his favourite a boy of good birth, conspicuous for 
his beauty, of manly spirit, excellently fitted by 
nature to imbibe the noblest principles, though on 
account of his youth he was not yet called to arms. 
(I have elsewhere a given the name of the lover and 
of the beautiful boy.) Now the Cretans say that 
the young man did acts of valour in the fight, but 
when the enemy's massed line pressed him hard, 
he stumbled over a dead body that lay there and 
was thrown down. Whereupon one of the enemy 

a Not in any surviving work of Aelian's. 



vdp,evos iraieiv ep,eXXe /caret ra>v \ieraj>pivcov 
tov avhpa- 6 Se imorpa^eis f /x^a/i-a*? ' evnev 
'alaxpav /cat dvaXi<rj 1 7rX7jyrjv eiraydyrjs, dXXd 
Kara rwv arepveov dvrlav iralaov, Iva firj pcov 
BeiXlav 6 ip<ofj,€vos Karaif/^LarjraL, /cat foXdfyrai 
irepiareiXaL p,e veKpov s Kol p,dXa ye aaxrjfjiovovvTL 
irpoaeXdelv ov ToXfjLwv* atBecrOrjvai fiev o$v avOpco- 
ttov ovra <f>avfjvai kclkov ov7tq) Oavfiaarov 
rrdpSiKt, Se pLeretvat at$ov$ vitepaepwov tovto €k 
rrj$ <f>vcrea>s to Scopov. 'AptoroSrjfjsOs Be 6 rpeuas 
/cat KXed>vvp,o$ 6 pliffas tyjv awrrtha /cat 6 BecXos 
UelaavSpos ovre ras* TrarptSas fjBovvro ovre rd$ 
yapieras ovre ra iraihia. 

2. 'Ev "EpvKi Tijs HiKeXtas iopT-q icrrw, rjv 
KaXovmv 'Avaywyta 'EpvKtvol re avrol /cat 
liivroL Koioaot h rfj Et/ceAta rrdcrr). rj §e air la 
rod rrjs copras 6v6p,aro$, rr\v 'A<f>po8iTr]V Xe- 
yovuiv ivrevOev €? Aifiv7]v diraipeiv ev ralahe rats 
rjfiepcus. Bo^d^ovai Be apa ravra ravrrj 2 reKpcat- 
pofievot,. Trepiorep&v irXydos icrnv evravda trap,- 
rrXecarov. ovkovv at pikv ovx op&vrai, Xeyovat Be 
'EpvKivoL rrjv Oeov Bopv<j>opovuas direXOeiV' d9vp- 
/xara yap 9 A<f>po8lTq$ Trepivrepds ehai aBovcri re 
€K€lvoi /cat iremorevKaoi irdvres dvdpamot. 8ieX~ 
dovv&v Be r)p,epwv ewea pulav puev BiarrpeTrrj rrjv 
wpav e/c ye rod rreXdyovs rod ko^ovtos eK tt}$ 

1 Jac: avdXKT}, avahKiv. 2 rai J r?7 eKeiOev. 

a A Spartan who owing to sickness was absent from the 
battle of Thermopylae. Later, at Plataea, he wiped out his 
'disgrace.' See Hdt. 7. 229-32 ; 9.71. 


who was nearest, in his eagerness was about to 
strike him in the back. But the man turned and 
exclaimed ' Do not deal me a shameful and cowardly 
blow,.but strike me in front, in the breast, in order 
that my loved one may not judge me guilty of 
cowardice and refrain from laying out my dead body : 
he could not bear to go near one who so disgraces 

There is nothing wonderful in a man being ashamed 
to appear a coward, but that a Partridge should have 
some feeling of shame, this is a truly impressive gift 
of Nature. But Aristodemus the timid," and Cleo- 
nymus who threw away his shield, 6 and Pisander the 
craven, had no reverence for their country or for their 
wives or for their children. 

2. At Eryx in Sicily there is a festival which TheKgeo^ 
not only the people of Eryx but everybody dite at Eryx 
throughout the whole of Sicily as well call the 
* Festival of the Embarkation.' And the reason 
why the festival is so called is this : they say that 
during these days Aphrodite sets out thence for 
Libya. They adduce in support of their belief the 
following circumstance. There is there an immense 
multitude of Pigeons. Now these disappear, and the 
people of Eryx assert that they have gone as an 
escort to the goddess, for they speak of Pigeons as 
4 pets of Aphrodite,' and so everybody believes them 
to be. But after nine days one bird of conspicuous 
beauty is seen flying in from the sea which brings it 

6 A frequent butt of Aristophanes. 

c Athenian demagogue, end of 5th cent., lampooned by 
Comic poets for his bulk, his rapacity, and his cowardice. 
Helped to establish the rule of the Four Hundred. 



AifSvrjs opdadai iairerop,evr)v, ot>x olav Kara rd? 
ayeXalas ireXeidBas rag Xoi-rras ehai, 7rop<j>vpav 
Be; Sarrep odv rrjv A(f>poBirr]v 6 Trjtos rfpXv 
*AvaKpia>v aBec, e 7Top^>vperjv * 1 ttov Xeyaiv. Kal 
Xpvvo) Be eiKacrfxevr] <f>avebq aV, Kal tovto ye Kara 
rrjv 'Ojiijpov^ 6edv rrjv avrrjv, r)v eKelvos dvapeXireL 
* xpvcrrjv', ^ iirerai Be avrrj ra>v Trepicrrepajv ra vejrq 


Travrjyvpis^ ra Karaywyia, 2 e/c rod epyov Kal 
rovro to 6Vo/z.a. 

3. Avkoj ovvv6[LOi Kal ittttco, X4ovt4 ye fJLTJV 
ovKerr Xiawa yap Kal Xecov ov rrjv avrrjv laoiv 
ovre errl dr)pav 3 ovre -mopievoi. to Be alnov, rrj 
rod GcLparos pa>p,7) Oappovvre 4 a\xj>oi elra ov 
Belrat Oarepov 6 erepos, a>$ <f>acriv ol Trpeo-fivrepoi. 

9^ ol Xvkol rr)v <hBtva olttoXvovctiv , 

aXXaev r)p,epais BcoBeKa Kal vv£l rovavrais, ewel 
roaovrcp XP°™ rfv At?™ eg ArjXov i£ 'YTrepfio- 
pewv eXOelv A^Atot <j>aaiv. 

5. Z0a 5 <rroXep,ia x^Xcvvrj re Kal irepBig, Kal 
TTtXapyos Kal Kpeg rrpos aWviav <Acat> 6 dpTrrj Kal 
epcpBtog rrpog Xapov KopvBaXXog Be aKavQvXXiBi 
voel TvoXifLia, rpvy6vi (Be} 1 Ttpog TrvpaXXiSa 8 
Biacfiopa, Iktivos ye jjltjv Kal Kopag ixOpor oeipr)v 

1 •nop(j>vprjv. 

2 Meiske : ra Karaycoyta 7ravqyvpi$. 

3 dtfpas. 

4 Bappov Te most MSS, 8appovaiv A. 

5 £<3a aAAi?Aots. 

6 </cat'> add. H. 



from Libya : it is not like the other Pigeons in a flock 
but is rose-coloured, just as Anacreon of Teos de- 
scribes Aphrodite, styling her somewhere [ft. 2. 3 L>J 
' roseate/ And the bird might also be compared to 
sold, for this too is like the same goddess of whom 
Homer sings as ' golden ' [II 5. 427]. And after the 
bird follow the other Pigeons in clouds, and again 
there is a festal gathering for the people of Eryx, 
the * Festival of the Return * ; the name is derived 
from the event. 

3. The Wolf and the she-Wolf feed together, like- gon^a 
wise the Horse and the Mare; the Lion and the 
Lioness however do not, for the Lioness and the Lion 

do not follow the same track either hunting or when 
drinking. And the reason is that both derive con- 
fidence from their bodily strength, so that neither has 
need of the other, as older writers assert. 

4. Wolves are not easily delivered of their young, The Wolf 
only after twelve days and twelve nights, for the 
people of Delos maintain that this was the length of 

time that it took Leto to travel from the Hyper- 
boreans to Delos. 

5. Animals hostile to one another: the Tortoise ^ 
and the Partridge; the Stork and the Corncrake to 

the Sea-gull; the Shearwater and the Heron to the 
Sea-mew. The Crested Lark feels enmity towards 
the Goldfinch; the Turtle-dove disagrees with the 
Pyrallis ; * the Kite too and the Raven are enemies ; 
Perhaps a kind of pigeon. 

? <§€'> add. H. 8 irvppav. 


Se 1 irpos Ktpxrjv, KipKTj he irpos Kipkqv ov rep yevei 
p,6vov, aAAa /cat 777 <f>vaei Sta<f>epovre Tre<f>a>paa6ov. 

Xdvv^ he ixdvs Xayvioraros . XevKovs he puvp- 
p,y]Ka$ h> Qevew 2 rfj$ AaKtowKTjs aKoveiv irdpe- 

6. Tovs lttttovs eXeoi re Kal Xetficoai Kal rots 
Karrjvefiois x^P^ -rjheaOai puaXXov l-TT7Torpo<f>ias 
re koI 7Tw\oTpo(f)LKfjs avOpamot, ao<f>coral 6p,oXo~ 
yovaw. evBev rot Kal "OfLr)pos ipuol Sokziv Setvog 
(ov Kal ra roiavra ovvihelv e<f>7] rrov 

r<p rptaxtXtai Ittttol eXos Kara fiovKoXiovro . 

etqveiitaadai he hrnovs ttoXX&kis imrofopfiol 
reKjj,7]pcov<ji teal Kara rov vorov rj rov fioppav 
<f>evyetv. ethora odv rov avrov 7TOt,7]<rfjv elireTv 

rdcov Kal ^Boperjs rjpdcraaro /3ocrKop,evda>v , 
kol 'ApiaroreX-qs he, <bs ifie voeiv, Xaficbv ivrevBev 
evBv rojv TTpoeiprjfMevcov avep,a)v olarp^Beicras oV 
opaoKeiv 3 e<f>aro avrds. 

y 7 : y ^°^° } , T °? ^ KV ^ V jBaortAea (to Se ovo/m 
€i8(bs eo)> rt yap fxoL Kal XvcrireXes ianv ;) lir<nov 
orrovhaLav e X €iv rraaav dperrfv, Sarjv Ittttoc Kal 
anatsrovvrai Kal dTroheiKvvvrai, e^ew he Kal viov 
avrrjs eKelvr^s rebv aXXcov dperfj htwrrpiirovra. 

I o&riv ixMomis ovofia. 2 Iltyvcp Venmans. 


a Probably the Serin-finch. 

b The Circe has not been identified. 


on animals; iv. 5-7 

the Siren a and the Circe 6 ; the Circe and the Falcon 
have been found to be at variance not only in the 
matter of sex but in their nature. 

The Sea-perch is the most lecherous of fishes. In 
Pheneus in Laconia c one may hear tell ol white 

6 Men skilled in the breeding and care of Horses The Horse 
agree that Horses are most fond of marshy ground, 
meadows, and wind-swept spots. Hence we find 
Homer, who in my opinion had a remarkable know- 
ledge of such matters, saying somewhere [II 20. 221] 

4 For him three thousand mares grazed along the 
And horse-keepers frequently testify to Mares being »« toj 
impregnated by the wind, and to their galloping by the wind 
against the south or the north wind. And the same 
poet knew this when he said [II. 20. 223] 

f Of them was Boreas enamoured as they pastured.' 

Aristotle too, borrowing (as I think) from him, said 
[HA 572 a 16] that they rush away in frenzy straight 
in the face of the aforesaid winds. 

7. I am told that the King of the Scythians (his ^mpieof 
name I know but suppress, for I have nothing to gam iucest 
by it) possessed a mare remarkable for every excel- 
lence which is expected of horses and for which they 
are displayed; and that he possessed also a foal of 

c Pheneus was in Arcadia. Venmans, citing Paus. 3. 26. 
2, 3, conjectures Pephmts, a place in Laconia at the NE. corner 
of the Messenian Gulf. It was also the name of a rocky islet 
at the mouth of the Pamisus; see Frazer on Paus. toe. w$. 
The 1 white ants ' are fabulous, 



ovkovv €vploKovra ovre €K€LV7]v dXXcp irapafia- 
Xelv agio), ovre ifcewov aXXrj inayayetv to it; 
avrov Xafieiv oirippba dyaOfj, Bid ravra dp,<f>aj 
crvvayayeiv is to epyov tovs Si t<x /xiv erepa 
aoira^ecrdai o<f>a$ Kal <j)iXo<f)pov€ladai ) ov purp> 
iyxp^readai aAA^Aots. ovkovv ind tt}s em- 
fiovXys tov liKvdov ao(j>d)T€pa rjv ra £a>a, iir^Xv- 
yaaev tfiaTiois Kal tov Kal Trjv, Kal i^ipydaavro 
to eKvofiov t€ Kal €k8lkov €K€lvo epyov. <Ls Si 
a^a) crvvdSov to irpaxBiv, eha \i4vtoi to dadfirjfia 
SieXvcravTO Qavarrw, TrrjSijaavTe KaTa Kpr]p,vov. 

8. Aiyei JLvSt] fios Ittttov vias Kal tcov V€p,ofj,€- 
vojv TTjs apLOT-qs ipaaO^vai tov ittttokoiaov, aWep 
odv KaXfjs pdpaKos Kal tcov iv Tib x w P^ &ptK<tyr4- 
pas iraawv Kal ra fxiv TrpaVra iyKapTepetv, 
TeXtVTwvTa Si imToXfjurjoaL ra> Ae^et t<o gevco Kal 
ofiiXeTv avTfj. Tjj Si dvai ttwXov Kal tovtov 
koXov, Oeaad^vov ye fjbrjv to irpaTTOfievov aXyrjaat, 
Uio-rrep odv TVpawovfiivrjs Tys p,7}Tpd$ vno tov 
Sswttotov, Kal ifi7T7]SrjcraL /cat diroKTelvai tov 
dvSpa, efoa fiivTot Kal <f>vXd£ai iv9a sra^, Kal 
<j>oiTa>VTa avopVTT€W avTOV, Kal hroftpl&w tco 
veKpw Kal Xvfjiaiveadai Xvfjurjv ttoikIXtjv. 1 

9. Twv txOvatv Sid tov rjpos ol TrXeiVTOi is 2 
a$po8CT7]v 3 7rp69vfjLOL dot, Kal dmoKpivovvL ye 
avTovs is tov Uovtov fjL&XXov e^et yap itcds 
OaXdfias T€ Kal Kofoas, </>v<T€ws ravra IxOvcrc 4 rd 
Scopa- dXXd Kal Orjplwv iXevdepos iajiv oaa 

1 iroiKifajv ovk aladavoyL€v<ji dXyovvra avrov. 



this same mare which surpassed all others in its ex- 
cellence. Being unable to find either another worthy 
mate for the mare or another mare fit to be impreg- 
nated by the foal, he therefore put the two together 
for that purpose. They caressed each other in various 
ways and were friendly disposed, but refused to 
couple. So as the animals were too clever for the 
Scythian's scheme, he blindfolded both mare and foal 
with cloths, and they accomplished the act so contrary 
to law and morality. But when the pair realised what 
they had done, they atoned for their impious deed by 
death and threw themselves over a precipice. 

8. Eudemus records how a groom fell in love with 

a young mare, the finest of the herd, as it might have Mare 
been a beautiful girl, the loveliest of all thereabouts. 
And at first he restrained himself, but finally dared 
to consummate a strange union. Now the mare had 
a foal, and a fine one, and when it saw what was hap- 
pening it was pained, just as though its mother were 
being tyrannically treated by her master, and it 
leaped upon the man and killed him. And it even 
went so far as to watch where he was buried, went 
to the place, dug up the corpse, and outraged it by 
inflicting every kind of injury. 

9. The majority of Fishes are eager for sexual ^hm *he 
intercourse throughout the springtime, and withdraw season 
for choice to the Black Sea, for it contains caverns 

and resting-places which are Nature's gift to Fishes. • 
Besides, its waters are free from the savage creatures 

8 is (ek) om. AL. 3 rrjv afooMrqv. 

4 Jac : lyBvoiv 6 Hovros- 



jSoovcet OdXarra, BeAtfitves Se dXcovrai jJiovot,, 
XeTTToL re Kal doBeviKol- Kal {JLrjv Kal ttoXvttov 
X^jpos cart Kal rtayovpov dyovos, Kal daraKov ov 
T/>€<£er fUKpajv Se lyBvow otSe SXzBpos elow. 1 

10. HwddvofMai oeXtfvTjs v7TO(f>aivofi€vr}$ via$ 
rovs iXe^avras Kara riva </>vglkt)v Kal dnoppryrov 
ewoiav e/c rfjs vXrjs iv fj ve/xovTat veohp€7T€Z$ 
d<f>eX6vras KXdSovs etra fievroi fierewpovs dvareC- 
veiv, Kal 7Tpos tyjv Beov dvaj3Xd7T€w, Kal 'Qcrvxfj 
rovs kXoBovs VTTOKtvetv, otov iK€T7]plav rwd ravrrjv 
rfj Bew irporelvovras virep rod tXeojv re Kal €vp,€vfj 
rrjv Beov ye elvai avrois. 

11. Mom? aKovco tojv ^ojcov ras lttttovs Kal 
Kvovcras vrrofjiivew rrjv rcov dppivwv p,t£iv ztvai 
yap Xayvtardras. Bid ravrd roi Kal r<ov yvvatKcov 
ras aKoXdarovs vtto tc5v aepuvoripws auras 
evBvvovrwv KaXeioBai Ittttovs. 

12. 01 irepBiKes iv rots ojocs oIkovvtcs ert Kal 
KarecXrjjjb^evoc rocs Trepme^VKoai a<f>lcrw oarpd- 
kois ovk dvafjiivovcri rrjv e/c ra>v yeivafxevcov 
ZKyXv^riv, dXX avrol St' iavrcbv axrrrep BvpoKo- 
rrovvrzs hiaKpovovai 2 ra d>d, Kal €KKVijsavres etra 
a<f>as avroifs 3 dvojBovat y Kal to rod <hov Ae/x/m 
Trepipprj^avres 7]Sr} Biovcrt, Kal to npos rw ovpalw 
rffjLirofjbov , el TTpocrexoiro, Siaaeiadfievot €KpdX~ 
Xovaiv avro t Kal rpo<j>r]v fiacrrevovai, Kal rrrjScomv 

1 Gron : iuriv, .* Mein : eKKpovovm mss, H. 



which the sea breeds. Only dolphins roam there, 
and they are small and feeble. Moreover it is devoid 
of octopuses ; it produces no crabs and does not breed 
lobsters : these are the bane of small fishes. 

10. I am informed that when the new moon begins J^g^* e 
to appear, Elephants by some natural and un- Moon 
explained act of intelligence pluck fresh branches 

from the forest where they feed and then raise them 
aloft and look upwards at the goddess, waving the 
branches gently to and fro, as though they were 
offering her in a sense a suppliant's olive-branch in 
the hope that she will prove kindly and benevolent to 

11. I have heard that Mares are the only animals The Mare 
which when pregnant allow the male to have inter- 
course with them. For Mares are exceedingly lust- 
ful, and that is why strict censors call lecherous 
women * mares/ 

12. Partridges while still in the egg and confined 

by the shell that has formed around them do not wait its young' 
for their parents to hatch them out, but alone and 
unaided, like house-breakers, peck through the eggs, 
peep out, and then lever themselves up, and then 
after cracking the egg-shell begin at once to run. 
And if half the shell is clinging to their tail they 
shake it off and cast it from them ; and they hunt 
for food and dart about at great speed. 

VOL. I. 





13. Ta>v irepBiKOiv ol ropol re Kal wBlkoi rfj 
a<j>erepa Oappovcrw evyXcorrla* Kal ol pLa^qriKol 
Be Kal dyojvionKol Kal eKeivoi rreTTiorevKauiv ore 
purj elatv d^ioi TrapavdXojpLa yeveaBat red^papLevoi* 
Kal Bed ravra dXtVKOfxevoi rjrrov 7rpd§ rovs 
6r}pa>vras Btafiaxovrat, vtrep rov purj dXtovat, 1 ol 
Be dXkoL, Kal en [ictXXov oi Kippaioi, avveyvaiKores 
iavroLS ovre dXKrjv dyaOols ovre aBew, koXcos Be 
BieyvcoKores on dpa dXovres eoovrai Betirvov rots 
TjprjKom, rraXafiwvrai nvi oo<f>la <f>vatKrj iavrovs 
d/3p<Lrov$ rrapaoKevdaar Kal rfjs fiev aXXrjs 
rpo<f>7]$y rjn$ avrovs ev<f>pawei re Kal matWt, 
drreyovrai) GKOpoBa Be oirovvrai rrpoOvpuorara. 
ol rolwv ravra rrpopiadovres eoireioavro irpos 
avrovs eKovres dOrjplav oons Be rrj rovrcov ay pa 
ov Trpoeverv^e y ovXXafiwv Kal KaOeifjrfcras aTrcoXecre 
Kal rov -)(p6vov Kal rrjv eif avrols airovBrjv, rtovr\- 
pov Kpea>$ rretpadels. 

14. Ka/cov Orjplov rj yaXy, KaKov Be Kal 6 o<f>is. 
ovkovv orav peeXXrj yaXij 6</>et (jbd^eadaL, Trrjyavov 
Btarpayovcra rrporepov elra \ievroi era rrjv P-^XW 
dappovcra 2 axjrrep odv rte^payp.evr] re Kal wrrXia- 
p,evrj Trapayiverai. to Be atnov, to irfiyavov rrpos 
,o<f>w eyfiiorov iortv. 

15. e Xvkos epbrrX7]uBels is Kopov ovS' dv rov 
fipaxtarov to Xoittov diroyevaairo' rraparelverai 3 
p,ev yap rj yaorrjp TaiSe, olBalvei 4 " Be rj yXcorra, 
Kal to urop,a ip,<f>pdywrat, } irpaoraros Be ivrvxew 

1 ak&vai on yap cnrovBaoBijoopTai koX otSe merzvovoi kal rfj 

ON ANIMALS, IV. .13-15 

13. Partridges that utter clear, musical tones are- The 
confident in their vocal skill. So too the fighting ^ n £ s 
birds which compete feel certain that when captured 

they will not be regarded as merely fit for sacrifice. 
And that is why when caught they struggle less 
against their pursuers in order to avoid capture. 
But the rest, and especially the Partridges of Cirrha, 
conscious that they possess neither strength nor 
ability to sing, and knowing full well that if caught 
they will furnish a meal for their captors, do their 
utmost, prompted by some natural intelligence, to 
render themselves unfit for eating. And they ab- 
stain from other food which delights and fattens them 
and feed most eagerly upon garlic. Hence those 
who are already aware of these facts have willingly, 
agreed that they should be immune from pursuit. 
Whereas a man who has not previously chanced to 
hunt them, if he catches and cooks them, has wasted 
his time and his pains over them, when he finds their 
flesh disgusting. 

14. The Marten is an evil creature, and an eviIM"^«" 
creature is the Snake. And so when a Marten means 

to fight with a Snake, it chews some rue beforehand 
and then goes out boldly to battle, as though fortified 
and armed. The reason is that to a Snake rue is 
utterly abhorrent. 

15. The Wolf when gorged to satiety will not there- ^ n Wolf > 
after taste the least morsel. For his belly is dis- Jin-fed 
tended, his tongue swells, his mouth is blocked, and 

he is gentle as a lamb to meet, and would have no 

2 dappovaa V, del. H, $ta$appovaa eVi rrjv f*. most MSS. 

3 irtpi-. 4 otSdvei H. 



ionv dfivov BcKTjv, Kal ovk dv eTTifiovXevoeiev 1 rj 
dvdpoorrcp rj 6p€fJLfxart 3 ozrBe el rrjs dyeXrjs ^aStfot 
fiecros. jjLeiovTCLL Be r)avxr] Kal /car' dXiyov r) 
yXcorra avrw } elra is to dpx&iov crj^fj/xa irrdveiai > 
Kal Xvkos ylverai adBis. 

16. 'AXeKTpvoves iv dyeXrj rov verjXvv 2 dva- 
fiaivovcri rrdvres* Kal ol nOacrol Be rrepBtKes rov 
rjKOvra wpwrov Kal ovrrco rrerr paver puevov rd avrd 

BpCOCTLV. dfJb€L^6fM€V0l Be OC 7Tdp$lK€S TOVS Tp€<f)OV~ 

ras Kal avrol rraXevovoi rovs d<f>erovs Kal dypiovs, 
Kara rds rreptorepds Bpwvres Kal odroi tovto. 
rrpoadyerai Be apa 6 rrepBig Kal oeiprjvas is to 


tovtov* earrjKev aBcov 3 Kal eanv ol to fieXos 
TTpOKXrjTLKov, is p^dx^jv OTrodrjyov rov aypiov, 
earrjKe Be iXXo^cov irpos rfj rrdyrj' 6 Be * rcov 
dyplow Kopv<j>aios dvrdcras 7Tp6 rrjs dyeXrjs jiaxov- 
pievos epx^rac. 6 roivvv nQacros iirl rroBa dva^aj- 
pei, BeBUvai OKiqTTr6p,evos' 6 Be erreioi yavpos, 
ota 5 Brjrrov Kparujv rjBrj, Kal edXcoKev evoked els 
rfj irdyrj. idv puev ovv rj dpprjv 6 rots drjpdrpois 
trepmeowv , 6 rreipQwrai irriKovpeiv ol avvvopuoi tw 
iaXcoKorr edv Be rj OrjXvs, rralovat rov ivoxeOevra 
dXXos dXXaxoOev, cos Bid rrjv XayveLav is BovXelav 
ipmeaovra. Kal iKeivo Be ov Traprfcra), iirel Kal 
d£iov aKovaai avro. idv rj OrjXvs d rraXevoov, Iva 
jirj ipu7rear) 6 dpprjv, al e^co QrjXeiai fieXos dvrcpBov 
rjXOvai, Kal pvovrai rov ipurreaovpLevov is rrjv ird- 
yrjv rals ovwopbois Kal rrXeloaw dapuevoys avp^rra- 

2 vfyXw ovcrrjs dnoptas. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 15-16 

designs on man or beast, even were he to walk through 
the middle of a flock. Gradually however and little 
by little his tongue shrinks and resumes its former 
shape, and he becomes once more a wolf. 

16. Cockerels all tread a newcomer to the flock, The 
and tame Partridges do the same to the latest JjjJ 
arrival as yet untamed. And Partridges even requite 
their own parents by decoying those that are free and 
wild, acting in this respect just like pigeons. Now 
this is the way in which the Partridge draws them to 
him and displays the arts of a Siren to allure others. 
He stands uttering his cry, and his tune conveys a 
challenge, provoking the wild bird to fight ; and he 
stands in ambush by the springe. Then the cock of 
the wild birds answers back and advances to do battle 
on behalf of his covey. So the tame bird withdraws, 
pretending to be afraid, while the other advances 
vaunting as though he were already victorious, is 
caught in the snare, and is captured. Now if it is a 
cock bird that falls into the trap, his companions 
attempt to bring help to the captive ; but if it is a 
hen, one here and another there beats the captive for 
allowing her lust to bring her into slavery. 

And here is a point that I will not omit, for it 
deserves attention. If the decoy-bird is a hen, the 
wild hens, in order to prevent the cock from falling 
into the trap, counter the challenge with their cries 
and rescue the cock that is about to be trapped, for 
he is glad to stay with those who are his mates and 

3 ffiwv 6 irpdos. * 817.. 

5 Meiske; w$ ota. ® JReiskei 7rapan4va)v. 



pafievovra, 1 <hs av Xvyyl nvi eXxOevra val p,a AC 

17. "Ev tow ftauKavayv £<pa)v' fievroi Kal exjLvos 

6 %€p(ICUOS €imt 7T€7TlO'T€VTai. OTaV yOVV aAlOTO]- 

rat, TrapaxpfjfAa eveovprjcre 2 ra> Seppbart, Kal 
axp&ov d7T€(f)7]V€V avro' BoKet oe is TToXXd 
e7Tirrjheiov . Kal rj Xvy£ Be arroKpVTrTei to ovpov* 
orav yap Trayfj, XLOos yiverai, /cat yXv<f>at$ €77tT?j- 
Betos eartj /cat rot? yvvaiKelois Koapuois avpbpi(i)(€~ 
roiy <f>aaw? 

18. Aeovro<f>6vov <f>ay<hv 6 Xecov arroredvriKe . 
ra Be evrop^a <j>9elperai y el iXalq) ns iyxptveiev 
avrd. yvirwv ye [mtjv to fivpov SXeBpos ion. 
K&vOapov Be aTToXels, el eirifiaXois rcbv poBwv 

19. Kvves *IvBiKoi, 6rjpia Kal olBe elcrl /cat 
oXktjv aXKtjj,a Kal ifivx'rjv QvpLoeiheorara /cat twv 
iravra-xpSev kvv£>v fj^eyicxroi. Kal tojv p,ev aXXcov 
£<pa)V VTTep^povovai, XeovTL Be opiooe ^a>/?e£ kvcov 
*IvBikos, Kal eyKelfJuevov vrropbivei, Kal fipvxojpuevq) 
avdvXaKrel, /cat avriB&Kvei B&KVovra' /cat -TroAAa 
avrov Xvirrfcras /cat KararpcLaas , TeAeuraV rjrrdraL 
6 kvcqv. elrj 8' av /cat AeW rjrrr)6els vtto kvvos 
'Ivoov, Kal pievroi Kal BaKwv 6 kvo)v e^erai Kal 
/xaAa iyKparcbs. Kav irpooeXdcbv ju-a^atpa to 
OKeXos a/iroKOTrTTjS rod kvvos, 6 oe ovk ayei 
axoXrjv aXyijaas dvewai to Brjypa, dXXd atreKoiTri 

1 JReisJce : avvSpafiovra. 2 ivovpiqae. 

3 ^aatv Sid -nys yAt^s. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 16-19 

more numerous, seeming to be drawn by some spell 
that is in truth love. 

17. The Hedgehog too is believed to be one of the ^ gehog 
animals that show spite. Thus, when it is caught it 
immediately makes water on its skin, so rendering it 

unfit for use, though it is thought to serve many 
purposes. The Lynx too hides its urine, for when it The Lynx 
hardens it turns to stone a and is suitable for engrav- 
ing, and is one of the aids to female adornment, so 
they say. 

18. If a Lion eats a Lion s-bane,* it dies. And in- ° b ; e o ^ 
sects are destroyed if one drops oil on them. And to certain 
perfumes are the death of Vultures. Beetles you will animals 
extirpate if you scatter roses on them. 

19. The Hounds of India are. reckoned as wildg^*» 
animals; they are exceedingly strong and fierce- 
tempered, and are the largest dogs in the world. All 

other animals they despise; but an Indian Hound 
will engage with a lion and resist its onslaught, bark- 
ing against its roar and giving bite for bite. Only 
after much worrying and wounding of the lion is the 
Hound finally overcome ; and even a lion might be 
overcome by an Indian Hound, for once it has bitten, 
the Hound holds fast with might and mam. ^ And 
even if you take a sword and cut off a Hound's leg, 
it has no thought, in spite of its pain, of relaxing its 

a The stone known as Xvyyovpiov was perhaps amber. The 
word was derived from Auyl and odpov. # 

b In [Arist.] Mir. 845 a 28 it appears as a Syrian animal 
that was supposed to poison Hons ; to hunters who killed, 
cooked, and ate it it was equally fatal; cp. Plin. NH 8. 38. 
But L-S* regard it as an insect. 



fJL€V 7Tp6r€pOV TO CTKeXoS , V€KpO£ Be dvfjKe TO GTOfia, 

Kal Ketrac fitaodels dTTOGrrjvai rep Oavdrco. a Be 
7rpo(ji^Kov(j a^ epco dXXaxodt. 


dva-rrXet r) rpo<f>rj. Kal rov p,ev dvdpcojrov r) 
KapBta tw fiasco rw Xaccp tt poaiqpTqr ai 3 rots ye 
firjv dXXots C<*>ots ev pueGcp rq> Grrfiei TTpOGTreTrXa- 
arat. yapAjswwxov Be dpa ovSe ev ovre rrlvei 
ovre ovpet ovre fMrjv GwayeXd^erai erepois. 

21. Qrjplov *1voikov, fiiaiov rrjv dX/cqv 9 2 fxeyeOos 
Kara rov Xeovra rov \ieyiGrov 9 rrjv Be XP° av 
epvdpov, cos Kiwafidpwov 3 etvai BoKeiv, Baav Be 
<L$ Kvves, <f>tavfj rfj 'IvScDv puaprcxopas <hv6p,aGrai. 
to rrpoGamov Be KeKTrjTCU roiovrov, cos BoKetv ov 
Orjptov rovro ye, aAAa dvQpcoTrov eyew.^ oBovres 
Be 5 T/o/crTOt^ot ipbTTeirriyacrw ol dvco avrcp, rpl~ 
(jtolxoi Be ol Kara), rrjv aKfjurjv o^vraroc, rcov 
Kvveiojv eKeivoi p,eL£ovs* rd Be Sra eoiKev dv- 
6pd)7rq) Kal ravra, G fielta) Be Kal Bacrea' rovs Be 
6<f>9aXp,ovs yXauKos ean, Kal iotKaaiv dvOpamtvois 
Kal ofiroi. voBas Be fxoi voei Kal ovvxas olovs etvai 
Xeovros. rfj Be ovpa aKpq, 7rpoarjpT7)Tai GKOprrCov 
Kevrpov, Kal eiT] dv virep 7rrjxvv rovro } Kal Trap* 
eKarepa avrcp r) ovpa Kevrpois BceiXrjTrrar to Be 
ovpaiov to aKpov is Qdvarov eKevrqcre rov Trepirv- 

1 irpooriKOvaa irepcDS. 

2 rrjv aKO-qv koX aXfcrjv L. 

3 Kiwafiapiv. 

4 drjpiov . . . avBpoiirov opav. 

5 jLtef. 6 ravra rijv ye eavrcov irXaow. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 19-21 

bite, but though its leg has been cut off, only when 
dead does it let go and lie still, forced by death to 

What more I have learned I will recount else- 

20. Men and Dogs are the only creatures that J^Sf s 
belch after they have eaten their fill. A man's heart creatures 

is attached to his left breast, but in other creatures 
it is fixed in the centre of the thorax. Among 
birds of prey there is not one that drinks or makes 
water, or even gathers in flocks with others of its 

21. There is in India a wild beast, powerful, daring, ^ tichore 
as big as the largest lion, of a red colour like cinnabar, 
shaggy like a dog, and in the language of India it is 
called Martichoras? Its face however is not that of 

a wild beast but of a man, and it has three rows of 
teeth set in its upper jaw and three in the lower; 
these are exceedingly sharp and larger than the 
fangs of a hound. Its ears also resemble a mans, 
except that they are larger and shaggy ; its eyes are 
blue-grey and they too are like a man's, but its feet 
and claws, you must know, are those of a lion. To 
the end of its tail is attached the sting of a scorpion, 
arid this might be over a cubit in length ; and the tail 
has stings at intervals on either side. But the tip of 
the tail gives a fatal sting to anyone who encounters 

See 8. 1. , . . j j, 

b The English form is mantichore. The word is derived from 

the Persian mardkhora = ' man-slayer ' ; perhaps a man-eating 




Xovra, Kal Bti<j)9eLpe rrapaxprjfjLa. edv Se tls avrov 1 
hiwKTj) 6 Se d(f)lri(ji rd Kevrpa TrXdyta <Ls fteAr), Kal 

€(7TC TO C&OV €K7]f$6AoV. Kal £s TOVfXTrpOodeV 

orav a7roXvrj ra Kevrpa 3 am/cAa tt]v ovpdv edv Se 
i$ TOVTTtaco Kara rovs Safca?, a Se aTTOrdhiqv avrrjv 
££aprq. orov 8' dv ro f$Xr)6ev rvxTI> aTTOKreivei' 
eXe^avra Se ovk dvaipel fjuovov. rd Se aKovri^o- 
Kevrpa TroScaZa ro fj,rjKos eari, a^olvov Se to 
ird-xps. Xeyei Se dpa Kmrjcrtas Kal foqow o/xoAo- 
yeZv avro) rov$ 'IvSous 1 , ev raZs x c * ) P ac s T ^ )V 
diroXvofievajv eKelvow Kevrpa>v vrrava^veoOai dXXa, 
ws elvai rod KaKov rovBe eTnyovqv. ^ikrfieZ Se, 
<!)$ 6 avrog Aeyet, fxaXiora dvOpcLirovs eoOlojv, 
Kal dvaipeZ ye 2 dvQpamovs ttoAXovs, Kal ov Kad* 
eva eAAo^a, Svo 3 8* dv €7tl0olto Kal rptoi, Kal 
KpareZ ra>v rocrovrcov pi,6vos. Karayoyvlt^erai Se 
Kal rwv t,woyv ra Aowra, Xeovra Se ovk dv KadeXot 
TTore. on Se Kpecov dvBpamelcov ep,7TiTrXdpLevov 
ToSe to £&ov VTreptfSerat, KartyyopeZ koI to 
ovofjia' voeZ 4 yap rfj 'EAAt^oov <f*a)vfj 5 dvOpa)- 
7Tocj)dyov avro etvai. £k Se rod epyov Kal KeKXrj- 
rai. 7ri<f)VK€ Se Kara rrjv eXa<f>ov wkiotos. rd 
fip€<j>r} Se rtovBe rcov t,(pojv 'IvSot drjp&oiv d/ceV~ 
rpovs rd$ ovpa$ ex ovra > KCLL AiQcp ye 6 dia9Xa>crw 
avrds, tva dBwarwcrt rd Kevrpa dva</>veiv. <f>a>vr}v 
Se aaXrnyyos d>$ on eyyvrdrw Trpoterat. Xeyei 
Se Kal iopaKevat 7 ToSe to I^wov ev Yiepuais 
K.T7)crLa? e£ 'IvSatv KopuaOev Scopov rep Hepacov 
fSaatXet, el 877 rep Ikovos reKfjbrjpLwaai virep rcov 

1 avro. 2 SI 3 Kal hvo. 

4 MeisJce : roetrat. 5 (f>a>vfj rj ^Ivhcov. 

6 ye en* 7 £<opaK€vai. 



it, and death is immediate. If one pursues the beast 
it lets fly its stings, like arrows, sideways, and it can 
shoot a great distance; and when it discharges its 
stings straight ahead it bends its tail back ; if how- 
ever it shoots in a backward direction, as the Sacae a 
do, then it stretches its tail to its full extent. Any 
creature that the missile hits it kills ; the elephant 
alone it does not kill. These stings which it shoots 
are a foot long and the thickness of a bulrush. Now 
Ctesias asserts (and he says that the Indians confirm 
his words) that in the places where those stings have 
been let fly others spring up, so that this evil produces 
a crop. And according to the same writer the 
Mantichore for choice devours human beings ; indeed 
it will slaughter a great number ; and it lies in wait 
not for a single man but would set upon two or even 
three men, and alone overcomes even that number. 
All other animals it defeats : the lion alone it can 
never bring down. That this creature takes special 
delight in gorging human flesh its very name testi- 
fies, for in the Greek language it means man-eater, 
and its name is derived from its activities. Like the 
stag it is extremely swift. 

Now the Indians hunt the young of these animals 
while they are still without stings in their tails, which 
they then crush with a stone to prevent them from 
growing stings. The sound of their voice is as near 
as possible that of a trumpet. 

Ctesias declares that he has actually seen this 
animal in Persia (it had been brought from India as 
a present to the Persian King)— if Ctesias is to be 

« Iranian nomads inhabiting the country SE of the Sea of 
Aral between the rivers Jaxartes and Oxus. They , contri- 
buted a contingent to the Persian army. 



roiovrcov Krrjaias, aKovaas ye pufyv rd totd tl$ 
rovSe rod £a>ov etra fxevroc rep avyypa<f>el red 
KvtStaj trpoae^erco. 

22. TtKoXoTrevBpa OaXarrla Biapptfyvvrai, cos 
(f>aaiv, dvOpcoirov oianrvaavros avrrjs. 1 

23. Kaprnv oe Ireas el ns QXifievra BoCrj mew 
rots dXoyots, Xvirelrat iKelva ovoe ev, ptaXXov Be 
Kat rpecherai* iricbv Be dvOpcoiros rrjv arropdv rrjv 
vraihoTrotov re Kai eyKapTtov drrcoXeoe. /cat ptot 
BoKet "OfiTjpos Kai rd rrjs <f>vaecos aTropprjra 
dvtxvevcras etra fxivrot e Kai treat coXeaiKaprrot 9 iv 
rots eavrov pterpots eliretv rovro alvtrropbevos. 
Kcoveiov Be dvdpcoTros mcov Kara rrjv rod aiptaros 
mjfjlv re Kai iftvgtv drroOvqcrKet, v$ Be Kcoveiov 
epuTriirXarat Kai vytatvet. 

24. 01 'IvSoi reXetov puev iXecf>avra ovXXafietv 
paBtcos dBvvarovotv ^ is Be rd eXr) <f>otrtovres rd 
yetrvtcovra rco TToraptco etra ptevrot Xapufiavovotv 
avrcov rd ppe<f>rj. dotrd^erat yap 6 iXe<f>as rd 
evBpooa %a)pta Kai ptaXaKa, Kai tfuXet rd vScop, 
Kai iv rotoBe rots rjOecn BtairaoOat edeXet, Kai cbs 
av emots eXetos ion. Xafiovres odv drraXd Kai 
evireiBrj rpe<f>ovat KoXaKela re rfj Kara yacrrepa 
Kai Oepairela rfj rrepl rd ocopua Kai tfxovfj dconev- 
riKfj (avvtdat yap iXe<f>avres Kai yXcorrrjs dvOpco- 
Trivqs rrjs eTTixcopiov) , Kai ovveXovrt, elirelv cos 
7ratoas avrovs eKrpecfrovot, Kai KopuBrjv Trpotrd- 

1 npoaTrrvGavros avrfj H. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 21-24 

regarded as a sufficient authority on such matters. 
At any rate after hearing of the peculiarities of this 
animal, one must pay heed to the historian of Cnidos. 

22. The Sea-scolopendra bursts, they say, when a The power 
man spits in its face. spittle 

23. If one crushes the fruit of a Willow-tree and The wmow 
gives it to animals to drink, they suffer no injury at 

all, rather they thrive on it. But if a man drinks it, 
his semen loses its procreative strength. And I fancy 
that Homer had explored the secrets of nature when 
he wrote in his verses [Od. 10. 510] ' and willows that 
lose their fruit/ and that he was making a cryptic 
allusion to this. And if a man drink Hemlock, he dies 
from the congealing and chilling of his blood, whereas 
a hog can gorge itself with Hemlock and remain in 
good health. 

24. The Indians have difficulty in capturing a full- ■Jjggj*, 
grown Elephant. So they resort to the swamps by a 

river and then capture the young ones. For the 
Elephant delights in moist places where the ground is 
soft, and loves the water, and prefers to pass his time 
in these haunts : he is, so to say, a creature of the 
swamps. So having caught them while tender and 
docile, they look after them, pandering to their 
appetites, grooming their bodies, and using soothing 
words— for the Elephants understand the speech of 
the natives— and, in a word, they foster them like 
children and bestow care upon them, instructing 

2 afovaroOmv, ovre yap roaavra Spdoovaiv ovre roooihe 



yovow avrois Kal TtacBevpcara irotKtAa. ol Be 
ireLQovr at. 

25. "Otclv dXorjros Kal arpe<j>covrat irepl rov 
Bivov ol fioes, Kal TrerrXripoypLevr] rcov Bpayfxdrcov r) 
aAo>s- 77, vnep rov rovs fiovs p>r) a7royevaaaQai 
ra>v crraxvcov fioXlrco rds ptvas emxptovaw avra>v, 
aofaojxa eTTLvorjaavres rovro Kal pbdXa ye imrrj- 
Becov. rovro yap to Cwov puvaarropuevov rr)v 
TTpoeiprniivrfv x?^ aiv ^ v TLV0S, 
ovo* el rco j3apvrdrq> At/x<£ me^ovro. 

26. Tovs Xaycbs Kal rds dXd>7reKas Orjpwow ol 
'IvSol rov rpoTtov rovrov. kvvcov is rrjv dypav 
ov Beovrai, dXXa veorrovs ovXXafiovres deratv Kal 
KopaKcov Kal iKrivaw itpoaen rpe<f>ovat Kal 
eKiraiBevovai rr)v 6r]pav. Kal eon to fidOrjfLa, 
TTpdcp Xayw Kal dXd>7T€KL ridaaay Kpeas irpooap- 
rcoai, Kal fiediaai, dew, Kal rovs Ppvidas avrois 
Kara, rroBas einTTeptAfsavres to Kpeas d<f>eXea9ao 
ovyx*wpovcrw . ol Be dvd Kpdros BiwKOVai, koI 
eXovres r] tov r] rrjv exovaiv vrrep rov KaraXafieiv 
dBXov to Kpeas. Kal rovro p,ev avrois BeXedp 
ian Kal /xaAa e^oXKov. ovkovv orav aKpiftcoawai 
rrjv ao<f>lav rr)v drjpariK'qv, enl rovs dpelovs Xaycbs 
puedidaiv avrovs Kal enl rds dXd)7TeKa$ rds dyplas. 
ol Be eXirlBi rov Beiirvov rov crvvrj0ovs 3 . orav n 
rovrcuv <f>avf), pieradeovai, Kal alpovaiv a>Kiara, 
Kal rots BeoTToracs diro^epovaiv , <h$ Xeyei Krrjaias. 
Kal ore virep rov recos TTpoarjprrjfjievov Kpeats 
avrois ra GTrXdyxva tow j\prr\\Levuw Belrrvdv 1 
ear iv, eKelBev Kal rovro tapiev. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 24-26 

them in various ways. And the baby Elephants 
learn to obey. 

25 In the threshing season when the oxen move g-^ ^ 

™,irin. that it would not toTOh any food, even 
SS^tt .ere a~Ued Y»th th. neroest h.nge.. 

Hare or xo * d havmg sen t the 

o 8 , the Fo ? *.v Wvethe » ?= ^ 

of these animals appears, fly after it, seize it m a 
tkee and bring it back to then- masters, as Ctes as 
r^'«« And from the same source we learn also 
that % I'vltce of the meat which has hitherto been 

provide a meal. _,, 

to dehrvov. 



27. Tov ypvira clkovw to i^wov to 'IvSlkov 
T€Tpa7Tovv elvai /caret tovs XiovTa$> Kal exeiv 
ovvxas KapT€povs w$ on fxdXiara, Kal tovtovs 


pov Se etvat, Kal twv fiev vojTialcov 1 irrep&v ttjv 
Xpoav peXawav aSovcrt, rd Se irpooOca ipvOpd 
cf>aai, Tag ye firjv irTepvyas avTas ovk4tl TOtavTa$ 3 
dXXa XevK&s. ttjv Beprjv Se avTwv Kvavois Biyvdl- 
adai toi$ TTTepots KrTjacag toTopei, OTOfxa Se ex €lv 
deTwSes Kal rrjv Ke<f>aXrjv oirolav ol )(€LpovpyovvT€s 
ypd<j>ovoL re Kal ttX&ttovvi. (frXoycoSets Se tovs 
o<f>QaXpiov$ <f>7]orcv avTOv. veOTTids Se em tojv 
6pa>v TToieiTai, Kal TeXeiov fxev Xafieiv dSzWroV 
eoTi, veoTTovs Se alpovou. Kal Ba/cr/Hoi p,ev 
yeiTViwvTes 'loots' Xeyovaiv ovtovs <f>vXaKa$ elvai 
tov xpvaov <ro£> 2 avToBi, Kal opVTTeiv re avTov 
<f>aaiv avTOvs Kal gk tovtov tcls KaXids vrroTrXe- 
Kew, to Se d-rroppeov *lv$ovs Xapufidveiv . 'IvSoi 
Se ov <j>aoiv avTOvs <f>povpovs elvai tov Trpoeiprjfie- 
vov ^7]Se ydp Beiodai xpvcriov ypvrras {Kal raura 
ec Xeyovai, mard efioiye Bokovoi Xeyeiv)- dXXd 
avTOvs ftev eVt ttjv tov x? va ' l0V dOpoioriv d^>iKvei~ 
crOai, tov$ Se vrrep re tcov crfieTepcov fipefitbv 
SeSieVat Kal tols emouat /xa^ecr&u. Kal Siayatvi- 
£eo6ai fxev 7Tp6s rd aAAa Ja>a Kal KpaTeiv pqoTa, 
XiovTi Se purj dvOiOTaoOai p/t)he eXej>avTi* SeStores" 
Se dpa TTjv TWvSe twv Srjplcov dXKrjv ol emx^- 
piot, ju-e^ 5 rjfjLepav eirl tov xp V(J ov ov OTeXXovTai, 
vvktojp Se epxovTar ioUaai ydp TiqviKdhe tov 
Katpov XavOdveiv {juaXXov. 6 Se xcapo? ovTog, evda 

1 e?vat , . . vamaiW] ra vwra dvai Kal tovtcw tcov. 

2 <tov> add, Beiske. 



27. I have heard that the Indian animal the ^ phong 
Gryphon is a quadruped like a lion ; that it has claws and the gold 
of enormous strength and that they resemble those 
of a lion. Men commonly report that it is winged 
and that the feathers along its back are black, and 
those on its front are red, while the actual wings are 
neither but are white. And Ctesias records that its 
neck is variegated with feathers of a dark blue ; that 
it has a beak like an eagle's, and a head too, just as 
artists portray it in pictures and sculpture. Its eyes, 
he says, are like fire. It builds its lair among 
the mountains, and although it is not possible to cap- 
ture the full-grown animal, they do take the young 
ones. And the people of Bactria, who are neigh- 
bours of the Indians, say that the Gryphons guard the 
gold in those parts ; that they dig it up and build their 
nests with it, and that the Indians carry off any that 
falls from them. The Indians however deny that 
they guard the aforesaid gold, for the Gryphons have 
no need of it (and if that is what they say, then I at 
any rate think that they speak the truth), but that 
they themselves come to collect the gold, while the 
Gryphons fearing for their young ones fight with the 
invaders. They engage too with other beasts and 
overcome them without difficulty, but they will not 
face the lion or the elephant. Accordingly the 
natives, dreading the strength of these animals, do 
not set out in quest of the gold by day, but arrive by 
night, for at that season they are less likely to be 
detected. Now the region where the Gryphons live 



ol re ypvues StatTwrat /cat ra ^pvcytxa 1 eanv, 
kp7)fj,os iri(f)VK€ heivws. d<j>tKvovvraL he ot rr)$ 
v\r)s rrjs 7Tpoecp7]iJLevr)s Orjparal Kara ^tAt'ovs T~e 
/cat his Tocrovrovs coTrAtoy^evot, Kal djxas ko/jllCovgi 
aaKKovs re, Kal opvrrovacv aaeXr^vov eTriT-^povvres 
vvKra. edv p,kv ovv XdOaxyc rovs ypviras, covqvrat 
(WAt/v rrjv ovrjow /cat yap oo>£ovtcu Kal jjuevroi 
/cat ot/caSe rov <f>6prov KOfjbi^ovoi s Kal ifCKaOypav- 
res 2 ot jiaQovres xP vao X oe ^ v 3 vofoa rwl cj<f)erepa 
irdiiiroXw ttXovtov virkp ra>v Kivhvvcov e'xovcrt rwv 
7TpO€Cp7]fievct)v edv he Kard(f>a)poi yevwvrai, dVo- 
Xd)Xacrw. erravipxovrat he es rd ot/ceta <l$ 
7TVv6dvofjLat St* erovs rpCrov Kal rerdprov. 

28. XeX (Jovrjs OaXarrtas aTrorpLrjOetaa rj Ke<f>aXrj 4 
PXerrei Kal KarapiveL rrjv X € ^P a Ttpoodyovros- jjhr] 
o° dv Kal haKoi, el Trepanepa* irpouaydyois rrjv 
Xetpa. /cat eVt fxaKpov iKXapL-rrovras e^et rovs 
6<j>6aXixovs m at yap rot Kopat XevKorarai re Kal 
7repi<j)aveararaL elm, Kal igatpeOeiaai xp vcr t<i> Kal 
opp,oi$ evrlOevrac. kvQev rot Kal hoKovcri rats 
yvvaigl Oavfiaarat. yivovrai he d)S at 
XeA&vat atSe ev rfj OaXdrrrj, fjv dhovaiv 'EpvOpdv. 

29. f aXeKTpvcbv rrjs (reX^vrjs dviaxovarjs 
evOovaia <f>acrt Kal aKLpra. yXios he dvlaxojv ovk 
dv rrore avrov hiaXddoi, <hhiK(Lraros he iavrov 5 
evri TTjviKahe. TrvvOdvofiai he on dpa Kal rfj 

1 BeisJce : ra. ^wpta ra xpvaela. 

3 Ges : xpvcrcopvxelv. 

4 K€<j>aXT} oihrore OvrfaKti dAAa. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 27-29 

and where the gold is mined is a dreary wilderness. 
And the seekers after the aforesaid substance arrive, 
a thousand or two strong, armed and bringing spades 
and sacks ; and watching for a moonless night they 
begin to dig. Now if they contrive to elude the 
Gryphons they reap a double advantage, for they not 
only escape with their lives but they also take home 
their freight, and when those who have acquired a 
special skill in the smelting of gold have refined it, 
they possess immense wealth to requite them for the 
dangers described above. If however they are 
caught in the act, they are lost. And they return 
home, I am told, after an interval of three or four 

28. The head of a Turtle, after it has been cut off, ^ -j**^ 
sees and closes its eyes if one brings one's hand near ; 

and it would still bite if you brought your hand too 
near. It has eyes that flash a long way off, for the 
pupils are the purest white and very conspicuous, and 
when removed are set in gold and necklaces* For 
■ that reason they are greatly admired by women. 
These Turtles, I learn, are natives of what is com- 
monly called the ' Red Sea/ 

29. The Cock, they say, at moonrise becomes pos- 
sessed and jumps about. Never would a sunrise pass crowing 
unnoticed by him, but at that hour he excels himself 

in crowing. And I learn that the Cock is the 

xeAtovta, tortoise-stone ; an unknown gem. Cp. Plin. HN 
37. 10. 



Atjtoi <f>lXov iariv 6 dXeKrpvtov 1 to opveov. ro 
5 e atriov, napecrrr] <f>aalv avrfj rrjv oWAtp re /cat 
p.aKapiav d>8tva whivovorj. ravrd roi Kai vvv 
rats riKrovaais dXeKrpvdjv irdpeun, kgli SoKet 
rrws evwBivas drro^alveiv. rrjs Se opviSos drro- 
XwXvlas, eircod^ei avros, Kai e/cAeVet rd ig iavrov 
veorna oiodttwv ov yap a$ei rore Savfiaaryj rwi 
teal aTropp^rw atria, val fid rov SoKet yap ptoi 
wyyivwGKew iavrcp OrjXetas epya Kai ovk dppevos 
Spjovrt rrjvtKaBe. fiaxj} 2 <3e> 3 dXeKrpvwv Kai 
rfj rrpos aXXov rqrr^Beis dyowla ovk dv aaece 4 ' to 
yap rot <f>povrjixa avrcp KarecrraXrat, 5 Kai KaraSve- 
rat ye vrro rrjs alSovs. Kpariqaas he yavpos iort, 
Kai Vi/javxevet, Kai KvBpovfieva) eoiKe. davfidaac 
Se rod £cpov virepdgiov Kai eKelvo hrjirow Ovpav 
yap vindjv Kai rrjv dyav vxjjrjXrjv, 6 Be ernKvirreiy 
dXa^oveorara Spcbv eKeivos rovro- </>eiSoL yap 
rov X6<f>ov Trpdrreiv eotKe to elpypbivov. 

30. Ot koXolol Beivcos <f>iXovm to 6{io<j>vXov. 
rovro roc Kai Bta<j>delpei avrovs rroXXaKts, Kai ro 
ye hpdjjxevov roiovrov eartv, ora) pueXei O-qpaaai 
koXolovs, roiavra rraXapbdrat. evQa oTBev avrwv 
vofj,d$ Kai rpo<f>d$ Kai dQpoi£op,evov$ 6 pa Kar 
dyeXaSy evravda XeKavLhas eXaiov pueards * Biarl- 
Srjo-Lv. ovkovv hieihes p,ev ro eXacov, rtepiepyov Be 
rd opvlBiov, Kai d<j>t,Kvelrai Kai inl ro ^ctAo? rov 
o-Kevovs Kddrjrai, Kai Kvrrrei Kara) Kai opa rrjv 
iavrov GKidv, Kai oierai koXoiov fiXe-new aXAov, 
Kai KareXdelv rrpds avrov oirevBei. Karecal re 

1 6 aXeKTpvaiv del. Cobet* 2 eV fid^j}. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 29-30 

favourite bird of Leto. The reason is, they say, that 
he was at her side when she was so happily brought to 
bed of twins. That is why to this very day a Cock 
is at hand when women are in travail, and is believed 
somehow to promote an easy delivery. 

If the Hen dies the Cock himself sits on the eggs 
and hatches his own eggs in silence, for then for some 
strange and inexplicable reason, I must say, he does 
not crow. I fancy that he is conscious that he is then 
doing the work of a female and not. of a male. 

A Cock that has been defeated in battle and in a 
struggle with another will not crow, for his spirit is 
depressed and he hides himself in shame. On the 
other hand if he is victorious, he is proud and holds his 
head high and appears exultant. Here too is a most 
astonishing trait, I think. As he passes beneath a 
doorway, no matter how high, the Cock lowers his 
head— a most pretentious action, done apparently 
to protect his comb. 

30. Jackdaws are devoted to their own species ; Tta^ 
and this it is that often causes their destruction. And 
it happens in this way. The man who intends to 
hunt Jackdaws adopts the following plan. In the how caught 
place where he knows that they feed and where he 
sees them gathering in flocks he arranges basins full 
of oil. Now the oil is transparent and the bird is in- 
quisitive, and it comes and perches on the rim of the 
vessel, bends down, and sees its own reflexion, and 
supposing it to be another Jackdaw, makes haste to 
go down to it. So it descends, naps its wings, and 

3 <8e> add. Beishe. 

6 KariuroXrai /cat /xe/LieiWat. 


ow km mepvaoenu » K al mpipdXXei to iXatov 
avrcp, K ai avawrepvyhai 3 Tj/cto-roV ion, Kal 
Xyis ow™™ K al Trdyrjs Kal dpweBovcov t6 Z&ov 
fievei cvs dv elvois neireSrip,ii/ov. 

31 '0 iXtyas, oi p.h> avrov npoKvnreiv yavXco- 
bovras fajw, oi Si K ipara. i X ec Si K al K a6' 
eKOOTOv noSa SaKTlSXovs ireVre, iirofavovras uh> 
ras aefvoeis, w pty SceoTcoras. ravrd rot Ka l 
v^KTiKos «nw -QKtara. o K 4Xr, Si ra Kar6mv rcov 
wpoo0uw*Bpa X 4repd ion- patol Si airto n P 6s 
raw (laaxaAais elcrt- p,vKrrjpa Si KeKTTjrai X eipos 
TraYXpjTr&repov Kal yXwrrav Ppa X euiv voA™ .Si 
avroy exeiv ov Kara. t6 frap dXXd irpds tw ivripco 5 
fan. kvw Si Trvridvo/jLai SJo Zt&v t6v iXtyav+a. 
oi be ov roaovrov XP 6vov, aXXd AennKalSeKa 
Hycav opoAoyovrnv. dworiKrei Si lorjXiKa to 
pcyeBos n6<J X a> iviavoUp, otto. Si rrjs e-nXSs t& 
OToptm. evdovaicZv Si is oicrrpa, re J>Xey6- 

p-evo S € p,TUTTTe<, joi X o> Kal dvarpivei, ical fa vlKas 
KMvei, to fxercoTTOv Trpoaaparrriov Kara, rovs 
K P l ° v l- m rJ>e ov ScecSis ovSi KaBapdv, 

aAA orav vnoeoXuor) re Kal tororapdftj. KaOe^Sei 
yeji V v opOooraS-qv KaTOKAivrjvai ydp Kal igava- 
orr, V ai epy&Ses airy, forf Si iXUavn iM- 
Kovra err,/ Sta-mW Si t6v fiiov koI is SiitXL 
eKarovraSa. K p V( i$ Si dfuXdv -qkiotSs ion? 

1 JaC : 7r€pCTTTVGO€Tai. 

2 Ges : avro. 

4 Ges : ra vpoadia rwv Karomv, 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 30-31 

scatters the oil all over itself. Being quite unable to 
fly up again the bird remains, so to speak, fettered, 
though neither net nor trap nor snare is there. 

31. The Elephant has what some call protrutog 
tusks what others call horns. On each toot ne nas its anat0 my 
five toes; their growth is just visible although they and Habits 
are not separate ; and that is why he is ill-adapted for 
swimming. His hind legs are shorter than his fore- 
legs ; his paps are close to his armpits : he has a 
proboscis which is far more serviceable than a hand, 
and his tongue is short ; his gall-bladder is said to be 
not near the liver but close to the intestines. I am 
informed that the duration of the Elephant s preg- 
nancy is two years, although others maintain that it 
is not so long, but only eighteen months. It bears a 
young one as big as a one-year-old calf, which pulls 
at the dug with its mouth. When it is possessed with . 
a desire to copulate and is burning with passion, it 
will dash at a wall and overturn it, will bend palm- 
trees by butting its forehead against them, as rams 
do. It drinks water not when clear and pure but 
when it has dirtied and stirred it up a little. But it 
sleeps standing upright, for it finds the act of lying 
down and of rising troublesome. The Elephant 
reaches its prime at the age of sixty, though its lite 
extends to two hundred years. But it cannot endure 

5 Camper : arepvu>. f 

1 The sentence KpvpQ . . . icrn appears ^Jhe MSS between 
*nj and fcarava; transposed by H {Hermes 11. 233). 



32 . IlpopaTctav Si IvSwv oWat fiadeiv 
ras alyas Kal ras oh ovcov t&v p.eylurwv ^ovas 
clkovco Kal aTTOKvecv rirrapa eKdorrjv uetVye 
fxy rthv rpi&v oUr* a% 'IvSuci) aSr* 6\v oh mm 
re/cot. /cat rots [liv <Trpofidrois at ovpal tt P 6? rov 
rroba Ttravrai, at Si atyes floras € X ovocv 3 
war €7Tt^av€iv yfjs oXtyov. ra>v p,iv odv oi&v 
twv rcKTetv dyaQwv ajroKoTTTOvoi ras ovpds ol 
voxels, tva dvafiaivwrai, £ K Si rrjs iri^Xris rrjs 
tovtojv K at eXaiov iiroOXifiovw rwv Si dppivwv 
SiartiLvovoi rds ovpds, Kal ifacpovoc t6 ariap 
K<u emppairrmm, Kal ivovrai irdXiv i rout, K al 
a<pavi£€Tai ra \yyq ^vrijs, 

33. 'AX^avSpos 6 MJvStos t6v X ^iX4ovra 
M)7T€iv rovs ofets Kal dcrcrla mptfdXXew rov 
rpo m v tovtov fam. Kdpfos irXarv Kal orepeov 

f#*KW ZO.VTOV ilTlOTpifa, Kal dvTl<7Tp6<7C07T0S 

l T° a % XW P €t T $ ™ A ^V* 6 Si avrov XaBi- 
odai aSvvarel, rov Kdp<f>ov S rd rrXdros ovk Sy W v- 
irepi X avelv ohcovv dSecnvos t6 ye hf i K Xco 
imeio ofvs- SaKva>v ydp roi rd Xonrd ra>v aeXcbu 
avrov ovSev ^avvTec arepedv ydp rvjp faplvw 
%ti ^ €7Tai ' eL ™ V €K€[v0V o x^Xiojv 

OVO€ €V. 

34. '0 av X fy 6 rov Xeovros <?f doriov 2 ovvi- 

OT7]K€V } OV flty i K CT^OVS^XOJV TToXXwV. el Sd Ttff 

ra oorra rov Xiovros StaicoVrot, -rrvp avr&v i£dX- 
Xeraj,. fMJeXovsSiovKfyzc ovSi ydp i m KocXa 
avAa>v Sucqv. p,t£ea>s Si avrdv ovStfita irovs 
^ 1 ofi6a€ del H (1876). 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 32-34 

32. It is worth while learning the nature of the The Goats 
flocks that belong to the Indians. I have heard that of India 
their Goats and their Sheep are larger than the. 
largest asses, and that each one gives birth to 
quadruplets; anyhow no Goat or Sheep m India 
would ever give birth to less than three at a time. 
The Sheep have tails reaching down to their teet, 
while the Goats have tails of such length as all but 
touch the ground. The shepherds cut off the tails 
of the ewes which are good for breeding so that the 
rams may mount them, and they press oil out of the 
fat contained in them. In the rams tails also they 
make an incision and extract the fat and sew them 
up again. And the cut joins up once more and all 
traces of it disappear. 

33. Alexander of Myndus declares that the 
Chameleon annoys snakes and makes them go hungry and sn akes 
in this way. Taking in its teeth apiece of wood,broad 

and solid, it turns about and goes to face its enemy. 
But the Snake is unable to seize it as its jaws cannot 
compass the width of the wood; and so the Snake 
goes without a meal as far as the Chameleon is con- 
cerned, for although it may bite the rest of itf body 
it gains nothing, since the Chameleon has a solid hide 
and cares not at all for the fangs of the Snake. 

34. The neck of a Lion consists of a single bone The Hon 
and not of a number of vertebrae. And if a man cuts 
through the bones of a Lion fire leaps forth, tfut 

they are devoid of marrow, nor are they hollow like 
tubes. There is no season of the year m which it 

Jac : oareW. 



dvacrreXXei c5/)a. Kvei Be dpa 1 p^voyv Bvo. 
riKrec Be 2 Trevr&Kis, Kal rfj p,ev <I>Bivi rfj irpcorr) 
rrevre, rfj Be Bevrepa rerrapa, rpia re (rfj} errl 
ravrrj, Kal Bvo <t£> 3 e-n eKeCvr), Kal ev errl 
Trdaais. ol Be GKvpuvoi dpriyevets puKpot re elat 
Kal rv(f>Xol Kara ra GKvXaKLa- fiaBtaetos Be 
VTrdpxovrai, orav Bvo purjvas drro yeveas Biaj3ia>- 
criv* 6 Xoyos Be, darts Xeyei Bia^aivew avrovs 
ras inqrpas, pLvQos iari. Xipbcorrcov puev ovv Xea>v 
ivrvxeiv xa^TTOS eon, KopeaOels Be rrpaoraros- 
<f>aal Be Kal <f>iXo7ralar7}v eivat riqviKdBe avrov. 
<f>vyoi 5 Be ovk dv wore ra, vwra rpetfras Xeo)v } 
rjovxfj Be errl iroBa dvaxcopet fHXeTrcov avrlos* 
rov yqpoj? Be vrrapxopLevov errl rd avXia epxerai 
Kai errl ras KaXvftas Kal eirl ras oiKijoreis rag rwv 
vopewv ras vrrdvrpovs, Kal eiKorcos' rats yap 
opeiois en Srjpais eTTidappeiv dBvvaros eari, rrvp 
Be oppcoBeT. ogtl$ pukv odv eariv avra>v yvporepos 
Kai arvvevTpapLjJLevos Kal rr\v ^amp Xacruorepos, 
dOvfiorepos re Kal droXpuorepos BoKei pbdXXov 6 
Be prfKOVs 7 ed rfKOiv Kal evdvrevr}s rrjv rpixa 
dvBpetorepos Trerriorevrai Kal Qvpboetoeorepos . 
dBy]<f>dyos Be wv Kal oXa <j>aol fieXrj fipvKOJv dv 
Karairtoi. rovroyv ovv ttertXy]p(xipuevos Kal rpiatv 
irjp,epd)v ovk eo6Ui rroXXaKis, ear dv viravaXcoOfj 
ra TTp&rd ol Kal 7re<f>0fj. rrivei Be oXiya* 

35. c fiovs 6 rrpdos rov irXiqrrovros Kal KoXd- 
Covros ovk dv irore Xrjdirjv Xdpoi, dAA' d-Trofxvrjadels 8 

1 Jac : dvd. 2 Se /cat. 

3 <t£> . . <t#> add. H. 

4 Btafiiaxjr} ra rov Xeovros fip<£<f>T]. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 3 4~35 

abstains from coupling, and the Lioness is pregnant 
for two months. Five times does she give birth, at 
the first birth to five cubs, at the second to four, after 
that to three, after that to two> and finally to one. 
The cubs when new-born are small and, like puppies, 
blind, and they begin to walk when they have com- 
pleted two months from birth. But the account which 
says that they scratch through the womb is a fable. 
To encounter a Lion when famished is dangerous, 
but when he has eaten his fill he is extremely gentle ; 
they even say that at that time he is playful. A Lion 
will never turn his back and flee, but withdraws, 
looking you straight in the face, and by degrees. 
But when he begins to age he visits folds and huts 
and spots where shepherds lodge in caves; which, is 
to be expected, because he no longer has the spirit 
for hunting on the mountains. He has a horror of fire. 
Any Lion that inclines to roundness and a compact 
figure, and that has too shaggy a mane, appears to be 
lacking in spirit and daring ; whereas the beast that 
attains a good length and has a straight mane is re- 
garded as bolder and fiercer. Possessing a ravenous 
appetite he will, they say, devour and swallow whole 
limbs. So when he has taken his fill of them he will 
often not eat for the space of three days until his 
former meal has been gradually absorbed and 
digested. He drinks but little. 

35. A domesticated Ox will never forget the man geOx and 
who strikes and chastises him, but he remembers and 
* See 5. 39, . 

5 Kal (j>vyot. 8 avrCos Kal emfipaxv. 

7 els m«os, 8 vTTopvqodeis. 



TCfMopetrai Kal hiaorrjpiaros iyyevofievov. cov puev 
yap V7to ^evyXrjv Kal rporrov nvd KaOeipy/xivos , 
eoiK€ SecrfAwrr} Kal rjovxdCer orav Se afeOfj, 
rroXXaKts <jLi€V> x rep OKeXei iraloas Gvvirptxfse 
fxeXos 2 n rod fiovKoXov, noXXaKts Se Kal dvpcoQels 
e$ Kepas elra ifiTreawv arteKrewev avrov. ivrevdev 
irpos rovs aXXovs irpaos ion, Kal rtdpeiow e$ to 
avXiov rjovxfj- ov yap eanv avrjpLepos 7rpd$ ov$ 
ovk e^et rov Bvfxov ty)v vmodecrw. 

36. e H rwv *Iv§a)v yrj, <f>aalv avrr)v oi crvy- 
ypa<f>et$ 7ToXv<j>dpp,aKov re Kal rcov pXaarrjfxdrayv 
rwvBe Setvajg TroXvyovov thai. Kal ra puev acL^eiv 
avrwv Kal €K ri2v klvSvvwv pveaBai rovs vtto rwv 
SaKerwv dfxov rep Oavdrcp ovra$ (-rroXXa Se eWfo 
roiavra), rd Se aTroXXvvat, Kal $ia<f>6eLpew o^vrara, 
Svrrep odv z Kal ro e/c rov o<j>ea)s {rod tropefivpov}* 
ywopevov eirj av. eon Be dpa o3ro$ 6 ocf>cs Kara 
omdapjr\v ro ilt)ko$ oaa ISetv xpoav he eoiKe 
7rop<j>vpa rrj paOvrdrrj. XevKr)v he Ke<f>aXrjv Kal 
ovKert 7Top<f>vpav Trepcrjyovvrai avrov, XevKrjv he 
ovx <h$ drteiv ertos, aAAa /cat ^toVoy eneKeiva Kal 
yaXaKros? ohovrwv he dyovos eanv 6 6<j>is 
ovros' evploKerai S* iv rots Trvpo^heardroLs rrjs 
'IvSt/c^y xaj/otots-. Kal BaKveiv fiev -qKtaros eWt, 
/cat Kara ye rovro <f>alr)s av riOaaov avrov etvat 
Kal TTpdov ov 8° av Karefxeoj), <l$ aKovay, r) 
dv6pd)7rov rtvog rj Oyptov, rovhe ro p,eXo$ Staaa- 
rrrjvaL dvdyKrj rrav. ovkovv drjpaOevra avrov e/c 
rov ovpaiov p,ipov$ egaprwoi, Kal ola eiKos Kar<o 

1 <> e V> add, H. 


2 Wytt : pipes. 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 35-36 

takes his revenge even after a long interval. For 
being under the yoke and in a certain degree con- 
fined, he is like a prisoner and keeps still ; but when 
he is let out he has often kicked and broken some 
limb of his herdsman; often too he has put passion 
into his horns and has fallen upon a man and killed 
him. After that he is gentle to others and goes 
quietly to the fold, for he is not savage towards those 
against whom he has no ground for anger. 

36. Historians say that India is rich in drugs and |k^p le 
remarkably prolific of medicinal plants, of which some, Ma 
save life and rescue from danger men who have been 
brought to death's door through the bites of noxious 
creatures (and there are many such in India) ; while 
other drugs are swift to kill and destroy ; and to this 
class might be assigned the drug which comes from 
the Purple Snake* Now this snake appears to be a 
span long ; its colour is like the deepest purple, but 
its head they describe as white and not purple, and 
not just white, but whiter even than snow or milk. 
But this snake has no fangs and is found in the hottest 
regions of India, and though it is quite incapable of 
biting— for which reason you might pronounce it to 
be tame and gentle— yet if it vomits upon anyone (so 
I am told), be it man or animal, the entire limb 
inevitably putrefies. Therefore when caught men 
hang it up by the tail, and naturally it has its head 
hanging down, looking at the ground. And below 
the creature's mouth they place a bronze vessel, into 

3 c5v ovv {or iv)7rep. 

4 <(tov iropfopody add- Jac* 

5 yaXaKTOS TfXiov MvKrjv. 



rr)v K€<f>aXr)v e)(€i, Kal is yrjv opd' vn avro Se to 
GTOfAa 1 rov drjpos dyyeiov ri rtOiaai rrerroi'qp^evov 
X<xAkov. Kal 2 Swx rov aropbaros orayoves eKeivco 3 
Xelfiovrat, is. rovro, Kal to Karapptvoav ovvLoraral 
re Kal 7rr]yvvrai } Kal ipets IScbv dpLvySaXrjs SaKpvov 
etrat. Kal 6 fiev aTroBvYjOKei 6 6(f>is, v<f>aipovoc 
Se to GKevos, Kal TrpoGTiQiaoiv 4 aAAo, ^aA/cow 
/cat e/cetvo* veKpov Se e/cpet irahiv vypos tx^P* 5 
Kal eoiKev vhan. rpcajv Se rjfjiepcov eakrt/ Kal 
avvLararai fxdvroc Kal ovros. etrj S' 6 av apu- 
<()olv 7 OLa(f>opa Kara rr)v yjpoav* r) piev yap Beivcos 
ion pLeXawa } r) Se rjXeKTpq) et/caoTat. ovkovv 
rovrov piev el Soirjs rtvl ooov orjcrdpLOV p,iye9os 
ipcfiaXcov 8 is otvov r) is crirlov, rrp&rov piev avrov 
airacrpbos 7T€piXrj^serai Kal pbdXa lo^vpos, etra 
hiaarpi^ovrat ol ra) o^daXpuw, 6 Se iyK€<f>aXos 
Sid rwv ptvwv KaroXiaOdvei 9 Aet/Jd/xevos*, 10 Kal 
aTroOvrjGKei Kal p,dXa otKrtora- 11 idv Se eXarrov 
Xdfirj rov </>appLaKov, a<f>VKra puev avrw to 12 
ivrevQiv ion, yjpovtp Se dttoKkorat. idv Se rov 
pueXavos opi^rjs, orrep ovv Karippevae reOvecoros, 
oaov 13 orjoapbov Kal rovro pbeye6os 3 vttottuos 
ylverat, Kal (f>86r) KaraXapifidvei rov Xafiovra, Kal 
iviavrov dvaXloKerav rrjKeSovc 7roAAot Se /cat is 
ert] Svo TrporjXQov, Kara piiKpd dTToOvrjoKovres . 

37. f H orpovBos r) pbeydXr) <hd piev dirortKrei 
TToXXd, ov rrdvra Se e/cyAu^et, 14 dAAa airoKpivei rd 
dyova, rots Se iyKapirois iircpd^ei. Kal e/c piev 

1 avra> Be to) arofxari. 2 koI at. 

6 i%oip odros. 6 Jac : 17 5*. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 36-37 

which there ooze drops from its mouth; and the 
liquid sets and congeals, and if you saw it you would 
say that it was gum from an almond-tree. So when 
the snake is dead they remove the vessel and sub- 
stitute another, also of bronze ; and again from the 
dead body there flows a liquid serum which looks like 
water. This they leave for three days, arid it too 
sets ; but there will be a difference in colour between 
the two, for the latter is a deep black and the former 
the colour of amber. Now if you give a man a piece 
of this no bigger than a sesame seed, dropping it into 
his wine or his food, first he will be seized with con- 
vulsions of the utmost violence ; next, his eyes squint 
and his brain dissolves and drips through his nostrils, 
and he dies a most pitiable death. And if he takes a 
smaller dose of the poison, there is no escape for him 
hereafter, for in time he dies. If however you 
administer some of the black matter which has flowed 
from the snake when dead, again a piece the size of a 
sesame seed, the man's body begins to suppurate, a 
wasting sickness overtakes him, and within a year he 
is carried off by consumption. But there are many 
whose lives have been prolonged for as much as two 
years, while little by little they died. 

37. Although the Ostrich lays a number of eggs it 1 
does not hatch all of them but sets aside the sterile 
ones and sits upon those that are fertile ; and from 

8 Sckn : &<f>€\a>v /cat eftjSaAcuv. 

9 /caToAioflatvei. 

10 Reiske : dXifiofxevos. x 

11 Kal otnTtora fi*v aAAa wKiara, ■ 

13 K al. 18 etvac. 14 rpe^et. 



rovrojv rovs veorrovs i^eXetfjev, €K€tva Be ra 
iK</>avXia6evra rovrois rpocj>r}v ixaparLB-qaiv , et 
Be avrrjv Bicokol ns, r) Be ovk emroXp^a rfj Trrrjoet, 
9ei Be rds rrrepvyas aTrXcoaacra' el Be dXiaKeaOat 
fjueXAoi, roug" rrapartiTtrovras XiBovs is rovTriaoj 
a<f>evBova rots ttouLv, 

38. Ot arpovOol ol opuKpol oruveiBores iavrots 
duBeveiav Bid (TfxiKp6ry]Ta rod awpiaros, irrl rocs 
aKpepuooi rwv /cAaScov rols <f>epeiv avrovs Bvvap,e- 
vois rds veorrtds ovpLirXdaavres elra \ievroi rrjv ix 
r<hv Orjparajv €7Tij3ovX7jv ojs rd 7roXXd Bia<f>evyovotv 
irnfirjvai rep 1 fcAaSt pur) Bvvapievojv* ov yap 
avrovs <j>ipei Bid XeTrrorrjra. 

39. At Be dXd>7T€K€S is VTrepfioXrjv TTporjKovoai 
travovpylas Kal rporrov BoXepov orav Qedaojvrau 
cr<f>r]Kidv €vd€V0Vfx4vr]v 3 2 avral 3 pbev diroarpe^ovrai 
rov ^pa/xov eKvevovaai Kal ras e/c row Kevrpow 
rpojaeis <f>vXarropi€vac- KaOtdcrt Be rfjv ovpdv 
Baourdrrjv re ovaav Kal \x/t]Kiory]v rrjv avrrjv Kal 
Biaaeiovai rovs ol Be TTpooe-^ovrat, ra> 
rwv rpvxpsv Bdoei. orav Be ipbTTaXa^BaiGiv 4 avrq>, 
rrpouapdrrovoi rrjv ovpdv ff BevBpoj rj reiyltp 5 
77 alp,acria* iraiopLevoi Be ol a<j>T]Kes drrodvrjQKovaiv . 
elra rjXOov eirl rov avrov ronov, Kal rovs Xolttovs 
TrpoaavaXe^aaai Kal aTTOKreivaoai Kara rovs 
7Tpojrovs, orav ivvorjoojoi Xoittov elpnjvrjv etvai Kal 
drrd rcbv Kevrpow iXevOeplav, KaOrjKav ro arofia 
Kal rd a^yqKia io9iovai 3 purjre Oopvfiovpievai ynqre 
p,rjv rd Kevrpa v<f>opojfjievai. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 37-39 

these it hatches its young, giving them the other, 
rejected eggs to eat. And if one chases the Ostrich 
it does not venture to fly but spreads its wings and 
runs. And if it is in danger of being captured it slings 
the stones that come in its way. backwards with its 

38. Sparrows, conscious that their weakness is The Sparrow 
due to the small size of their bodies, build their nests 

upon those twigs of branches which are strong 
enough to support them, and so generally escape the 
machinations of bird-catchers who cannot climb the 
branch : it is too slender to bear them. 

39. Foxes pass an Dounds in their mischievousness ^eFox^ 
and trickery. When they observe a thriving Wasps' 

nest they turn their back upon it and avoid the hole 
so as to protect themselves from being stung. But 
their tail, which is very bushy and long, they let 
down into the hole and shake up the Wasps. And 
these fasten on the thick hairs. But when they are 
entangled in them the Foxes beat their tail against a 
tree or fence or stone wall, and the Wasps are lulled 
by the blows. Then the Foxes return to the same 
spot, collect the remaining Wasps, and kill them as 
they did the first lot. When they know that they 
will have peace and be free from stings they put down 
their heads and eat up the combs, with nothing to 
disturb them and no need to look out for stings. 

1 Schn : T77. 

2 evd-qv- MSS always. 

3 Reiske : a$rat. 

4 avanXaadaxTLV MSS, ifiwhact- J ac, 
6 rct^tV & (1875). rotxcp. 

VOL. I. 




40. Kwos* KpavLov pa<f>r)v ovk Bpaptwv Be 
em rrXiov Xdyvrjs ytverat, <j>acriJ- kvvos Be yrjpcov- 
ros ajjifiAeTs ot oBovres Kal p,eXaivovrat . evptvos 
Bi eartv ovtoos cos p/rpror dv otttov Kvvetov 
Kpicos p/qB* 2 av KapvKela rfj 7rotKtXa)rdrrj Kal 
BoXepwrdrrj KarayorjrevOivros yevcracrOat. rpets 
Be dpa voaoi kvvl aTTOKeKXijpajvraL Kal ov rrXelovs, 
Kvvdyyy) Xvrra iroBdypa* avQpdiTrots ye ptrjv 
puvplai. irav Be 6 n av v-rro kvvos Xvrrwvros 
BrjxOyj, rovro d7rodvr)aK€i. kvow Be noBayprjaas , 
airavlws dvappojcrOivra otpet avrov. kvvl Be fiLos 
6 ptrjKtaros TeaaapevKatBeKa err}. "Apyo$ Be 6 
'OBvacreoos Kal rj wept avrov laropia eotKe rraiBia 
'Optfjpov elvat. 

41. 'Vivos opvLOcov 'IvBikcov ppaxvrdrwv Kal 
rovro ei7] dv. iv rots- ndyots rots v*frrjXoi$ veor- 
revet Kal rats irirpaLS rats KaXovpivats XeTTpats? 
Kal eart ro piyeSos rd opvvtpta oaovrrep d>6v 
iripBiKos' oravBapaKLV7]v Bi ptot voet rr)v XP^ av 
avrwv. Kal 'IvBol p,ev avro <f)covfj rfj G<j>eripa 
BtKatpov <f>tXovcrtv ovoptdCetv, "JZXXrjves Be <I>s 
aKova) BiKatov. rovrov ro dTT07rdrrjpa ei rxs 
Xdfiot oaov Kiyxpov piyeQos XvOev 4 ev rw 
7Twptart } o oe° es eauepav airevavev. eoiKe be o. 
Bdvaros vttvoo Kal pdXa ye rjBet Kal dvwBvvcp Kal 
otov ol 'rrotrjral XvoipeXr) <j>tXovGiv 6vopd£etv rj 
dfiXyxpov ei7] yap dv Kal odros eXevOepos oBvvrjs 
Kal rots Beoptivots Btd ravra rjBtcrros. o-ttovBt)v 

1 (f>aol fiaXXov. 2 fiyr*. 

3 XvrroXs MSS, Atac- Schn. 

4 €io$ev conj, Jac; <yp. Ctes. ap. Phot. Bill, 47 a . 30. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 40-41 

40. A Dogs skull has no suture. Running, they The Dog 
say, makes a Dog more lustful. In old age a Dog's 
teeth are blunt and turn black. He is so keen- 
scented that he will never touch the roasted flesh of a 

dog, be it bewitched by the subtlest and craftiest of 
rich sauces. Now there are three diseases which fall 
to the lot of a Dog and no more, viz. dog-quinsy, 
rabies, and gout, while mankind has an infinite 
number. Everything that is bitten by a mad Dog 
dies. If a Dog once gets gout you will hardly see him 
recover his strength. The life of a Dog at its longest 
is fourteen years ; so Argus, the dog of Odysseus, and 
the story about him [Od. 7. 291] look like a playful 
tale of Homer s. 

41. The following species of bird belongs to the jaje^ 
very smallest of those in India. They build their (dm ^ 
nests on high mountains and among what are called beetle) 

< rU gged * rocks. These tiny birds are the size of a 
partridge's egg, and you must know that they are 
orange-coloured. The Indians are accustomed to 
call the bird in their language dikairon? but the 
Greeks, so I am informed, dikaion. If a man take of 
its droppings a quantity the size of a millet-seed dis- 
solved in his drink, he is dead by the evening. But 
his death is like a very pleasant and painless ^ sleep, 
and such as poets are fond of describing as * limb- 
relaxing ' and ' gentle.' For death too may be free 
from pain, and for that reason most welcome to those 

' The " bird " was the Dung-beetle, Scardbaeus sacer . . . 
the " dung " was probably ... a resinous preparation of 
Indian hemp 5 (Thompson, Gk. birds, s.v.). 

5 etra. 



Be dpa rrjv dvwrdrw rlBevrai 'IvSot is rrjv 
Krijcrw avrov • KaKCOV yap avro i7TiX7]9ov rjyovvrat 
ra> ovrt' Kal odv Kal ev rots Bojpots rots fxeya 
npLiois rep Uepaojv fiaoiXe? 6 9 IvBa)v irepmei Kal 
rovro. 6 Be Kal rcov aXAa>v amdvrwv tt por ip,a 
Xaficbv Kal aTToOrjaavplCet KaKcbv dvidroyv dvrc- 
7raX6v re Kal dpLvvrrfpiov , el dvdyKV) KaraXdfioi. 
ovkovv ovBe tis ev Uepaacs avro aXAos, on 

pur) fiaaiXevs re avros Kal p,tfrr)p r\ fiaaiXews* Kal 
Bed ravra dvrtKptvovres jSaaavtaajftev row $ap\id- 
kcov rov re 'IvBckov Kal rod Alyvrrrlov 6-n-orepov 
rjv 7rporip,6r€pov errel ro fiev i<f> 9 rjpLepav 1 
dveipye 2 re Kal aveareXXe ra BaKpva ro Alyv- 
Ttnov, to Be XrjOrjv KaKtov TTapeZ'xev alwviov ro 
'IvSt/coV* Kal ro fiev yvvaiKos Bwpov rjv, ro Be 
opviOos rj dTTOpprjrov </>vcreojs Beapicbv rcbv ovrojs 
fiapvrdrcov diToXvovarjs Be* V7rrjperov rod irpoei- 
pt)\ievov. Kal 'IvSous* KriqaaaSaL avro evrv^iqaav- 
ras 3 z ojs rrjs evravBot <j>povpas dTroXvBfjvai orav 

42. ( opVL$ 6 drrayds (pLep,vi]rai Be Kal 
' Apicrro(f)dv7]s avrov iv "Opvtcrt, rq> Bpdjxart), 
odrqs roi ro iBiov ovojia adevei <f>a>vrj ipdeyyerai 
Kal avapbiXTrei avro. Xeyovai Be Kal ras KaXovpbi- 
vas fieXeaypiBas ro avro Brj-n-ov Bpav rovro y Kal 
or i MeXedypw rep Olveojs Trpoa^Kovat Kara yevos 
fxaprvpetaOai Kal fxdXa evaroftws. Xeyei Be. 6 
[av9os, oaat r^aav ot/cetat ra> OlvelBr] veavla, 
ravras eg BaKpvd re aa^era Kal TrevOos drXrjrov 

1 rffiepav avrtfu. 2 avelx*- 

3 €VTVxqaavrds (*j>amvy Warmington, 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 41-42 

who desire it. The Indians accordingly do their ut- 
most to obtain possession of it, for they regard it as 
in fact ' causing them to forget their troubles * [Horn. 
Od. 4. 221]. And so the Indian King includes this 
also among the costly presents which he sends to the 
Persian King, who receives it and values it above all 
the rest and stores it away, to counteract and to 
remedy ills past curing, should necessity arise. But 
there is not another soul in Persia save the King and 
the King's mother who possesses it. So let us com- 
pare the Indian and Egyptian drug a and see which 
of the two was to be preferred. On the one hand 
the Egyptian drug repelled and suppressed sorrow 
for a day, whereas the Indian drug caused a man to 
forget his troubles for ever. The former was the gift 
of a woman, the latter of a bird or else of Nature, 
which mysteriously releases men from a truly 
intolerable bondage through the aforesaid agency. 
And the Indians are fortunate in possessing it so that 
they can free themselves from this world's prison 
whenever they wish. 

42. The bird called ' Francolin ' (Aristophanes |^ colin 
mentions it in his comedy of the Birds [249, etc.]) pro- ranco m 
claims and sings its own name as loudly as it can. 
And they say that Guinea-fowls', as they are called, £J» Guinea " 
do the same and testify to their kinship with 
Meleager the son of Oeneus in the clearest tones. 
The legend goes that all the women who were related 
to the son of Oeneus dissolved into unassuageable 
tears and sorrow past bearing, and mourned for him 

a In Horn. Od: 4. 219-32 Helen mixes a drug, thought to 
have been opium in some form, in the "wine of Telemachus to 
make him forget his sorrow for his father. 



€K7T€a€LP Kal 8p7jVeXv, OvBeV Tl Tf}S XvTTTjS CLKOS 

rrpoaie(xevas > olktco Be apa rwv 6ea>v is ravra rd 
£<pa dfieliff at to elBos. rats Be I'vBaXfxd re Kal 
andpfia rov rore rrivOovs evraKrjvcu, Kal is vvv 
en lAeXeaypov ri dvafxeXTreiv } Kal ws avrcp rrpoarf- 
Kovaw aBetv Kal rovro \ievroi. Saoc Be apa 
alBovvrat to decoy, 1 ovk av irore rwvBe rcbv 
opvcdcov irrl rpo<f>fj 2 TrpoadiJjawTO , Kal yjrLs rj 
atria Xaaac re ol rrjv vrjaov oLKovvres rrjv Aepov 
Kal evean fia9eXv dXXaxoOev. 

43. Uerrvaixav Be virep rcov jxvpfJii]KO)V Kal 
ravra* ovtojs apa avrots to iOeXovpyov Kal to 
iOeXoirovov rrdpeariv aTTpo^aalarcos Kal dvev rivo$ 
VTTOTifJi,i]Gea)s ideXoKaKovarjs Kal OKr^eoiSt is rjv 
VTTOtKovpel to pdOvfJbov, d>s Kav 3 rai$ TtavQeX-qvohs 
p/qBe vvKrwp pXaKevew fMrjBe iXivvew, aAA' e^eaOat 
rrjs oirovByjs. & avQpwrroi, fivpias rrpo^daets re 
Kal crKrjifjets is to paurcoveveiv imvoovvres. Kal 
ri Bet KaraXeyeiv re Kal irravrXeiv rov rouovrov 4 
oxXov; KeKTjpvKrat, yap Atovvaia Kal Aijvaia Kal 
Xtrrpot Kal Te^vpiorfxot) Kal fJiereXdovrcov is rrjv 
TiTrdpnqv dXXa Kal is Qijpas dXXa Kal Kara 
rroXw \wpla eKdarrjv rd fiev fidpfiapov ra Se 

1 $etov Kal et fia)\Xov -rrjv "Aprefiiv. 
2 " Schn : rpo^ijv. 

3 Jac : /cat or Kav. 4 tolqvtov . 

* Leros, off the coast of Caria, contained a shrine of Artemis 
Parthenos, and there according to the legend the women were 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 42-43 

and found no cure for their sorrow. So the gods in 
pity allowed them to change their shape into these 
birds ; and the semblance and seed of their ancient 
grief have sunk into them so that to this day they 
raise a strain to Meleager and even sing of how they 
are his kin. 

So then all who reverence the gods would never lay 
hands on one of these birds for the sake of food. And 
the reason of this is known to the inhabitants of the 
island of Leros and can be learned from other 

43. Here are more facts that I have learned touch- n» Ant 
ing Ants. So indefatigable, so ready to work are 
they, without making excuses, without any base plea 
for release, without alleging reasons that are a cloak 
for indolence, that not even at night when the moon 
is full do they idle and take holiday, but stick to their 

Look at you men — devising endless pretexts and g^ alg 
excuses for idling ! What need is there to detail and 63 1Ta 3 
pour out the full number of these occasions? Pro- 
claimed as holidays are the Dionysia, 6 the Lenaea, the 
Festival of Pots, Causeway Day : go to Sparta, and 
there are others : others again at Thebes : and an 
endless number in every city, some in a foreign, 
others in a Greek city. 

5 Greater or City Dionysia held about March 28-April 2; 
Lesser or Country Dionysia, about December 19-22 ; Lenaea, 
at the end of January ; XvVpoi, feast in honour of the departed, 
about March 4; all these at Athens. Tefaptofjuos : those who 
took part in the Eleusinia, in March, indulged in abusive 
repartee as they passed along the Sacred Way between Athens 
and Eleusis. 



44. Maprvptov Be rrjs rcov ^cpcov (j>vaeojs, ore 
ov TT&vv ri 1 SvorpieraxeLptard 2 icrnv, dXXd e§ 
iradovra aTTOpbvrjoOrjvai rrjs evepyeacas iarlv 
dya6d, z ev rfj Alyvnrcp ol re aiXovpoi Kal ol 
Ixvevpuoves Kal ol KpoKoB(,Xot Kal to rcov lepaKcov 
kn <f>vXov. dXivKerat, Be KoXaKela rrj Kara yaare- 
pa } Kal ivrevOev r)piepcodevra Xomov upaorara 

pL€V€l* Kai OVK OLV 7TOT6 €7Ti6oLTO rots eVepyiraiS 

rots eavrcov, rov Svfiov rod avficf>vovs re Kal 
ovyyevovs aVaf rrapaXvOevra. dvOptOTros he Kal 
Xoyov [xereiXrjXos £a>ov Kal <j>povr}aea)s dijicoOev 
Kal alBetoOai Aa^ov Kal ipvdrjpLa, iriarevQev <f>tXov 
yiverai ftapbs noXepuos, Kal oaa aTropprjra em- 
orevOrj, ravra oV air lav $payyrdrr\v Kal rr)v 
TTaparvxovaav is €7n/3ovXr)v egeirrvcTe rr)v rod 
TrerncTrevKoros . 

45. Qavpbdcrat Xoyov d£i6v (frrjatv Ev$rjp,o$, Kal 
rw ye dvBpl rcpBe 6 Xoyos odros ion. veavcas 
BripaTiKoSt crvpbftiovv rots rcov ^wtov dyptcordrots 
otos re j eK vecov puevrot Kal fipecfrcdv . TreirtoXev pi- 
vots* etxe ovvrp6(f}ovs re Kal avooirovs eavrots 
yeyevrjfxevovs Kvva Kal dpKrov Kal Xeovra. Kal 
ravra p,ev XP° vov ^P^s dXXrjXa elprjvrjv dyeiv Kal 
cpiXa voetv crif>tcri Xeyei 6 ILvBr}p,os' puas Be rv^etv 
r)p,epas rov kvvcl rrpoorraL^ovra rr)v dpKrov Kal 
vnacKaXXovra Kal ipeaxeXovvra, ri)v Be ovk 
ela>06rcos eK6r)ptco6 , r]vai Kal ipbTreaetv rep kwL, Kal 
Xa<j>v^at rots ovv£t rod SeiXaiov rrjv yacrrepa Kal 
Biacmdaaadai avrov dyavaKrrjoat Be rep avfi- 
fidvri 6 avros <f>r}oi rov Xeovra Kal oiovel pt,iojjcrai 
to dcxTTOvBov rrjs dpKrov Kal d<f>iXov, Kal rov 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 44-45 

44. In Egypt the Cats, the Ichneumons, the Croco- 

diles, and moreover the Hawks afford evidence that kind actions 
animal nature is not altogether intractable, but that 
when well-treated they are good at remembering 
kindness. They are caught by pandering to their 
appetites, and when this has rendered them tame 
they remain thereafter perfectly gentle : they would 
never set upon their benefactors once they have been 
freed from their congenital and natural temper. 
Man however, a creature endowed with reason, 
credited with understanding, gifted with a sense of 
honour, supposed capable of blushing, can become 
the bitter enemy of a friend and for some trifling and 
casual reason blurt out confidences to betray the very 
man who trusted him. 

45. Eudemus has a story to fill one with amaze- The story 
ment, and this is the story he tells, A young hunter a Be ar, and 
who was able to spend his life among the wildest of a D °e 
animals, after they had been trained from the day 

when they were young cubs, had living with him and 
sharing each other's food a Dog, a Bear, and a Lion. 
And for a time, Eudemus says, they lived in peace 
and mutual amity. But it happened one day that the 
Dog was playing with the Bear, fawning upon it and 
teasing it, when the Bear became unwontedly savage, 
fell upon the Dog, and with its claws ripped the poor 
creature's belly open and tore him to pieces. The 
Lion, says the writer, was indignant at what had 
occurred and seemed to detest the Bear's implaca- 

1 ov Trdvrrj. 2 SvafJL€Tax€lpLOT0S. 

3 dyaOd dypciorara ^qxav. 

4 Jaci TTeirwXevixevovs* 



Kvva ota eratpov 7rodrjcrcu Kai is SiKalav TrpoeXBetv 
opyr\v, koX iiridelvat, rij dpKrcp rrjv Slkyjv, Kai to. 
aura Bpdcrat, avrrjv, ditep ovv elpydaaro rov Kvva 

£K€W7]. "OfATjpOS fJb€V ofiv <f>7j(JW 

<hs dyaOov Kai rratSa Kara<f>6ijj,evoio XiTreaOai* 

eoiKe Se r) (f)vcri$ SeiKvvvcu on Kai <f>lXov eavrtp ti- 
fxwpov KaraXt,7re2v, c5 <f>lXe "O/^pe, KepSos iartv. 
olov ri Kai rrepi Zrjvcovos Kai KXedvOovs voodfiev, 
el Tt aKovojxev. 

46. 'Ev 'IvBoTs yLverai drjpia to pieyeOos ooov 
yevowro dv ol KavOapoi, Kai eonv epvBpd- kw- 
vafidpet, Se et/cdVaa? 1 av, el 7Tpd)Tov Oedaaco 
avrd. rroSas <Se> 2 e^t ravra p,r)KLOTov$ 9 Kai 
TrpoodifjaoQ ai puaXaKa ian. <j>verai he dpa eiri 


airetrai rov rwv (f>vra>v Kapirov rojvhe. Orjpojat 
8e avrd ol 'IvSol Kai aTrodXifiovoi, Kai i£ avrcbv 
PdirrovcrL rds re (fiowiKihas Kai rovs vtt awrats' 
Xvr&vos Kai wav o n dv i9eXo)atv dXXo is rrfvhe 
rrjv xP^av €Krpeif/at re Kai x/x3aai. KopLLt.erai 
he dpa r) roidSe ioOrjs Kai rq> rcov Hepcrwv j3a~ 
atXei. Kai to ye eveihes rrjs iadr}ros hoKec rots 
Hepaais OavpLacrrov, avriKpLvopLevr) 3 Se rats 4 
Uepa&v eTTLxcopiois Kparel Kara rroXv Kai e/C7rA^r- 

1 eiWats. ^ 2 <Se> odd. E. 

8 Kai avTLKpivojjLevi]* 4 rots. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 45-46 

bility and want of affection : it was smitten with 
grief for the Dog as for a companion, and being filled 
with righteous anger, punished the Bear by treating 
it exactly as the Bear had treated the Dog. Now 
Homer says [Od. 3. 196] 

' So good a thing it is that when a man dies a son 

should be left.' 
And Nature seems to show that there is an advantage, 
my dear Homer, in leaving a friend behind to 
avenge one. Something of the same kind, we be- 
lieve, occurred with Zeno and Cleanthes, if there is 
some truth in what we hear. a 

46 (i). In India are born insects 6 about the size of The Lac 
beetles, and they are red. On seeing them for the in3ec 
first time you might compare them to vermilion. 
They have very long legs and are soft to the touch. 
They flourish on those trees which produce amber, 
and feed upon the fruit of the same. And the 
Indians hunt them and crush them and with their 
bodies dye their crimson cloaks and their tunics 
beneath and everything else that they wish to con- 
vert and stain to that colour. Garments of this 
description are even brought to the Persian king, and 
their beauty excites the admiration of the Persians, 
and indeed when set against their native garments 
far surpasses them and amazes people, according to 

a Cleanthes succeeded his master Zeno as head of the Stoic 
school at Athens, 263 B.C. ... 

6 This is the Tatihardia lacca of India and S Asia, an msect 
allied to the cochineal and kermes insects. It exudes a 
resinous secretion (on to the twigs of certain trees, esp. those of 
the species Ficus) which is lac. The crimson dye is the red 
fluid in the ovary of the female. 



reiy cos <f>r]ai Kr^aia?* ejrel Kal rtov dBopuevcop 
TiapSiaviK&v 1 6£vrepa re eon Kal nqXavyeorepa. 

YLvovrai Be ivravOa rrjs 'IvSt/c^s, evOa ol kqv~ 
Oapoi, Kal ol KaXovfievoi KWOKecfraXot, ot$ to 
ovopua eBcoKev rj rod oa>p,aro$ oijfis re Kal <j>voi$* 
ra Be aAAa dvOpcoTrcov k'xovoi, Kal rjpi(f)iecrpievot 
fiaBlCovai Bopds QrjpLtov. Kat elcri Si/ccuoi, Kal 
avOpcoTTtov Xvttovctw ovBeva, Kal tf>6eyyovrai p,ev 
ovBe ev, cbpvovr at Be, rrjs ye psqv 'IvScDv <j>u)vrjs 
erra'towi. rpo<f>7j Be avrols rcov ^totav rd aypta* 
alpovai Be avra paara, Kal yap elatv toKiarot,, Kal 
aTTOKTewovoi KaraXafiovres , Kal otttlogiv ov 7tvpL y 
dXXd Trpos rr)v elXrjv rr)v rod r)Xtov is piotpas 
Biagfjvavres . rpec^ovac Be Kal atyas Kal ots, 
Kal vltov fiev rroiovvrai ra aypia, rtivovoi Be. to 
eK rcov 9pep,p,drcov ydXa cZv rpetfrovcn. pLvrfpLrjv 
Be avrcov ev rots dXoyois eironqcTdpLrjv , Kal etKorcos' 
evapdpov yap Kal evarjpLOv Kal dvOpcoiTLVTjv cfxovfjv 
ovk exovacv. 

47. XXtopls ovopua opvtdos, 7)7Tep odv ovk av 
dXXaxodev Troiiqoairo rr)v KaXidv r) 4k rod Xeyopue- 
vov cjvp,tj>vrov ear i Be pi£a ro avp,<f>vrov evpeOrjvai 
re Kal 6pv£at ^aAe^. orpcop,vr)v Be . V7Toj3dXXerai, 
rp^a? Kal epca. Kal 6 puev SrjXvs opvis ovrco 
KeKXrjrat,, 6 Be appi)v 3 yXcoplcova KaXovaw avrov, 
Kal earc rov fitov {jltjxclvlkos, puadelv re rrav 6 ri 
1 rcov L. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 46-47 

Ctesias, because the colour is even stronger and 
more brilliant than the much-vaunted wares of 

(ii). And in the same part of India as the beetles, ^Dog- 
are born the ( Dog-heads/ as they are called— a name 
which they owe to their physical appearance and 
nature. For the rest they are of human shape and 
go about clothed in the skins of beasts; and 
they are upright and injure no man; and though 
they have no speech they howl; yet they under- 
stand the Indian language. Wild animals are their 
food, and they catch them with the utmost ease, for 
they are exceedingly swift of foot ; and when they 
have caught them they kill and cook them, not over 
a fire but by exposing them to the sun's heat after 
they have shredded them into pieces. They also 
keep goats and sheep, and while their food is the 
flesh of wild beasts, their drink is the milk of the 
animals they keep. I have mentioned them along 
with brute beasts, as. is logical, for their speech is 
inarticulate, unintelligible, and not that of man. 

47. Golden Oriole « is the name of a bird which ^ 
declines to build its nest with anything but comfrey, oriole 
as it is called. Comfrey is a root which is hard to find 
and hard to dig up. For bedding it lays down hairs 
and wool. Chloris is the name given to the hen, but 
the cock-bird they call chlorion, and it is clever at 
getting a livelihood ; it is quick to learn anything 

a Ael. has confused the habits of two different birds : it 
is the Greenfinch the x XcopCs of Arist. HA 615 b 32, that 
builds its nest of comfrey, etc. But Ael. uses the word to 
signify the Golden Oriole, a migratory bird, which the Green- 
finch is not, 



oSv dyados /cat rXrjfifov VTropueivai rrjv h ra> 
liavdavew fiauavov, orav dAa>. /cat Std puev rod 
X^fjiwvos d(f>€Tov /cat iXevOepov ovk dv t'8ot rty 
avrov } depwal 1 6Vai> virdpgoovrat 2 rpoiral 
rot? erovs, riqviKavr dv 3 im^alvotro. 'Ap/crou- 
pos re i-rreretXev* 6 Se dvax^pei is rd ot/ceta, 
onodev /cat Bevpo iardXrj. 

48. e Y7r6 flu/iot) redrjy^ivov ravpov /cat t$/?pt- 
Coira e's /cejoa? /cat ow op^ aKaraoxerco 5 
<f>ep6p,€vov ovx 6 fiovKoXos cW^ei, ov <f>6j3o$ 
dvaareXXei, ovk aXXo roiovrov } avBpamos Se 
larrjcnv avrov /cat rrapaXvet, rrjs opjjLrjs to Begtov 
avrov yovv Biaa<j>iy^as rawia /cat ivrvxcov avru>. 

49. C H 7rdpSaXts irivre e^et Sa/crvAous" eV rots' 
7roo*t Tot? trpoudlois, iv Se rots' Karomv rerrapas. 
rj Se QrfXeLa evpajororipa rov dppevos. idv Se 
yevoyjrai ayvoovaa rov KaXovfidvov TrapBaXidyxov 
(rroa Se' ioriv) 3 d7ro7rdrr]}xa dvOpamov rroOev 
Xixvevo-ava 6 Stao*a>Jerat. 

50. Ot tWot, rds Kara) fiXefaplBas ov <f>aaw 
avrovs €X €lv * 'A^eAA?^ odv rov 'E^e'ow air lav 
Xiyovaiv ex elv > ^t nva hrrrov ypd<f>wv ov 
vrape^vXage ro lBcov rod £cpov. oi Se ovk 'A^eA- 
Xtjv <j)aoi ravrrjv rrjv alrlav eVey/cacr&xt, aKXd 
MtKwva, 7 dyaOov pev dvBpa ypdifsai ro £a>ov 
rovro, or<f>aX4vra S' odv is fiovov ro elpr^iivov . 

1 Schni ripwat MSS, H. 2 imdpxGivTai. 

3 TTjnKavra. * 'Aptirotpov re <WoAat. 

Kai aKaraaxdros. 6 Uadermacher : avixvevaaaa MSS, H. 
7 Mmrsius : Nixcova. 

ON ANIMALS, IV. 47-50 

whatsoever, and will patiently endure the ordeal of 
learning when in captivity. In the winter season you 
will not see it abroad and free, but at the occurrence of 
the summer solstice, that is when it will appear. As 
soon as Arcturus has risen the bird returns to its 
native haunts whence it came to us. 

48. When once a Bull has been provoked to anger How to 
and is threatening violence with his horns and rushing f£n 
on with irresistible speed, the herdsman cannot con- 
trol him, fear cannot check him, nor anything else ; 

only a man may bring him to a halt and stay his 
onrush if he tie a scarf round his own right knee and 
face the Bull. 

49. The Leopard has five toes on its fore-paws and The 
four on its hind-paws. But the female is stronger Leopar 
than the male. If it unwittingly eats what is called 

' leopards-choke * 6 (this is a herb), it licks some 
human excrement and preserves its life. 

50. Horses, they say, have no lower eyelashes, so The Horse, 
that Apelles c of Ephesus incurred blame for ignoring lts 

this peculiarity in his picture of a horse. But others 
assert that it was not Apelles who was charged with 
this fault but Micon, a man of great skill in depicting 
this animal, although on this one point he made a 

a The morning rising of Arcturus in the region of Rome is 
on September 20. 
& Aconite. 

c Apelles, the most renowned of Grecian painters, con- 
temporary of Alexander the Great.— Micon, fl. middle of 5th 
cent. B.C. at Athens, famous as painter and sculptor. 



51. T6v OLOTpOV <f>a(XLV OfJLOlOV €LVCU [MVta fl€yL<JT7) 

Kal elvai arepeov Kal evirayrj Kal exew Kevrpov 
laxvpov rjprrjfjiivov rov crwpuaros, TTpoteaOat, Se 
Kal rjX ov fiofjLfiwSr) . rov pkv ovv puvcoira ofxotov 
<j>vvat 1 rfj Kakovpuivrj KVVopwLq, fiopbfieiv Se rod 
o'iarpov puaXXov, ex^iv ^ eXarrov to Kevrpov. 

52. "Ovovs dyplovs ovk eXdrrovs lir-noiv rd 
fxeyeOrj ev 'IvSols ylveoQai 7re7rva\xai. Kal XevKovs 
fxev to aAAo etvai awpba, rr\v ye purjv Ke(f>aXrjv 
exew 7rop(f>vpa 7TapaTr\7]criav, tous" Se 6cf>8aXfjLovs 
drroariXXeiv Kvavov XP° av - K^pa-S Se ej(etv em 
raj peruxptp oaov mjxecos TO * pueyedos Kal rjfjLLaeos 
TTpocrerij Kal to p,ev koto) puepos rov Keparos 
elvai XevKov, to Se aVto <f>owiKovv, to ye purjv 
\ieaov \ieXav Setvws. 4k Srj rcovSe ratv ttolkiXcdv 
Keparatv rriveiv *\vSov$ aKovco, Kal ravra ov 
rrdvras, aXXa rov? rwv *lvSwv Kparlorovs, e/c 
S taarrjfidr ojv avrois XP VU ° V rrepixeavras, 2 olovel 
ifjeXtois 3 tlo-1 KOo-fj,tfcravTas fipaxlova wpatov 
dydXp,aros. Kal <f>acrc voaa>v d<f>vKTQ>v dpuadrj Kal 
aireipov yivecrOat 4 rov dnoyevadpLevov 4k rovSe rov 
Keparos* fiijre yap aTrao-jxcp Xiq<f)6>rjvai dv avrov 
fxrjre rfj KaXovpi^evrj lepq voacp, prqre pjr\v 8ta<f>$a- 
prjvai <f>appidKois . edv Si rt Kal rvporepov fj 
7TeTra)K(bs KaKov 3 dvefxetv rovro, Kal vyia yive- 
crdai 5 auTov. Trerrtarevrat, Se rovs dXXovs tot)? 
ava -ndaav rfjv yrjv ovov$ Kal rjpbepovs Kal dyplovs 
Kai ra dXXa 6 juaW^a duplet, darpaydXovg ovk 
exew 3 ovSe pjrjv eirl rw ^Vart %oA^, ovovs Se rov$ 

1 Schn : ^vai or <$>ve<j8ai. 

2 Reishe : Trepv^ovras. 3 ijteXXiois. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 51-52 

51. They say that the Gadfly is like a fly of the Tbe Gadfly 
largest size; it is robust and compact and has a 
strong stinff attached to its body and emits a buzzing 

sound The Horsefly on the other hand is like the £»Ho» 
dog-fly, as it is called, but though its buzz is louder 
than the Gadfly its sting is smaller.* 1 

52. I have learned that in India are born Wild^J™^ 
Asses as big as horses. All their body is white ex- 
cept for the head, which approaches purple, while 

their eyes give off a dark blue colour. They have a 
horn on their forehead as much as a cubit and a half torn 
long ; the lower part of the horn is white, the upper 
part is crimson, while the middle is jet-black. From 
these variegated horns, I am told, the Indians drink, 
but not all, only the most eminent Indians, and round 
them at intervals they lay rings of gold, as though 
they were decorating the beautiful arm of a 
statue with bracelets. And they say that a man 
who has drunk from this horn knows not, and 
is free from, incurable diseases : he will never be 
seized with convulsions nor with the sacred sick- 
ness, 6 as it is called, nor be destroyed by poisons. 
Moreover if he has previously drunk some deadly 
stuff, he vomits it up and is restored to health. 

It is believed that Asses, both the tame and the 
wild kind, all the world over and all other beasts with 
uncloven hoofs are without knucklebones and without 
gall in the liver; whereas those horned Asses of 

a Cp. 6. 37, and see Stud. ital. difil. class. 12. 441. 
b Epilepsy. 

l. & yeveudav. 6 to, aAAa rd. 



'IvBovs Xeyet, Kriquias rovs exovras rd Kepas 
avrpaydXovs <f>opetv, /cat dxoXovs purj etvai- Aeyov- 
rat Be ol dcrrpdyaXot jxeXaves etvai, /cat et ris 
avrovs crvvrplifjeiev, 1 etvai tolovtoi /cat rd evBov. 
elol Be /cat wkiotoc olBe ov jjlovov rwv ovcov, 
dXXd /cat lttttcov /cat eXd<f>cov /cat vrrdpxovrai fiev 
W^XV r °v <$p6fiov, /caret puKpd Be imppcowvvrat, 


fiera9ecv rd hcv^qra. iarcv. orav ye purjv 6 BijXvs 
T€K7}, /cat 7T€pidyy)Tai rd dprcyevrj, avwopiot, 
avrots ol iraripes avrwv (f>vXdrrovGi 2 rd /3pe<f>rj. 
Starpt/ku Be roi$ ovois rcov 'IvBlkcov 7reBicov rd 
iprjfiorard ioriv. lovrcov 3 Be rcov TvS&v em rrjv 
dypav avruov, rd fxev drraXd /cat en veapd eavrcov 
vifieuBaL Karo-niv iwaiv, avroi Be vrrepfxaxovGt, 
/cat tao*t rots hmrevGw 6p,6ae, /cat rots Kepaoi 
rraiovai. roaavrrj Be dpa rf ioxvs V rcovBe ianv. 
ovBev dvrexet avrots rraiopievov, dXXd et/cet /cat 
Sta/coyrerat /cat idv rvxi) KarareBXaarat 4 /cat 
dxpetov ear iv. 7JS77 Be /cat lttttcov rrXevpats ifx?re- 
Govres SUaxcaav /cat rd arrXdyxva i^exeav. 
evBev rot /cat oppcoBovaiv avrots 7rXr}oid£eLv ol 
iTTjrets^ to yap rot rt/^/xa rod yeveoBai nX-qatov 
Bdvaros icrnv oiktlgtos avrots, kol d-noXXwrai 
/cat avrol /cat ol lttttoi. Becvol Be etat /cat XaKrlaai. 
Brjyfiara Be dpa is roaovrov KaBiKvetrai avrcov, 
ws dirooTTav to TtepiX-q^Bev tt&v. faWa fiev odv 
reXetov ovk dv Xdfioos, jSdXXovrai, Be aKovriois /cat 
oiarotsy /cat rd Kepara 5 i£ avrcov 'IvSot veKpcov 
GKvXevaavres cos etnov Trepteirovacv. ovcov Be 

1 ovivplfat or -rptyai. * ^vXdrrovrac. 



India, Ctesias says, have knucklebones and are not knucMe- 
without gall. Their knucklebones are said to be 
black, and if ground down are black inside as well. 
And these animals are far swifter than any ass or 
even than any horse or any deer. They begin to run, 
it is true, at a gentle pace, but gradually gather 
strength until to pursue them is, in the language of 
poetry, to chase the unattainable. 

When the dam gives birth and leads her new-born 
colts about, the sires herd with, and look after, them. 
And these Asses frequent the most desolate plains in 
India. So when the Indians go to hunt them, the 
Asses allow their colts, still tender and young, to 
pasture in their rear, while they themselves fight on 
their behalf and join battle with the horsemen and 
strike them with their horns. Now the strength of 
these horns is such that nothing can withstand their 
blows, but everything gives way and snaps or, it may 
be, is shattered and rendered useless. They have in 
the past even struck at the ribs of a horse, ripped it 
open, and disembowelled it. For that reason the 
horsemen dread coming to close quarters with them, 
since the penalty for so doing is a most lamentable 
death, and both they and their horses are killed. 
They can kick fearfully too. Moreover their bite 
goes so deep that they tear away everything that 
they have grasped. A full-grown Ass one would 
never capture alive : they are shot with javelins and 
arrows, and when dead the Indians strip them 
of their horns, which, as I said, they decorate. 

3 ianv. I6vr<x>v~\ emorrtov. 

4 KaredXaaraL. 

5 Kepara ovrca rd. 



*lv$a>v afipcorov ion (to) 1 Kpias' to 8e alriov, 


53. Etvat Se d'Aoya jitcv ^aia,, (pvaiKrjv Se e^etv 
aptdfxrjriKrjv firj hihaxOivra EvSrjaos <f>rjat, /cat 
irrdyet p^aprvpiov iKecvo rwv iv rrl AlBvv twwv 
to Oe oi>o/xa Aeyer a Oe Aeyet, Ta£>T<x €o*rtj\ 
o Tt aV Orjpdarj, ttoi&v pbolpas eVSe/ca, /cat rds pukv 
Se/ca aireiaOai, rr)v Be ivSeKarrjv aVoAewrertv (otco 
8e /cat aWt to£ /cat ivvoLa rivi OKorrelv agtov) 
airapxqv ye riva rj BeKarrjv, ws av zIttols. ovkovv 
iKTrXayfjvai St/catov rrjv avroBiBaKrov ao</>[av 
<T^Se> 2 - rr)v yap rot 3 /xomSa /cat SuaSa /cat 
tow ef/Js* dpcOfjLovs C&ov olBev dXoyov dvOpwrrw 
Se Set TToaajv pukv rwv \x,adr]p,drwv 3 rroacov Be rdv 
irXrjywv, Iva r) fidOrj ravra ed /cat kolXws rj 
rroXXaKts fir) fidOrj; 

54. Aeyovoiv Aiyvirrioi (/cat paOvpt,ws avrwv 
ovk aKovovaiv dvBpes <f>iX6ooj>oi) ev rivi voficp 
rwv Klyvrrrlwv, ovrrep ovv e£ 'Hpa/cAeous rov 
Alos 6vop,d£ovvi 3 rracBa wpalov ws av Alyvirrtov, 
Xqvwv 7TOt,p,€va, ipdurpiav dWtSa Xaxeiv, /cat 
\ievroi </cat> 4 rrap avrfj elvai OavpLaarov. elra 
<f>OLrwcrav rep ipwpuevw ovap 7TpoX4yew rds i-mfiov- 
Xds ^ ras^ is avrov rravovpyovpuevas e/c Qarepov 
drjptov, orrep rjv avrfj avwo\xov } cos av etVot res, 
CrjXoTVTTLa rfj 7rpds rov TratSa vrrep rrjs vvp,<f>rj$ 5 
ravra rreipwp,evov Bpdv rov dppevos' rov Be 

1 <to> add. B. 2 <T^Se> add. H. 

3 Schn : rfy Be ye. * ^al) add. H, 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 52-54 

But the flesh of Indian Asses is uneatable, the reason 
being that it is naturally exceedingly bitter. 

53. Eudemus declares that animals though devoid £«toa- 
of reason have a natural instinct for numbers, even aDima i 
though untaught, and adduces as evidence this ani- 
mal from Libya. Its name he does not mention, but 
what he says is this. Whatever it catches it divides 
into eleven portions; ten of these it eats, but the 
eleventh it leaves (it is worth considering for whose 
benefit, from what cause, and with what intent) as a 
kind of first-fruits or tithe, so to say. Hence one s 
amazement at this self-taught skill is justifiable : a 
brute beast understands 1, 2, and the following num- 
bers • then think of all the instruction, all the whip- 
pings a human being needs if he is to learn these 
things well and truly^-or often, if he is not to learn 

54. The Egyptians assert (and scholars do not lend Ag£ l0Te 
an indifferent ear to what they say) that m a certain GooS eiierd 
district of Egypt which they name after Heracles « 
the son of Zeus, a good-looking boy, as Egyptian 
boys go, who herded geese, was beloved and even 
admired by a female Asp. It would keep company 
with its favourite and warn him in a dream as he slept 
of the plots that another savage creature, its fellow 
you might say, was hatching against him : the male 
Asp was attempting his life, being as it were jealous 
of the boy on account of its wedded bride. And the 

« Nomos Heracleotes in Middle Egypt, of which the capital 
was Heracleopolis. 

5 7"jyy VVfM(j>7}S TTjS aGm§OS. 



vnaKovovra 1 rrtiOeoQai Kal foXdrread at. "Oju/q- 

pOS fJ,hr OVV €$WK€V ITTTTO) <f>cov^v } aoWSfc Se rj 

<f>vms, $ voficov ovSev pbiXei, <f>rjalv Evpt,7ri8y}s. 

55. KdfxtfXoVS €T7] filOVV KCtX 7T€VTi]K0VTa GLKrjKOa, 

rds Se £k BaKrpojv <rr€7Tvap,ai rrpocivai Kal is Bis 
rooavra. Kal ol ye dppeves Kal TroXepuKoc, 

€KT€flVOV(nv aVTOVS Ol BdKTpiOL, TTJV vfipw KOI 

to aKoXaorawew atfuxipovvres, rrjv pa>fi7jv 
avTois </>vX<xttovt€s. Kaovrai 2 Se at dtfXeiat ra 
^wnrovra is olvrpov p>ipr\ avrds. 

56. <$>a>Kiqv EvBtjixos Xiyet ipavdfjvat dvBpos 
OTroyyias Orjpzveiv avveidiafxevov, Kal irpotovaav 
Trjs 6aXdrrr)s evBa rjv vrravrpos irirpa opuXeiv 
avrw. rwv Se ofiorixvcov rjv dpa ovros alaxioros, 
aAAd eSo/cet rfj </>d)K7) <hpaioraros etvat,. /cat 
davp,a taws ovhiv, eW Kal dvOpcorroL iroXXaKts 
rcov fjrrov koXcov ripdvOiqaav, is rovs copaiordrovs 
ov rradovres ot3Se lv 3 aXX' apLeXrjaavres avr&v. 

57. *ApLOToriX7]s 3 Aeyet rov vtto vSpov jrX-qyivra 
Trapaxprjfxa oap^v fiapvrdrrjv aTrepydCeoOcu, cos 
p,Tj otov re etvat irpooTTf-Xdvat, avrtp rwa. XrjOrjv 
Te Karax^ladat rov TrXrjyevros 4 6 avrds Aeyet /cat 
ixivroi Kal dxXvv Kara rcov ofipdrcov TroXXrjv, Kal 
Xvrrav ittiyLveodai /cat rpopcov ed 5 pudXa loyvpov, 
/cat drroXXvoOat hid rpCrrjs avrov. 

1 inaKOVovra. 2 Katovrat. 

3 'AiroAAdScopos Wellmann. 

4 raj 

5 Meiske: ev9v$. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 54-57 

boy would listen and obey and be on his guard. 
Now Homer [II. 19. 404] allowed a horse to speak, 
and Nature, who according to Euripides ' recks nought 
of laws ' [jr. 920 N], did the same to an Asp. 

55- I have heard that Camels live for fifty years, meftgd 
but I have ascertained that those from Bactria live as 
much as twice that number. The males which are 
used in battle, the Bactrians castrate, thereby rid- 
ding them of their violent and intemperate dis- 
position while preserving their strength. But in the 
case of the females they cauterize those parts which 
inflame them to lust. 

56. Eudemus asserts that a Seal fell in love with J**^ 
a man whose habit was to dive for sponges, and that 

it would emerge from the sea and consort with him 
where there was a rocky cavern. Now this man was 
the ugliest of his fellows, but in the eyes of the Seal 
the handsomest. Perhaps there is nothing to wonder 
at, for even human beings have frequently loved the 
less beautiful of their kind, being quite unaffected by 
the best-looking and paying no attention to them. 

57. Aristotle says* that when a man has been ^g^*^ 
bitten by a Water-snake he at once exhales a most bite 
foul odour, so much so that nobody can come near 

him. He says also that forgetfulness descends upon 
the bitten nian and a thick mist upon his eyes, and 
that madness ensues and a violent trembling, and 
that after three days he dies. 

« Not in any extant work. Wellmann (Hermes 26. 334) 
would substitute the name of ApoUodorus for that of ^totle, 
which he regards as a slip on the part of Ael. Cp. iNic. 1 h. 4^o. 



58. Trjv olvdBa opveov elBevai %pr) odcrav, ov 
prqv cos rives dpnreXov. Xeyet Be ^ ApiaroreXrqs 
fiei£ov jxev avro etvai ^drrrjs, rrepiarepds ye p/qv 
^ttov. KaXovvrai Be chs olkovco kcu iv rfj ItTrdprrj 
olvaBodrjpai rives- Xeyoiro 8' dv /cat KipKT] BiaX- 
Xdrreiv KipKOv ov piovov rep yevei dAAa Kai rfj 
(frvcrei. 1 

59. Kvavos <ro> 2 ovofia, opvis rr\v <f>votv, 
airdvOpamos rov rpoirov, piiacov puev rds dorriKas 
Biarpifids Kai rds Kar oiKiav avXiaeis, tbevytov 
Be Kai rds iv dypois Biarpifids Kai ottov KaXvfiai 
re Kai dvQpdmtov avXia, ^at/>cov Be iprjjjiLcus Kai 
rjSofievos opeiois Kopvcf>als Kai irdyois aTroropbois. 
aAA' ovBe r)7T€Lpois <f>iXr]$ei ovBe 3 vrjvots dyadaZs, 
HKvpco Be Kai el ns roiavrrj erepa dyav Xvirpd 
kai dyovos Kai dv9pd>7ta)v x^p^ovaa cos rd TroXXd, 

60. Uttlvoi Be dpa crocfxorepoi Kai dvOpcoTrcov ro 
fieXXov TTpoeyvtoKevai. loacri yovv Kai x €t f jb <*> va 
p,eXXovra t Kai yiova ioojievrjv rrpopi-qdeorara 
e<f>vXd£avro. Kai rod KaraX^thdvjvai Beet d<7ro8i- 
Bpdo-Kovoiv is rd oXucoBt] ^topia, 4 *<u avrois rd 
Bdarj Kpr}G(j>vyera cbs dv elirois iariv. 

^ 1 Xeyoiro . . . (j>va€L] Xiyovro S* dv rt /cat k. htaXharrov rod k. 
opveov . . . yivet 6aolv aAAct koX rvv <f>vaiv. 
. 2 <to'> add. E. 

3 ovre . . . ovre. 

4 x w P^ a Kai T( * Saaea. 


ON ANIMALS, IV. 58-60 
58 You must know that the Oenas (Rock-dove) is a The Bock- 

• • • A J Q.OV6 

bird and not, as some maintain, a vine. Ana 
Aristotle says [HA 544 b 6] that it is larger than a 
ring-dove but smaller than a pigeon. In Sparta too, 
I hear, there are men called Oenadotherae (Rock- 

The Circe may be said to differ from the falcon not The oirce 
only in sex but in its nature too. 

59. ' Blue-fowl 1 a is its name ; it is a bird ; its ways 
are apart from man ; it hates to linger in cities or to 
lodge in a house ; it even avoids lingering in fields or 
where there are cottages and huts belonging to man ; 
it likes desolate places and delights in mountain peaks 
and precipitous crags. It has no love even for the 
mainland or for pleasant islands, but for Scyros and 
any equally dreary, barren spot, generally destitute 
of human beings. 

60. Chaffinches, it seems, are cleverer than man at ^ ffiuch 
predicting the future. For instance, they can tell 
when winter is coming, and they take the most care- 
ful precautions against an impending snowfall, and 

for fear of being overtaken they flee to the wood- 
lands where the thick foliage affords them, as you 
might say, an asylum. 

a Perh. the ' Syrian Nuthatch.' 




^ 1. Trjv T7jv Uaptavajv Kal rrjv ydrova Kuft/eov 
opvi9a$ oIkzw fieXavas loeiv (fracrt, to Se o^XW^ 
etTTois UpaKas avrovs aV. dyevarot Si elm 
oapKcov, Kal acofipovovcri irepl rrjv yaarepa, /cat 
avTol? ra oWp/zara etvai SeiTrvov <X7r6xp?]. orav 
Be vnap^rai to fjueTOTraipov, is Trjv 'IAtacSa yrjv 
dyiXrj TcovSe twv opvLBiav {koXovui Se avTovs 
fxipvovas) evBv tov Mepuvovecov Ta<j>ov fiotTcbat,. 
Xiyoyai Se ol ttjv TpcvdBa en olkovvt€s rjptov 
elvaL Tt tco 'Hovs 1 Mipuvovi dvzTov 2 Kal avTov 
fjev tov veKpov is rd Hovcra ra ovtw Mefivoveta 
Vfivovjxeva vtto tt}s firjTpos KopnaBivTa pueTeajpov 
€K T(x>v tf>ova>v Tvxeiv Kiqoevoeajs tt}s TTpoarjKOVG-qs 
clvto), i7TOvofidCea9ai 3 Se ol ttjv GTrjXrjv ttjv 
ivTavQa dXXa>s, ovkovv tovs opviQas tovs eVaW- 

fAOVS TOV riptoOS TOV 7TpO€Cp7)fX€VOV d<j>LKV€LCr9ai 

K-ara irav eros", Kal oiaipelaOal t€ Kal hiavx&vBai 
is eyBpav^ Kal Siafopdv, Kal fidxeaBat \xdxr\v Kap- 
Tepdv* got av ol p,ev avTwv d-TToddvajaiv ol 
ol ok aTriXQaxnv ol KpaTrjaavTes evdev 
<TOt> 5 KOI d<f>LKOVTO. oVwj <ft€^> 6 ovv ravra 
opaTai Kal QTToOev, ov fiot crxoXrj <f>iXocro<f>eXv vvv, 

1 r$ Trjs'T&ovs mss, H, rr}$ del Be StefanL 

2 els TLiirqv, 

3 Schn : ovo/jid^eadai. 

4 Kaprepav /cat is tooovtov. 



1. They say that the country about Parium fl and The Bus 
its neighbour Cyzicus are inhabited by birds black in 
appearance; from their shape you would say that 
they were hawks. But they do not touch flesh, are 
temperate in their appetite, and for them seeds are a 
sufficient meal. And when late autumn sets m, a 
flock of these birds (they call them Memnons) & resort 
to the land round Ilium, making straight for the tomb 
of Memnon. And the people who still inhabit the 
Troad assert that there is a tomb there dedicated to 
Memnon the son of Eos (Dawn) ; and since the actual 
dead body was borne through the air by his mother 
from the midst of the carnage to Susa (celebrated for 
this reason as ' Memnonian '), where it was awarded 
a becoming burial, the monument in the Troad is 
called after him to no purpose. And so year by year 
the birds named after the aforesaid hero arrive and 
separate themselves into hostile factions and fight 
violently until half their number are killed, when the 
victors depart and return whence they came. How 
this all comes to pass and for what reason, I have at 
the moment no leisure to speculate, nor yet to 
track down the mysteries of Nature. This however I 

« Town at the western end of the S coast of the Propontis ; 
Cyzicus is some 40 mi. further E. 

» Ruffs. 

e <rot> add. B. 

e <^ev> add. H. 



ovBe p,r)v rd rrjs </>voecos djroppTjra dvi,xyevei V . 
elprjaeT ai Be e/cetvo. e7rird<f>iov rep TratBl rep rrj s 
3 Rods /cat TtOcovov rovrov oaa errj rov ayebva 
adXovaiv ol TTpoeiprjfievoi opvida$- IleAfcav Be 
aVaf irlfirjaav "EXXrjves dy&vi Kal 'ApcapvyKea 
Kal pAvroi koX UdrpoKXov Kal rov avriirakav 
Mepvovos rov 'A^tAAea. 

2, s Ej/ rfj Kpr^rrj yXavKa pur) yivevBat <f>a<n to 
-rrapdirav, dXXa Kal iaKOfitaOecaav egtudev dwro- 
6vrj(TK€bv. eoiK€ Be 6 EvpLTrCBrjs d^aaaviarcos 
7re7TOL7jK€vai rov UoXvetBov dpGyvra rf]vBe rrjv 
opvtv Kal ig avrrjs reKfxrjpd^vov on evprjaec rov 
reOvecbra rep Mlvwi viov, 1 7rvv6dvop,ai Be eyooye 
Xoyovs Kprjras aBeiv Kal BiBdaKeiv eKelva npos 
rocs 7}8t] Birjwcrfievois. Bcopov Xafielv rrjv yfjv 
rrjv KprjriKrjv 4k Ai6$, ota Brjrrov rpo(f>6v Kal rrjv 
Kpvijjiv rrjv vpjvovjLevrjv diroKpyxfjaaav avrov, iXev- 
Bepav elvai Brjpiov rrovrjpov Kal irrl Xvpurj yeyewrj- 
p,evov 2 rravros, Kal jxrjre avrrjv rtKreiv p/rjre 
e^wBev Kojiiodev rpe^eiv. Kal rrjv p,ev drroBet- 
KvvaQai rod Bwpov rrjv loyvv rwv yap rot 
7Tpo€tpr)p,€va)v dyovov etvat- el Be irrl rrelpa res 
rj eXeyx<p rrjs €K Alos x&pw°$ rcov oBveicov n 
eaaydyoi, ro Be em^avaav puovov rrjs yrjs drroX- 

1 cyprqoci Kal rov VXavKov rov redve&Ta rov Mlva (ra Mowt 
V) rov viov. 

2 yeyevrjfiivqv. 



mention. The aforesaid birds engage in this 
Stest around the tomb of the son of Eos and 
mhonus year after year, whereas the Greeks held 
but one contest in honour of Pelias,« of Amarynceus, 
and even of Patroclus, and of Achilles the adversary 
of Memnon. 

2 They say that the Owl is not found at all in a*^ 
Crete, and moreover that if it is introduced f rom owl* 
abroad it dies. So it seems that Euripides un- 
critically represented Polyeidus » as seeing this 
Wrd and thereby conjecturing that he would 
discover the dead son of Minos And I myself 
have ascertained that the Cretan histories, beside 
the facts already told, relate in verse and prose 
how Crete received from Zeus a boon-seeing that 
the island had nursed him and effected that famous 
concealment of him-, namely that it should be 
free of all noxious creatures born to do harm, 
that it should neither produce them nor support 
them if introduced from abroad. And the island 
proves how potent this boon was, for it produces none 
of the aforesaid creatures. But if a man by way ot 
trying and testing the extent of Zeus s favour im- 
ports one of these alien creatures, it has but to touch 

- King of Iolcus ; his son Acastus paid Mm the honour of 
funeral fames.-Amarynceus, acc. to a later _ legend, sent help 
to the Greeks against Troy; see Horn. ii. 23. SS^-For the 
funeral games of Patroclus see Horn 11. d ? a ™ 01 

Achilles is referred to but not described m Ho "?^;f„; a and 

* Polyeidus (i.e. the much-knowing), son of Coer anus and. 
descendant of Melampus, famous as seer f^* wonderworker 
divined through the presence of an owl that the body 01 
GlTucus, the s 8 on of ffinos lay dead m a cask of honey and 
restored him to life. See Nauck TQF*, p. 558. 



XvaOat. ovkovv rovs Orip&vras rovs 6<j>eis iv rfj 
rrXrjolov Ai/Byy roiavra TraXapudodaL. rjpLepcooav- 
res dyovviv is Oavfia olBe ol yoiqres twv BaKercov 
dt]pi(x>v 1 7ToAAa, /cat crvv avrots iirdyovrai </>6prov 
yrjs rrjs Aifivacnqs a<j>Lat to dpKovv is rr\v x/>e«u\ 
rrpop/rfieia Be t&v o<f>ea*v rovro Bpcoow, Iva p,rj 
d7ToXwvrai m Kal Bid ravra is rrjv vrjorov rrjv Ttpoei- 
p7]fA€vrjv orav afiiKcovrat,, ov irporepov KararWevrai 
ra f<£a, Trplv rj viroo-netpai rrjv gevrjv yyjv rjv iird- 
yovrai. Kal iirl rovrois dQpol^ovai ra 7rXrjdrj y Kal 
puevroi Kal rovs dvorjrovs re Kal iroXXovs €AC7tA^t- 
rovoiv. €U)S p,ev ovv eKaarov avrwv Kara x^pav 
\xevei QvveoTteipap,evov re Kal IBpvpLevov, Kal 
irravlararai p,ev 3 ov {mtjv V7Tepf3dXXei rfjv oiKelav 
koviv Kal avvrpoj>ov 3 is roaovrov £fj- iav Be 
iK<f>oirrjGrj is rrjv oOvelav Kal eavrw £evrjv yrjv 
rrjv ixOpalvovaav avrcb, aTrodvrjOKei, Kal ecKorajs. 
el yap to €/c tov Aids vev/xa dreXes oiire rrpos rrjv 
Qeriv iyevero ovre rrpos dXXov rivd yevoiro dv i 
axoXfj Brjrrov rrpos rrjv avrov rpo<f>6v e/cetvo 
<f>avetrat, aKvpov. 

3. r TTorafios 6 'IvSo? dOrjpos ion, jjlovos Be 
iv avrcp riKrerai okcoXk]^ <f>aaL. Kal to fxev etBos 
avrcp otto tov Brjirov Kal rots iK rcov £vXtov yev- 
vwp,evois re Kal rpe<f>opbevois 3 i7rrd.Be 7rrjx €COv2 to 
fifjKos TTporiKOVvw ol eKetOi, evpeOetev 8' dv koI 
fiec^ovs en Kal iXdrrovs' to irdxos Be avrwv 
BeKaerrjs irais yeyovws fioXcs rats X € P ai Trepi^dX- 
Xetv apKeaet. 3 rovrois Brj dvco p,ev els oBovs 
7Tpoo7Te<j>vKe y Karat Be dXXos, rerpdyojvoi Be dfjMf>to } 
rrvyovos Be to puv}Kos. roaovrov Be dpa rwv 


the soil and it dies. Accordingly snake-hunters from gjto 
the neighbouring Libya use devices of this kind. 
These charmers of venomous reptiles tame a great 
number and bring them for people to wonder at, and 
^th them they import a load of soil from Libya 
Efficient for their need. This they do by way of 
precaution, to prevent the snakes from meeting their 
death. With this object, when they arrive at the 
aforesaid island they do not put down their snakes 
until they have laid a bed of the imported soil. I his 
done, they collect crowds and fill the unintelligent 
maiority with amazement. Now as long as each 
snake remains coiled up and settled in its place or 
rises up without however crossing the limit ot its 
own native dust, so long it lives. If however * 
strays on to the alien soil which is strange and hostile 
to it, it dies, and naturally so. For if the will of Zeus 
did not fail of effect in the case of Thetis, and would 
not fail in the case of any other person, far less, I 
think, will it prove ineffectual when his own nurse is 

3. The river Indus is devoid of savage creatures ; a —us 
the only thing that is born in it is a worm, so tney 
say, in appearance like those that are engendered m, 
and feed upon, timber. But these creatures attam 
to a length of as much as seven cubits, though one 
might find specimens both larger and smaller. Their 
bulk is such that a ten-year-old boy could hardly en- 
circle it with his arms. A single tooth is attached to 
the upper jaw, another to the lower, and both are 
square and abo ut eighteen inches long; and such is 

1 g VD Ca 2 w)X <s " MSS alwa y s - 

» 4U™* m03t MSS, t 'crx«'a« V, <» dp^«« Jac. 


VOL. I. 


ohovreuv avrois to Kpdros iarl* rrav o n av fin* 
avroZs Xdftajcrt owTplpovat, pacrra, idv re Xido$ fj 
idv re -fjfiepov C<p op rj dypiov. /cat /xe#' r)pbepav 
p,ev Karat /cat iv {rep} 1 fivdep rod Trorapov Sta- 
rpifiovcFi, rep TrrjXcp /cat rfj IXvi tfciXrjdovvres, /cat 
evrevOev ovk etcrlv e/cS^Aot* vvKrtop Be 7Tpoiaenv 
& jr)v yfjv, /cat orcp dv Trepirvxcoaiv , r] Ittttco rj 
pot r] ovtp, ovvrpLfiovvw avrov, elra ovpovviv is 
ra eavrwv r)0rj, /cat iaQLovaw iv rep irorapLcp, /cat 
irdvra fipvKovoi 2 rd fieXrj TrXrjv rr]s rod \eoov 
/cotAtas*. et Se avrovs /cat iv r)p,€pa mi^oi Xtfios, 
etre KdfirjXos ttwol iirl tt)$ oxdrjs etre fiovs, 
viravepTTvcravres /cat Xafiofievoi aKpcov rcov x^Xecov 
IxaXa evXafiws* opfifj fiiaLordrr) /cat eAfet iyKparel 
es ro vBtop dyovac, /cat Beiirvov lgxovctl. Sopd Se 

ZKCLGrOV 7T<=piap,7T€')(€1> TO 7rd\oS KCU BvO SoLKTvXtOV. 

dypa Se avrcov 3 /cat dr)pa rov rpoirov roVSe 
rerixvaorai. dyKiarpov Ttaxv /cat laxvpov dXv- 
aet triBrjpa TrpoarjprrjfjLevov KaOtacri, 7rpoerBf]aavres 
avrco XevKoXlvov raXavnaiov 4 ottXov, ipicp /caret- 
A^cavres' /cat to 5 /cat ro, Iva pur) Siarpdyj] 6 
tTKtoXrjg avrd, dva-rr^avres Se is ro dyKiarpov 
apva rj epi<j>ov, elra fievrot is ro rov rrorapuov 
vBwp fieOiacriv . e^ovrat Se dvOpcorroi rov ottXov 
/cat rpidfcovra, /cat eKacrros aKovriov re ivqyKvXrj- 
rat /cat pudxaipav Trapf^prrjr at. /cat 7rapa/cetrat 
gvXa evrpeirrj, -nalew el Se'or Kpavelas Se cart 
ravra, iuxvpa dyav. elra Tre/Ha^efleWa rep ay/ct- 
ar/oaj /cat to BeXeap Karamovra rov aKcoXrjKa 
dveXKOvai* 6rjpa9evra Se dtroKreLvovcn, /cat irpos 
rr)v elXrjv Kpeficoai rpiaKovra r)p,eptdv. Xelfierat 
1 <t#> add. H. 2 Schn: ppvKwm. 



the strength of their teeth that they can crush with 
Te greatest ease anything that they get between 
them, be it stone, be it animal, tame or wild. During 
the daytime they live at the bottom of the river, 
wallowing in the mud and slime ; for that reason they 
Ire not to be seen. But at night they emerge on to 
the land, and whatever they encounter, whether 
horse or ox or ass, they crush and then drag down to 
their haunts and eat it in the river, devouring every 
member of the animal excepting its paunch. It 
however they are assailed by hunger during the day 
as well, and should a camel or an ox be drinking on 
the bank, they slide furtively up and seizing firmly 
upon its lips, haul it along with the utmost force and 
draff it by sheer strength into the water, where they 
feast upon it. Each one is covered with a hide two 
Wers thick. The following means have been de- 
visld for hunting and capturing them. Men let its capture 
down a stout, strong hook attached to an iron chain, 
and to this they fasten a rope of white flax weighing 
a talent, and they wrap wool round both chain and 
rope to prevent the worm biting through them. On 
the hook they fix a lamb or a kid, and then let them 
sink in the river. As many as thirty men hold on to 
the rope and each of them has a 3 avelin ready to hurl 
and a sword at his side. Wooden clubs are placed 
handy, should they need to deal blows, and these are 
of cornel-wood and very hard. Then when the worm 
is secured on the hook and has swallowed the bait, 
the men haul, and having captured it and killed it, 
hang it up in the sun for thirty days. From the body 

& Jac : Kal r6 d Y Ktorpov. cXkovol. 



Be ig avrov eXaiov jraxv is ay y eta /cejoajLtoy 
d<f>t7jGL Be eKaarov t^Coov is KorvXas BeKa. tovto 
Brj to eXaiov (rep} 1 fiaaiXei rwv 'Iv8<2v ko^ovcfi 
orjfLeta imflaXovres' 2 ex €LV 7^P avrov aXAov 
ovBe oaov pavLBa i<j>eZrai. dxpelov Be ion to 
Xolttov rod £a>ov aKijvos. e%et Be dpa rd eXaiov 
laxvv iKeiv-qv. dvrwa dv £vXo)v aoopdv Kararrp^aal . 
re Kai is dvdpaKidv aropiaai BeXtfarjs, KorvX-qy 
imxias rovBe i^difseis, p,r} -rrporepov viroxeas 
rrvpos orTrepfia- el Be KaranpTjaai dv0pa)7tov rj 
C<pov, av p.ev emmets, to Be 7rapaxpfjp,a ivewpijadr} . 
rovrcp rot (f>aat rov ra>v 'IvBwv fiaaiXea teal rds 
TToXeis alpetv rds is ex^pav irpoeXdovaas ot 3 Kai 
p/qre Kpiovs p/qre x^Xcovas prqre rds aXXas eXeno- 
Xeis dvaptivzw, iirel Karairiparpds yjprjKev dyyeta 
yap Kepafied oaov KorvXrjv eKaarov ppowia 
ifirrXrjaas avrov Kai a7T0<f>pdi;as dva)6ev is rds 
rrvXas a<f>evBova. drav Be z rvxV <tcDv> 4 OvplBtov, 
rd p,ev dyyeXa TTpoaapdrrerai Kai drreppdyx] > Kai 
to eXaiov Karu)Xia6e % Kai rcov dvpdjv rrvp KarexvO^ } 
Kai dafiearov ian. Kai orrXa Be Kaei Kai dvOpcb- 
trovs [xaxoiievovs y Kai airXerov 5 eo-Tt rrjv laxvv. 
KOip,i£erai Be Kai d<j>avL£erai ttoXXov (f>opvrov 
Karaxvdevros.® Xeyei 6 KvlBios Krrjalas ravra. 

4c. f H <j>a)Kawa 7 ofxoiov BeX<f)tvt, faiov iartv, 
exei Be ydXa Kai avrrj. xpoav Be ovk earc p,eXawa, 
Kvavw Be eiKaarai ra> fiaQvrdrw, dvaTrvet Be ov 
fipayxuuSj aAAa <f>va7jrrjpi' rovro yap Kai koXov- 

1 <r<S> add. H. * cmjSaAWey. 

3 «. * (twv> add. H. 



there drips a thick oil into earthenware vessels ; and «u ftom 
each worm yields up to ten cotylae." This oil they seal 1 
and bring to the Indian King; no one else is permitted 
to have so much as a drop. The rest of the carcase is 
of no use. Now the oil has this power: should you 
wish to burn a pile of wood and to scatter the embers, 
pour on a cotyle and you will set it alight without pre- 
viously applying a spark. And if you want to burn a 
man or an animal, pour some oil over him and at once 
he is set on fire. With this, they say, the Indian King 
even takes cities that have risen against him; he 
does not wait for battering-rams or penthouses or 
any other siege-engines, for he burns them down and 
captures them. He fills earthen vessels, each holding 
one cotyle, with oil, seals them, and slings them from 
above against the gates. When the vessels touch 
the embrasures they are dashed into fragments; 
the oil oozes down ; fire pours over the doors, and 
nothing can quench it. And it burns weapons and 
fighting men, so tremendous is its force. It is how- 
ever allayed and put out if piles of rubbish are 
poured over it. 

Such is the account given by Ctesias of Cmdus. 

i. The Porpoise is a creature like the dolphin, and - 
it too has milk. Its colour is not black but resembles 
very deep blue. It breathes not through gills but 
through a blow-hole, for that is the name they give 

1 kotvM} = about | pint. 

5 Triller : airfojvrov . 

6 TroXXm (f>opvrcp KaraxvOevTL. 

7 ^chn: (ftdXaiva. 



aw ol rod 7rv€Vfjbaros rfjv 6B6v. Biarpi^rj Be 6 
Uovros avrfj Kal iKet OdXarra- TtXavdrai Be 
(ja>vy x rjdwv €K€ivcov i^airepfjy rj <f>a)Kaiva z 

5. ToV dppeva rj StfXeia viK-qaava opvis 3 iv rfj 
li&XTI> dfipvveral re vfi ^Sovrjg teal KaOt-qai 
K&XXaia* ovk is rocrovrov fiev is oaov Kal ol 
dXeKrpvoves, Kadirjoi 8' odv, Kal ^povrjpLaros 
VTTOmfjiTrXaratj Kal fiatvet fxaKporepa, 

6. QiXoiKeiov 6 BeX<f>ls £tpov 7re7rtarevrac . Kal 
to 5 fxaprvpLov, Alvos ion ttoXls ®pf}oaa. erv^ev 
odv dXwvai BeX<f>Xva Kal rpcodTjvai [lev, ov purjv is 
Qdvarov, aAA' (J)s} Q en piaxnfia etvai ra> 
eaXcoKon. ovkovv ippvrj fiev atp,a 3 -rjaBovro Be 
ol aOyparot, Kal d<f>iKovro is rov Xifxeva ayiX-q, 
Kal KareaKiprwv, Kal <S^Aot> 7 fjadv rt Bpaaecov- 
res ovk dyadov. 8 ol rotwv Kivioi eBeiaav Kal 
a(f>rjKav rov eaXcoKora. Kal iKeivov KOfjutadfMevot 
ws eVa rcdv KiqBearwv 9 &^ovro dmovres. aira- 
vtcos 10 Se avdpooiTOs r\ olKeicp Bvcrrvxqo-avn rj 
oiKela kowcovos cr7rovB7js Kal <j>povriBos. 

7. 'Ev Alyv7Trcp 7rl9r)KOs y cos <j>iqaiv EvBt] fios, 
iBiwKero, aiXovpot Be rjaav ol BtcoKovres. dvd 
Kpdros odv aTroBtBpdcFKwv coppiqcrev evOv BevBpov 
twos, ol Be Kal avrol dveOopov 11 wKtcrra- e^ovrai 

1 <tw> add. B. 2 jgf^ . ^Xaiva. 

8 opvtv. * KC1AA17. 

6 rovrov to. « ^ s y ^ # # 

7 <(S^Aot> add. Cobet. 



to its air-passage. The Porpoise frequents Pontus 
and the sea round about, and rarely strays beyond its 
familiar haunts. 

5. When a Hen has defeated a cock-bird in battle ^ riong 
it gives itself airs from sheer delight and lets down Hen 
wattles, not however to the same extent as cocks, 
although it does so and is filled with pride and struts 

more grandly. 

6. The Dolphin is believed to love its own kin, and ^P^ red 
here is the evidence. Aenus is a city in Thrace. op m 
Now it happened that a Dolphin was captured and 
wounded, not indeed fatally, but the captive was still 

able to live. So when its blood flowed the dolphins 
which had not been caught saw this and came throng- 
ing into the harbour and leaping about and were 
plainly bent on some mischief. At this the people of 
Aenus took fright and let their captive go, and the 
dolphins, escorting as it might be some kinsman, 

But a human being will hardly attend or give a 
thought to a relative, be it man or woman, in mis- 

7. In Egypt, says Eudemus, a Monkey was being Monkey 
pursued and Cats were the pursuers. So the Monkey and 0a 
fled as fast as he could and made straight for a tree. ^ 
But the Cats also ran up very swiftly, for they cling to 

8 dyadov h> €0et Se ijv, to cikos, kol avrovs vrfx^ al Kal 
7rat8as avrcov. a w f 

9 o>s . . . KijSear&i'] cos eratpcov eva rwv k. 17 yevet irpQcrr}- 

10 andviov. 11 avveBopov. 


yap rwv <f>Xoi<x)v } Kal eon Kal rovrois is BevBpa 
em/Jara. 1 o Bk d>s rjXlcrKero ets cov 3 Kal ravra 
V7TO iroXAcov, €K7TrjSa tov irpepvov 3 Kal kXoBqv 
twos i7Tr}pT7]fusvov 2 Kal perewpov Xapbfiaverai 
aKpov rats X e P Ql y Kai iy^parws ei^ero ovk eif 
oXlyov ol Be aiXovpoi, <hs ovk rjv e<j>iKra avrots 
en, eif dXXrjv B-qpav KareBpapbov . o Se Kara 
TroXXrjv rfjv or7TovSr)v SieorwCero, eavrw o^etXmv 
cos to etKos Cojdypta. 

8. 'ApKJTOTeXrjs o<f>ecrcv exOpav etvat rrjv 'Aaru- 
*rraXaiea)v yy\v Xeyei 3 Kaddirep Kal rrjv 'Prjveiav 
rats yaXats 6 avros opoXoyei rjpXv. Kopcbvrj Be 
is TTjv 'AOrjvalcw aKpoiroXw ovk (ecrrtv) 3 errt~ 
/k-ra. 4 r)p,i6vwv Be ^RXtv firjrepa ovk ipets, rj to 
Xe%6ev \fsevB6s ioTiv. 

9. *Pr}ywot,s Kal AoKpots is rrjv yrjv rrjv 
dXArjXwv itapievai Kal yeojpyetv evairovBov iunv. 
ov pfqv opoXoyovai tovtois ovBe is p^Lav voovat 
Kal rrjv avrrjv ol rernyes ol rcovBe Kal ra>vBe 3 
irrel tov pAv AoKpbv iv 'P^yta> atyrjXoTarov 
€^ets 9 tov Be 'Prjytvov iv rots AoKpots d<f>a>v6rarov. 
Kal rts r} atria rr\s roiavrrjs dvnBoaeojs 5 iyo) 
p,ev ovk otBa ovBe aAAoy, el pur} pdrrjv Opaavvoiro* 
oiBe Be, a> e P?yytvot Kal AoKpoL 3 puovrj rj <f>vots. 
itorapos yovv rrjs re 'Pyytvcov Kal tv}$ AoKpLBos 

1 imfiarov. 2 vinqprr^iivov. 

3 <effrtv> add. H. 4 empaTov. 

5 rottavrrjS a.fxo^rjBQv els tyjv atWTrrjv avri§6cr€<o$. 



the bark and can also climb trees. But as he was 
going to be caught, being one against many, he leapt 
from the trunk and with his paws seized the end of an 
overhanging branch high up and clung to it for a long 
while. And since the Cats could no longer get at 
him, they descended to go after other prey. So the 
Monkey was saved by his own considerable exertions, 
and it was to himself, as was proper, that he owed the 
reward for his rescue. 

8. Aristotle says a that the soil of Astypalaea h is fiaces 

n. -n i t L .i/u hostile to 

unfriendly to snakes ; just as, according to the same certain 
writer, Rhenea is to martens. No crow can go up animals 
on to the Acropolis at Athens. Say that Elis is the 
mother of mules, and you say what is false. 


9. There is an agreement between the people of 
Rhegium and of Locris 4 that they shall have access and 
to, and shall cultivate, one another's lands. But the Ehe e ium 
Cicadas of the two territories do not agree to this and 
are not of one and the same mind, for you will find 
the Locrian Cicada is completely silent in Rhegium, 
and the Cicada from Rhegium is absolutely voiceless 
among the Locrians. What the cause of such an ex- 
change may be neither I nor anyone else, save an 
idle boaster, can say. Only to Nature, you men of 
Rhegium and of Locris, is it known. At any rate 
there is a river e separating the territories of Rhegium 

a The passage is not in his extant works ; jr. 315 (Rose Arist. 
pseudepigraphus, p. 331). 

b Astypalaea and Rhenea are islands of the Cyelades. 
c Cp. Hdt. 4. 30. 

d The two towns lay some 35 mi. apart in the ' toe ' of Italy. 
e The Caecinus acc. to Pans. 6. 6. 4, the Halex acc. to Strabo 
6. 260 and others, 



earl fieaos, Kal elpyovrai ye ovBe wXedpiaiu) 
Biaorrjpbari 1 al oyQai, Kal opLO)? ovBerepoc 2 
BtaTrerovrai avrov. Kal ev Ke^aXXrjvia 3 7rorap,6$ 
iarw, ownep ovv rrjs re evyovias tG>v rerrlycov 
Kal rrjs ayovias air cos. 

10. Tov fiaaiXea avrwv al pueXirrai rrpdov ovra 
Kai rjpuepov real ojxov n Kal aKevrpov orav avrds 
OLTroXcTTYj p^eraOeovcri re Kal Blwkovgi cf>vydBa rijs 
a*PXys ovra. ptvy]Xarovai Be avrov aTropptfrcos, 
Kal €K rrjs oapuTjs rrjs rrepl avrov alpovai, Kal e$ 
rrjv fiaaiXeLav eTtavdyovoiv eKovoaL re Kal fiovXo- 
pbevat Kal rov rpoirov dydfxevac. Heiatarparov 
Be i^rjXacrav 'ABrfvaioi Kal HvpaKocnot, 4 Aiovv- 
aiov Kal dXAoi, d'XAovSj rvpdvvovs re Kal rrapavo- 
fiovs ovras Kal re^y^v fiaatXLKrjv d-rroBel^acrOai 
fvrj Bvvapt,evovs , rjirep ovv <j>iXav6pa)7rlare Kal rcov 
vmjKomv earl 77 -pocrr acria. 

11. MeXei to) fiaaiXel tow pueXtrrcov KeKoap,fj- 
o9ai to crpLTjvos rov rpoirov rovrov. rd$ fiev 
TTpoordrrei vBpo^opetv, rd$ Be evBov Kiqpla Bia- 
TrXdrretv, rrjv ye purjv rplrr\v fiolpav €7rl rrjv 
vopurjv TTpo'Cevac elra \ievroi dp.el^ovai rd epya 
eK irepioBov KaXXiard <7to>s 5 aTroKpiBeiaiqs^ avros 
Be 6 fiaoiXevs, diroxp?} ot rovrarv rrej>povriKevai 
Kal vofXoOereiv ocra TTpoetnov Kara rovs pieydXovs 
apxpvras, ovs ol <f>iX6oo(f)Oi (fuXovaw ovopid^eiv 

1 diaorrjfJLaTi fi4a(p. 2 ovQirepoi. 

4 SupaKou- MSS always, 
6 ttcds. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 9-1 1 

and Locris, and the banks are not so much as a hun- 
dred feet apart; for all that the Cicadas of neither 
side fly across it. And in Cephallenia there is a river 
which occasions both fertility and barrenness among 

10. Bees when forsaken by their King, who is at *» 
once gentle and inoffensive and also stingless, give 
chase and pursue after the deserter from the post of 
rule. They track him down in some mysterious way 
and detect him by means of the smell he diffuses and 
bring him back to his kingdom of their own free will, 
indeed eagerly, for they admire his disposition. But 
the Athenians drove out Pisistratus* and the Syra- 
cusans Dionysius,* and other states their rulers, since 
they were tyrants and broke the laws and could not 
exhibit the art of kingship which consists in loving 
one's fellow-men and protecting one's subjects. 

11. It is the concern of the King Bee that his hive The King . 
should be regulated in the following manner. To sta te 
some bees he assigns the bringing of water, to others 

the fashioning of honeycombs within the hive, while 
a third lot must go abroad to gather food. But after 
a time they exchange duties in a precisely deter- , 
mined rotation. As to the King himself, it is enough 
for him to take thought and to legislate for the mat- 
ters that I mentioned above after the manner of great 
rulers to whom philosophers like to ascribe simul- 

« Tyrant of Athens 560 B.C., twice expelled but regained 
power and held it till his death, 527 B.C. 

& See below, ch, 15 n. 

e Qow : dirOKpiBelaat {so H) fyXovaw oiKovpelv at TrptafivTarai 
MSS, ikXovmv , . . TrpeopvTarat del. E. 



troXtriKOvs re Kal fiaatXtKovs tovs avrovg- ra Si 
aAAa -qair^afet Kal rov avrovpyetv d<f>etrat. edv Si 
27 Xwov rats fieXtrrats pteraar7jvat ) rr\viKavra Kal 
6 apxcov aTraXXdrrerat, /cat iav ptiv ert veos fj, 
rjyetrat, at Si Xotrral eirovrat- 1 iav Si rrpeofivre- 
pos, <f>opdSr}v epx^rai, KopttCovcrcov avrov pueXtrrcbv 
aXXa>v. ai pueXtrrai hi vtto ovvQ^ari is virvov 
rpirrovrai. orav Si So/ctJ Katpos etvat KaOevSetv, 
6 2 fSaartXevs pua tt pour arret V7roo7)pL7]vai Kara- 
Sapddvetv. Kal rj ptiv Tretcrdetaa rovro eKrjpv^ev, 
at Si is koltov rpeirovrai ivrevdev, reojs jSo^tjSow- 
aat. iws (p,ivy B ovv rrepleartv 6 fiacrtXevs, 
evOeveirat 4 to crptijvos, Kal aYa£ta 7raaa rj^avlvOrj 3 
/cat ol ptiv K7]<j>rjveg dyaTnrjrcbs iv rots iavrwv 
Kvrrdpots rjavxaCovaw, at Si 5 irpevfivrepai Stat- 
rGivrai 18 la, teal at viat iSla, /cat Ka9* iavrov 6 
fiacrtXevs, Kal ai oxaSoves i<f>* eavrcbv eiot, /cat fj 
Tpo<f>7} /cat at d<f)oSot x w P^' €?r€tSav Si 6 fiaviXevs 
dTToXrjraL, dramas re /cat dvapx^as pteara rrdvra' 
ot re yap Kr)<f>rjves rots rcov pueXtrrcbv Kvrrdpots 
evrtKrovcrt, ra re Xot7rd iv dXXtfXots <f>vp6pueva 
evOevetaOat ra> apJp>ei to Xomov ovk eirvrpenef 
Sta<j)6eLpovr at Si reXevrwoat iprjpttq, dpxovros. 
filov Si Kadapov £77 pteXtrra, Kal foW ovk dv 
ovSevos rrdoatro wore* Kal ov Selrai UvOayopov 
avfApovXov ovSi ev> drroxpr) Si dpa airov avrrj 
elvai ra dvOrj. eart Si Kal croj^poovvrjv aKpordrrj. 
xXiSrjv yovv Kal dpvtptv pteptlo-qKe. Kal to ptaprv- 
ptov, rov xp^dptevov ptvpa) Std)t<et re Kal iXavvet 
cos* rroXep.tov aviqKeara Spdaavra. otSe Si Kal rov 

1 ayovTCLt. % 6 fi4v. 

5 <jueV> add. H. 



taneously the qualities of a citizen and of a king. 
For the rest he lives at ease and abstains from 
physical labour. If however it is expedient for the 
bees to change their dwelling, then the ruler. departs, 
and if he happens to be still young, he leads the way 
and the rest follow; if however he is elderly, he is 
carried on his way and conveyed by other bees. 

At a signal bees retire to slumber. When it seems 
to be time to go to sleep the King commands one bee 
to give the signal for going to rest. And the bee 
obeys and gives the word, whereupon the bees that 
have been buzzing till then retire to bed. Now so 
long as the King survives, the swarm nourishes and 
all disorder is suppressed. The drones gladly remain 
at rest in their cells, the older bees dwell in their 
quarters apart, the young in theirs, the King by 
himself, and the larvae in their own place. Their 
food and their excrement are in separate places. , 
But when the King dies, disorder and anarchy fill the 
place ; the drones produce offspring in the cells of the 
bees ; the general confusion no longer permits the 
swarm to thrive, and finally the bees perish for want 
of a ruler. 

The Bee leads a blameless life and would never The Bee, its 
touch animal food. It has no need of Pythagoras for llfe 
counsellor, but flowers afford it food enough. It is in 
the highest degree temperate ; at any rate it abhors 
luxury and delicate living ; witness the fact that it 
pursues and drives away a man who has perfumed 
himself, as if he were some enemy who has perpe- 
trated actions past all remedy. It recognises too a 

4 et-pyvy euffop'-. 

5 re. 



iXSovra 1 i£ aKoXdurov SfxiXlas, 2 Kal BicoKec Kal 
€K€lvov ota hrjTTOV eyQiaTov. Kal dvBpecas Be ed 
r\Kovui koX drpe7TT0L elaiv, ovBe ev yovv £a>ov 
dTroBiBpduKovcrw , ovBe purjv K&Krj etKovat, ^ojpotfCTt 
Be o/xocre. Kal rrpos pikv rovs purj ivo^ovvras 
fjbrjSe ap%ovTas dBiKcov purjBe rq> opjr\vei TTpoaiovras 
KaKovpycos Kal avv imfiovX-r} elprjvala avraXs Kal 
kvGTTOvha iarc, iroXepos Be aKiqpvKTOS to qBopuevov 
rovro ivl rovs Xv7rovvras i^dirrerat,, Kal ocrns 
r\Kei Kepatcrwv to p,eXi avrais s is rovs exOpovs 
rjpldfMrjrai ovros. iratovaL Be Kal rovs cr<f>rjKas 
KaKcbs. Aeyet Be ^ApLuroreXrjs on Kal Itrrrel 3 
irore evrvxovaai rrpos rep opsqvei drreKrewav avrov 
emOepievai Kara to Kaprepov al peXirrai avrco 
tinTip. r\Br\ fievTOL Kal 7rpd$ dXXrjXas Bia<f>epovrai, 3 
/cat at BwarcLrepat Kparovoi ra>v rjrrovcov. Kpa- 
rovcri Be chs aKovco avrwv ol re <f>pvvot Kal ol Ik 
rtov reXparcov fidrpaxoi ol re p^epoires Kal al 
XeXiBoves, 7roXXaKis ye prjv Kal ol acf>fjKes. Sons 
rovraw eKpdrrjae, KaS/xetav a>s ye elaeiv rrjv 
vikt]v ivLK7]o-e' Traiopbevoi yap Kal Kevrovpevoi 
KaKws diraXXdrrovaLv etui yap ov fielov ra> 
Qvp,(p rj rots Kevrpois amXiGpevai. ovk dpuoipovcFL 
Be ovBe rvjs is to -rrpop^qdes ao<f>ias, Kal 'A/hoto- 
reXrjs reKp/iqptoi o Xeya). eon Be roiovrov. 
eXOovoat peXirrai 4 em ri opbrjvos ovk oiKelov 

1 trpooehQovTa. 

2 GLKoXacrias re Kal ofuXias rfjs irpos riva. 

3 Reishe : Xir-rrcp. 4 at p. 

a The ' horseman * is an addition of Aelian's. 

b Two explanations are given : (i) Cadmus slew a dragon 
set by Ares to guard a well. 3?rom its teeth sprang armed 


man who comes from an unchaste bed, and him also 
it pursues, as though he were its bitterest foe. And its courage 
Bees are well-endowed with courage and are un- 
daunted. For instance, there is not a single animal 
from which they flee; they are not mastered by 
cowardice but go to the attack. Towards those who 
do not trouble them or start to injure them or who 
do not approach the hive bent on mischief and with 
evil intent they show themselves peaceful and 
friendly; but against those who would injure them 
the fires of a truceless war, as the phrase goes, are 
kindled; and anyone who comes to plunder their 
honey is reckoned among their enemies. And they 
sting even wasps severely. And Aristotle records its sting 
[HA 626 a 21] how Bees once finding a horseman a 
near the hive attacked him violently and slew both 
him and his horse. And further, they fight with one 
another, and the stronger party defeats the weaker. 
But I learn that toads and frogs from pools, bee- its enemies 
eaters, and swallows defeat them, and frequently 
wasps do so too. Yet the victor achieves what you 
might call a Cadmean victory, 6 for he comes off badly 
from their blows and stings, since the Bees are armed 
with courage no less than with stings. But Bees are 
not without a share of the wisdom of foresight, and 
Aristotle vouches for my statement [HA 626 b 12] 
thus. Some Bees came to a hive that was not theirs 
but a different one and proceeded to plunder the 

men who would have fallen upon C. had he not prevailed upon 
them to kill one another, (ii) Eteocles the defender, and 
Polynices the assailant of Thebes, the city founded by Cadmus, 
slew each other in battle. The Thebans were victorious but 
were later driven out by the descendants of the ' Septem 
contra Thebas.' 



dX\a erepov, etra to fjurjhev crfacri, irpoa^Kov 
€K€pcuCov pueXi. at he kolltoi crvXcofievat rov a<f>e~ 
repov 7t6vov, opuws iveKapripovv rjo-vxfj drpepLov- 
aai } eira jxevrot to jxeXXov iyKparats iKapahoKow . 
eirei he 6 p.eXirrovpyos rds iroXXas rwv ixOptov 
arreKreivev, at evhov Karayvovaat, on apa hvvavrat, 
a^ioiriaroi elvat trpos rrjv T V V icronakij , 

irpoeXBovaai rear rjpLvvavro, Kal Swcas wnrprr^uav 
virep &v iavXtjdrjcrav ovhap,a>s pLep,7rra$ . 

12. Kal tovto he (f>iXepyias * Tvjs tG>v 2 /xeAtr- 
t&v fxaprvpeov. 3 iv yovv rots x €l ^P l ^drois twv 
XO)pca)V fMera UXeidhcov hvcrfids is IvrjpLepLav 
rjpivrjv StareXovaiv otKovpovaat re Kal evhov 
arpefxovaat dXeas ttoOco Kal <j>vyfj plyovs at 
fieXirrar rov he aXAov x?^ vov T °v erovs iravra 
dpylav re 4 Kal rjavxcav puaovcri, Kal Kapuetv elaiv 
ayaOal. Kal ovk dv wore Xhots fSXaKevovaav 
peXirrav rijs Spas €Ketv7]s e£<o iv fj /xaA/aet 5 ra 

13. Fetofierpiav he Kal KaXXr] axrjpidrojv Kal 
(bpatas TtXdaeis avrwv dvev rexvrjs re Kal kovovcov 
Kai rod KoXovpLevov vtto rcov aocf>6jv hiafitfrov 6 
aTToheiKvvvTai at fieXcrrat. orav he. iTrcyovf] 77 
Kai evBevfj rats fieXlrrais to opLTjvos, iKTrepbtrov- 
aw 7 atanep ovv at jjueyLurat re Kal rroXvavhpov- 
fievat, rcov TToXeouv. olhe he apa rj pLeXirra Kal 

1 ryjs ^tAepytas. 

2 Jac: rrjs ft. L, rcov p. other MSS. 

3 TO fiapTVptOV, 

4 iiiv. 


ON ANIMALS, V. n-13 

honey which did not belong to them.- But the Bees 
which were being despoiled of their labours never- 
theless remained quiet and waited patiently to 
see what would happen. Then, when the bee- 
keeper had killed the greater number of the 
enemy, the Bees in the hive realised that they 
were in fact sufficient to sustain an equal combat 
and emerged to strike back, and the penalty which 
they exacted for the robbery left nothing to cavil at. 

12. Here is further evidence of the industry -of ^Bee, its 
Bees In the coldest countries from the time when 

the Pleiads have set" until the vernal equinox they 
continue at home and stay quiet in the hive, longing 
for the warmth and shunning the cold. But for the 
rest of the year they abhor indolence and repose and 
are good at hard labour. And you would never see a 
Bee idling unless it were during the season when their 
limbs are numb with cold. 

13. Bees practise geometry and produce their £b Bee, 
graceful figures and beautiful conformations without 

lay theory or rules of art, without what the learned 
call a 1 compass.' And when their numbers increase 
and the swarm thrives they send out colonies jusT as glomes 
the largest and most populous cities do. Now the 
Bee knows when there is rain that threatens to per- as weaker- 
sist, and when there will be a gale. But if surprised 
About the beginning of November. 

6 Schn : imXaKiel. f y < t , . 

« BtajS^Tou ^ k6XKlotov a X W^ v ^aycovov r<r Kai efrTrtevpov 
Kai iaoydyviov. 

7 Kal els anoLKlav eKTrefMnovaiv. 



verov aireLkovvTos eVtS?j/ztav /cat okXtjpov 7rvedp& 
icofievov. el Be avrfj rrapd Bogav yevovro to rod 
TTveviiaros, oif/ec <f>ipovoav XLdov eKdorrjv d,Kpoi$ 
rot? TTocrlv epfia etvat. 1 oirep Be 6 6 etos UXdr ojv 
rrepl rcov rerriyoyu Xeyei /cat rijs eWiw faXcpBlas 
re /cat <f>iXofiovatas , rovr dv /cat -rrepl rod rwv 
fie\i,Tra)v x°P°v eiTTOi rts*. orav yovv aKLprrjao)- 
atv rj TrXavrjOwatv, evravOa ol vpLTjvovpyoi Kporovai 
Kporov nvd i^eXrj re /cat avpufjieXf}' at Be d)s 
vtto Hetprjvos eXKovrcu, /cat ^eWot /cat VTroorpe- 
<j>ovaiv is rfir\ ra ot/ceta avdts. 

14. 'Ev rfj Yvdpcp 2 rfj vrjcrcp 'ApLcrroreXrjs 
Xeyet p,vs elvai /cat \ievroi /cat ri)v yrjv aireiuOai 
rfy <xt$7]pmv. 'Apwras Be /cat rovs iv Tepr^Bovi 
(yrjs B Be eunv avr-q rrjs Ba/?uAcWas ) tt)v &vrr)v 
7rpop<f>epeo9ai Xeyet. 

JEv Adrpcp^Be rrjs Kaplas aKovco OKOpTtiovs 
etvat, oirrep odv rovs pkv <rroXlras g^lcti Traiovviv 
is ddvarov, rovs Be fjevovs rjovxrj /cat oaov rrapa- 
vx&v ^6ha&]oti6v, ifMol BoKelv 4 rov Eevlov Atoy 
rot? d<f>LKvovfievocs to Bwpov rovro aTTOKpivavros . 

15. Bao-tAetWrat Se dpa /cat cr^J/ces, aAA' ov 
rypavvovvr ai <hs dvOpojiroi. /cat to paprvpiov, 
aKevrpoi^ /cat otSe ettrt. /cat ol p,ev virrfKooi ri 
kpya trXdrrew avrois vo\xov e'xovcrtv, ol Be dpxovres 
elai BijrXdaioi pev to fieyedos, -rrpaoi Be /cat otot 
p-jre Jftovres Xvrrecv ex^w p^re attovres. tls o$v 
ovk dv [iLvrjoreie 5 Aiovvolovs tovs eV St/ceAta /cat 

1 etvat teat fiy ararpeWaflat. 

2 Eohtein : flapy. 

3° 6 

ON ANIMALS, V. 13^15 

by a wind, you will see every Bee carrying a pebble 
between the tips of its feet by way of ballast. What 
the divine Plato says [Pkaedr. 230 c, 259 b] of cicadas 
and their love of song and music one might equally its love of 
say of the choir of Bees. For instance, when they S0Dg 
frolic and roam abroad, then the bee-keepers make a 
clashing sound, melodious and rhythmical, and the 
Bees are attracted as by a Siren and come back again 
to their own haunts* 

14 (i). In the island of Gyarus Aristotle says [Mir. gatsin ^ 
832 a 22] that there are Rats and that they actually T ^™ n a n 
eat iron ore. And Amyntas says that the Bats of 
Teredon (this is in Babylonia) adopt the same food. 6 

(ii). I am told that on Latmus in Caria there are scorpions 
Scorpions which inflict a fatal sting on their fellow- 
countrymen ; strangers however they sting lightly 
and just enough to produce an itching sensation. 
This in my opinion is a boon bestowed upon visitors 
by Zeus, Protector of the Stranger. 

15. Wasps also are subject to a King, but not, as 
men are, to a despot. Witness the fact that their 
Kings also are stingless. And their subjects have a 
law that they shall construct their combs for them. 
But although the rulers are twice the size of a subject, 
yet they are gentle and of a nature incapable 
of doing an injury either willingly or unwillingly. 
Who then would not detest the Dionysii of 

One of the Cyclades, some 40 mi. SEE of Attica. 
6 Qp. 17. 17. 

3 Eolstein : yrj. 
6 fjuarjo?} or -at. 

4 Schn : So«et. 



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ydp tol Kal €Keivr} TrkdopLa ecrrtV. at fxvtaL at 
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° Dionysius the elder, c. 430-367 B.C., elected general and 
ruler of Syracuse, extended his power oyer Sicily and parts of 
Magna Graecia ; represented as a tyrant of the worst kind. — 
Dionysius the younger succeeded his father, 367 B.C. Ejected 


ON ANIMALS, V. 15-17 

Sicily,* Clearehus of Heraclea, Apollodorus the 
oppressor of Cassandrea, Nabis the scourge of Sparta, 
if they trusted in the sword, when the King Wasps 
trust to their lack of sting and to their gentle nature ? 

16. This is what Wasps that are armed with a sting The Wasp 
are said to do. When they observe a dead viper they ^on 
swoop upon it and draw poison into their sting. It is 

from this source, I fancy, that men have acquired 

that knowledge, and no good knowledge either. 

And Homer is witness to the fact when he says in 

the Odyssey [1. 261] 

'Seeking a deadly drug, that he might have 
wherewithal to smear his bronze-tipped arrows.' 

Or again, to be sure (if one can trust the story), just 
as Heracles dipped his arrows in the venom of the 
Hydra, so do Wasps dip and sharpen their sting. 

17. Let not the Fly lack the honour of a mention The Ply 
in this record of mine, for it too is Nature's handi- 
work. f\i 

The Flies of Pisa at the season of the Olympic 
festival make peace, so to speak, both with visitors 

from Sicily, he made himself Tyrant of Locris— and deserved 
the title. Recovered Syracuse by treachery but was again 
expelled in 345 B.C., by Thnoleon. —Clearehus by cham- 
pioning the cause of the people against the nobles of Heraclea 
obtained the tyranny. After a reign of 12 years marked by 
signal cruelty he was murdered, 353 B.C.— ApoUodorus, tyrant 
of Cassandrea, 3rd cent. B.C., became a byword for cruelty ; 
conquered and executed by Antigonus Gonatas .--Nabis usurped 
the kingship of Sparta, which he exercised with the utmost 
savagery; defeated by Philopoemen and Flaminmus m his 
efforts to regain lost territory ; finally murdered, 192 b,c. 



rots i7TV)(Q)piois . lepetcov yovv KaraOvoptevcov too*- 
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\hevrot Trpowrreaovros 6 Be eavrov iijeXiijas is rd 
vtora dveOope, /cat iyKparcos e^eTat rod drjpos 6 
1 ras yvvaiKas del. Cobet. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 17-19 

and with the local inhabitants. At any rate, despite 
the multitude of sacrifices, the quantity of blood shed 
and of flesh hung out, the Flies disappear of their avoWsthe 
own free will and cross to the opposite bank of the Games 
Alpheus. And they appear to differ not a whit from 
the women there, except that their behaviour shows 
them to be more self-restrained than the women. 
For while women are excluded by the rules of train- 
ing and of continence at that season, the Flies of their 
own free will abstain from the sacrifices and absent 
themselves while the ceremonies are in progress and 
during the recognised period of the Games. ' Then 
was the assembly ended ' [Horn. 11 24. 1] and the 
Flies come home, just like exiles whom a decree has 
allowed to return, and once again they stream into 

18. The Great Sea Perch is a marine creature, and gjgjg 
if you were to catch and cut it up, you would not then 

and there see it dead, but it retains the power of 
movement, and for a considerable time. All through 
the winter it likes to remain at home in its caverns, 
and its favourite resorts are near the land. 

19. The Wolf does not dare to close with a Bull and wolf and 
to meet it face to face ; he is afraid of its horns and 
avoids their points. So he makes a feint of attacking 

the Bull frontally ; he does not however attack but 
gives the appearance of being about to try ; and 
then when the Bull makes a rush at him, the Wolf 
slips aside and leaps on its back and clings with might 
and main, beast wrestling with beast. And the Wolf 

3 dp<£ds. 

4 e<m koX cIkotcds. 


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1 Jac ; 3etvprar?t avr4, ? <ro> add. B. 

3 1 * 

ON ANIMALS, V. 19-21 

overpowers it and by native cunning makes good his 
lack of strength, 

20. The Hake has its heart in its belly, as ex- The Hake 
perts in these matters agree and inform us. 

21 . The Peacock knows that it is the most beautiful The Peacock 
of birds ; it knows too wherein its beauty resides ; it 

prides itself on this and is haughty, and gathers con- 
fidence from the plumes which are its ornament and 
which inspire strangers with terror. In summertime 
they afford it a covering of its own, unsought, not 
adventitious. If, for instance, it wants to scare 
somebody it raises its tail-feathers and shakes them 
and emits a scream, and the bystanders are terrified, 
as though scared by the clang of a hoplite's armour. 
And it raises its head and nods most pompously, as 
though it were shaking a triple plume at one. 
When however it needs to cool , itself it raises its 
feathers, inclines them in a forward direction and dis- 
plays a natural shade from its own body, and wards 
off the fierceness of the sun's rays. But if there is a 
wind behind it, it gradually expands its feathers, and 
the breeze which streams through them, blowing 
gently and agreeably, enables the bird to cool itself. 
It knows when it has been praised, and as some 
handsome boy or lovely woman displays that feature 
which excels the rest, so does the Peacock raise its 
feathers in orderly succession; and it resembles a 
flowery meadow or a picture made beautiful by the 
many hues of the paint, and painters must be pre- 
pared to sweat in order to represent its special 

3 TT^eoveKTovv els wpav. 



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dvavevaai Kal dveXQetv ov Bwdpevoi, rds aXXrjXtov 
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Kal rovrovs aXXrjXois crvpLfiax^tv Kal i^riKovpeiv rj 
ao(f)a>rdrrj <f>vcri$ i^erraiBevuev \ 


ON ANIMALS, V. 21-22 

characteristics. And it proves how ungrudgingly it 
exhibits itself by permitting bystanders to take their 
fill of gazing, as it turns itself about and industriously 
shows off the diversity of its plumage, displaying 
with the utmost pride an array surpassing the gar- 
ments of the Medes and the embroideries of the 
Persians. It is said to have been brought to Greece 
from foreign lands. And since for a long while it was 
a rarity, it used to be exhibited to men pf taste for a 
fee, and at Athens the owners used on the first day 
of each month to admit men and women to study 
them, and they made a profit by the spectacle. 
They used to value the cock and the hen at ten 
thousand drachmas," as Antiphon says in his speech 
against Erasistratus.* For their maintenance a 
double establishment and custodians and keepers are 
needed. Hortensius the Roman was judged to have 
been the first man to slaughter a Peacock for a ban- 
quet. But Alexander of Macedon was struck with 
amazement at the sight of these birds in India, and 
in his admiration of their beauty threatened the 
severest penalties for any man who slew one. 

22. When Mice fall into cooling-vessels, since they JJ™^ 
cannot get out by swimming, they fasten their teeth drowning 
into one another's tails, and then the first pulls the 
second and the second the third. In this way has 
Nature in her supreme wisdom taught them to 
combine and help one another. 

« About £375. 

* The speech is lost, but see Atnen. 9. 397 c, d. 

1 <V<£v)> add. H* 


23. 'EAAo^CaortV ol KpOKoBlXoi TOVS vhp€V0fx4~ 

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vvv ravra. 

24. Aaycos SeSot/ce Kvvas kal \iivroi Kal dXd>7rr)£, 
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1 eVtjSaAAovres-, 2 apvofi4vov$, 


ON ANIMALS, V. 23-25 

23. This is the way in which Crocodiles lie in wait ^ e codUe 
for those who draw water from the Nile : they cover 
themselves with driftwood and, spying through it, 
swim up beneath it. And the people come bringing 
earthen vessels or pitchers or jugs. Then, as men 
draw water, the creatures emerge from the drift- 
wood, leap against the bank, and seizing them with 
overpowering force make a meal of them. So much 

for the innate wickedness and villainy of Crocodiles. 

24. The Hare dreads Hounds, and so too does the ^||^ a d r s d 
Fox. And Hounds, I fancy, with their barking will 

rouse a boar from the brake, and will bring a lion to 
bay, and pursue a stag. Yet there is not a single 
bird that cares anything for a Hound, but there is 
peace between them. The Bustard alone is afraid 
of Hounds, the reason being that these birds are 
heavy and carry a burden of flesh about with them. 
Their wings do not easily lift them and carry them 
through the air, so they fly low along the ground, 
weighed down by their bulk. Hence they are fre- 
quently captured by Hounds. And since they are 
aware of this, whenever they hear the bark of 
Hounds, they run away into thickets and swamps, 
using these as a protection and escaping instant 
danger without difficulty. 

25. The human child is slow to recognise its The Lamb 
parents : it is taught and, one might say, compelled 

to look at its father, to greet its mother, and to smile 
upon its relatives. Whereas Lambs from the day of 

3 <fcat> add, H. 4 J«c : owzydpovow. 

s Trap' avr&v. 6 Meiske : Karq&onevos. 



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3 PerA. Kal rcovSe H. 4 <ra> chM. Jac. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 25-27 

their birth gambol about their dams and know what 
is strange and what is akin to them. They have no 
need to learn anything from their shepherds. 

26. The Monkey is a most imitative creature, and The Monfcey 
any bodily action that you teach it it acquires exactly, 

so as to be able to display its accomplishment. For 
instance, it will dance, once it has learnt, and if you 
teach it, will play the pipe. And I myself have even 
seen it holding the reins, laying on the whip, and 
driving a chariot. And once it has learnt whatever 
it may be, it would never disappoint its teacher. So 
versatile and so adaptable a thing is Nature. 

27. Here are further examples of the peculiar and Peculiarities 
diverse natures of animals. Theopompus reports °*?g^ m 
that in the country of the Bisaltae a the Hares have 

a double liver. According to Ister the Guinea-fowls 
of Leros are never injured by any bird of prey. 
Aristotle says b that among the Neuri c the Oxen 
have their horns on their shoulders, and Agatharcides 
says that in Ethiopia the Swine have horns. Sostra- 
tus asserts that all Blackbirds on Cyllene d are white. 
Alexander of Myndus says that in Pontus the Flocks 
grow fat upon the bitterest wormwood. He states 
also that Goats born on Mimas e do not drink for 
six months ; all they do is to look towards the sea 
with their mouths open and to drink in the breezes 
from that quarter. I learn that the Goats of Illyria 

a Macedonian tribe living on W coast of the gulf of the 

6 Not in any surviving work; fr. 313 (Rose p. 331). 
c Tribe living between the rivers Boug and Dnieper. 
d Mountain in N Arcadia. 
6 Mountain on coast of Ionia, W of Smyrna. 



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^rjXorvTTcoraro? etvac teal ixetvo 2 Brfrrov KeKrrjr at. 
<f)iXoLK€cov avrov elvaL epaotv Kal rrjv ovvrpoej>Lav 
rwv avwofxcov dyairav. iv oIklo, yovv rpi<f>eoQai 
rrop(f>vpicova Kai dXeKrpvova rfKovaa, Kal oireioOai 
fiev rd avrd, /?aSt£eiv Se rd$ taas fiaSiaeis Kal 
Kocvfj KovUaOai. ovkovv £k rovrwv <f>iXlav nvd 
davpLauriju avrots iyyeviodat. Kai irore eoprijs 
€Tn<Jrdcrq$ 6 BecFTrorrjS dyaf>olv. rov dXeKrpvova 
Karadvcras elcrrcdOrj avv rots oIkcLois* 6 Se 
7TOpcf>vpltov rov avvvofiov ovk exo)v Kal rrjv ipr}- 
fjLtav p/rj (f>epa>v iavrov drpotf>La Bie<f>9eLpev. 

29. 'Ev Alyitp rrjs 'A^aia? ehpalov 7ratSos, 
'QXeviov to yivos, ovopba * Ap,<f>iX6xov , rjpa XW* 
&eoef>paaros Xeyei rovro. avv rots 7 QXevicov Se 
ef>vydaw i<f>povpeXro iv Alylep 6 trai$. ovkovv 6 
Xyv avrw ocopa ecftepe. Kal iv Xta> TXavKTjs rijs 
KidapcpBov <hpaiordr7]s ovarjs el puev ijpwv dvOpoj- 
7rot, \ieya ovBerrco' rjpdcrdrjcrav Se Kal Kpids Kal 
xfyj <*>s dKOvw, rrjs avrfjs* 

1 <o> add. H. 2 d opvis xal cVeivo. 

a Aegium, one of the principal cities of Achaia, stood on the 
coast near the W end of the Corinthian gulf. It was the 
regular meeting-place of the Achaean League,. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 27-29 

have a solid, not a cloven hoof. And Theophrastus 
[fr. 171. 2] has the most amazing statement that in 
Babylonia the fish frequently come out of the river 
and pasture on dry land. 

28. Now the Purple Coot, in addition to being The Purple 
extremely jealous, has, I believe, this peculiarity: 000 * 
they say that it is devoted to its own kin and loves 

the company of its mates. At any rate I have heard 
that a Purple Coot and a Cock were reared in the 
same house, that they fed together, that they walked 
step for step, and that they dusted in the same spot. 
From these causes there sprang up a remarkable 
friendship between them. And one day on the 
occasion of a festival their master sacrificed the Cock 
and made a feast with his household. But the Purple 
Coot, deprived of its companion and unable to endure 
the loneliness, starved itself to death. 

29. In Aegium,« a city of Achaia, a good-looking Geese in 
boy, an Olenian 6 by birth, of the name of Amphilo- 
chus, was loved by a Goose. Theophrastus relates beings 
this [fr. 109]. The boy was kept under guard with 
exiles from Olenus in Aegium, and so the Goose used 

to bring him presents. In Chios Glauce, the harp- 
player, being a woman of extraordinary beauty, was 
adored by men, not that there is anything wonderful 
in that, but I am told that a Ram and a Goose also 
fell in love with her. 

* Olenus was a small town on the NW coast of Achaia, near 
the mouth of the Pixus. The reference to ' exiles from O.* 
is obscure ; it may signify an effort on the part of the Achaean 
League to ensure peace among the 12 cities of Achaia. As 
the League was broken up by Alexander, the event must have 
occurred earlier. 





01 8e xqves ocafxetpovres rov opos Se- 
hoUaai rovs aeiow, Kal eKaoros ye ayrwv XLQov 
ivSaKovres, ha px) tcXafaoiv, dWep ow ipfiaXov- 


rovs derovs ra TroXXa ravrrj ScaXavddvovoi. 
Oepfioraros 8e apa &v Kal hiarrvpcbraros rrjv 
</>volv 6 xn v <f>^oXovrpos ion Kal vrj&ai^ ^atpet 
Kal rpo<j>als /xaAtaTa rats vypordracs ^ Kal iroai$ 
*at OpihaKivais Kal rots Xolttois, ooa avrols 
&8o0€V ^xo? ipydCerat- el 8e kcu i&vawoiro 
vtto <tou> x Atjuou, Sa^s <£dAAov ov/c av (jtdyoi, 
ov8' av irdaaL-ro poSoM<f>vqs ovre Ikojv ovre aKaiv 
otSe yap on reOvrjger at rovrwv nvos ip,<f>ayd)v. 
dvOpoiiroi 8e wr docorlas 2 inipovXevovrat Kal is 
rpo(f>7]V Kal is trorov? pxploi yovv /ecu TrLvovris 
n KaKbv Kar€7nov 3 ws 'AAcfavSpo?, Kal ioOlovjes, 
ws EXavBios 6 Twftatbs- koX BperraviKos 6 rovrov 
Tratr Kal KaraKOL^divres ovk i^aveorj]Gav xpq- 
oei <f>aptxdKOV y oi pev eKovres rovro oirdoavres, ol 
8e emfiovXevdevres . 

30. e O 8e x^aAcoTTTjl, Tri-nXeKrai ol to ovofia * 
e/< t<Bi> (iKardpov} 5 rov Z>wov Ihlwv re Kal 

avpu&wv. ex €t ^ v y°-P ™ e p os T ° TO ° |^ 
-navovpyiav 6 8e StKaidrara dvnKpivoiro ^ dv rp 
dXa>7T€KL. Kal eon ju-ev xi^s flpaxyrepos, dv8peid~ 
repos' 8e, Kal X^petv d/xdcre Be«w. dpvverai yovv 
Kal aerov Kal alXovpov kol rd Xonrd, ooa avrov 
dvrt7TaXd ionv. 

1 <tov> add. E. 2 Vmw : <ro#as. 

5 <e«rarepou> add. H, 6 iravovpyla. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 29-30 

When Geese cross the Taurus range they go in fear geeseana 
of the eagles; so each of them bites on a pebble meB 
to prevent it from uttering its cry, just as though 
they had gagged themselves, and so they cross in 
silence and by these means generally slip past the 
eagles. The Goose, being of a very hot and fiery habits and 
nature is fond of bathing and delights in swimming, 00 
and prefers very moist fare, grass, lettuce, and all 
other things that generate coolness in its body. But 
even if it is exhausted with hunger it will not eat a 
bay-leaf or touch a rose-laurel either willingly or 
against its will,, for it knows that if it eats either of 
them it will die. 

Yet men through their unbridled appetites are the Human ^ 
victims of plots against their food and drink. At any £odand 
rate _countless numbers have swallowed some bane drink 
while drinking, like Alexander, 3 or in food, like 
Claudius the Koman, 6 and Britannicus, his son. 
And having fallen asleep from a dose of poison, they 
never rose again, some having drunk it deliberately, 
others because they were the victims of a plot. 

30. The Egyptian Goose owes its composite name The 

r t • 1 ■ j? j.i. 1 Egyptian 

(goose-fox) to the innate peculiarities ot the two aoo |e 
creatures. It has the appearance of a goose, but 
for its mischievousness it might most justly be com- 
pared to the fox. It is smaller than a goose but more 
courageous, and is a fierce fighter. For instance, it 
defends itself against an eagle, a cat, and all other , 
animals that come against it. 

a Alexander died (323 B.C.) of a fever aggravated by 
excessive drinking. 

6 Roman Emperor, a.d. 41-54, poisoned by his. wife 

6 Poisoned by order of Nero, A.t>. 55. 

3 2 3 


31. 'TSta Se o<f>€a)s Kal €K€ivd icrrc. rrjv Kap- 
Stav K€KArjpcorai em rfj <f>dpvyyt 3 rrjv Se x oA ^ 
iv rotg ivripoiSy irpos Se rfj ovpa rovs op^eis 
e^et, ra Se cod rtKrec jxaKpd /cat fiaXaKa, rov Se 
tov eV rot? SSovat <f>ip€L. 

32. Taa> Se rco opviOt rco 7rpo€ip7]fx4vq) koX 
€K€iva avfJLtbva Kal lota, aWp icrrl puaOetv afta. 
T/5ta 6TT7 yevopuevos Kvrjcrecos apx^rcu Kal tboiva 
cnroXvei Kal rojs" rcov Trreptov TroXvxpolas re kcll 
copas rore ap^erat. eVtuafet Se ou. Kara to ef/Js', 
aAAa, TrapaXtTTchv Svo rjpbipas. ySr} S' aV reVot 
Kal virrjvepua 6 racos ) &>$ Kal opviOes erepot. 

33. 'H vrjrra orav t€K7). tLktg.1 aiv * iv £wpto. 
TTArjatov oe 7/ t^s 1 AifjLvrjs 7] rov revayovs 7/ aAAov 
twos voprjXov ^topou Kal ivopocrov. to Se vr\r~ 
nov 2 cbvcrei nvl lota Kal aTTOpprjrco otSev on firjre 
tt}s 3 puerecopov chopds ot pberearc jjbtfre pjr)v rijs 
iv rfj xe/xja; oiarpififjs. Kal iK rovrcov is to 
vScop 7Trjoa y Kal ef choLvoiV icrrl vrfKTiKrit Kal 
puadetv ov Setrat, dAAd KaTaSuerat Kal dVaSverat 
irdw aochcos Kal cbs yjSr} ^povov TreTTaioevpiivy) 
rovro. aero? Se, ov KaXovcrt vrjrrocbovov, iTrnr-qoa 
rfj vy)xop,4vr} cbs dprracropbevos' t) Se KaraSvcra 
iavrrjv rjcbdvicrev, etra vrroviq^apiivr) dXXaxoOc 
iKKVTrret. 6 Se Kal e/cet Trdpearc, Kal avBis 
KariBv iKcLviq, Kal iraXw ravra Kal ttolXw. Kal 
hvoiv Odrepov rj yap KaraSvcra 4 d7T€TTViyri, rj 6 

1 fl€VTOL. 2 veOTTtOV. 

3 rrjs ev dept. 4 Pauw : icaraSifc. 

3 2 4- 

ON ANIMALS, V. 31-33 

31. The following features are peculiar to the Anatomy of 
Snake. The heart has its allotted place close to the tlie Snaie 
throat, the gall in the intestines; its testicles are 

close to the tail ; the eggs which it produces are long 
and soft ; its poison is contained in the fangs. 

32. The Peacock (I have described the bird The Peacock 
above) a has these further innate peculiarities which 

are worth knowing. When three years old it begins 
to be pregnant and lays its eggs, and then starts to 
assume that many-coloured and beautiful plumage. 
But it does not brood upon its eggs immediately, 
but passes over two days. And the Peacock, like 
other birds, may from time to time lay a wind-egg. 

33. When the Duck lays its eggs it lays them on The Duck 
land but close to a lake or shallow pool or some other 
watery, moist spot. And the Duckling by some 
mysterious instinct knows that it is incapable both of 
flying high in the air and of remaining on land. For 

this reason it leaps into the water and can swim 
from the moment it is hatched ; it has no need to learn 
but dives and comes up again with great skill as 
though it had already been taught for some time. 
But the Eagle which they call the ' duck-killer ' and Eagle 
swoops upon the Duck as she swims, meaning to carry 
her off ; but the Duck dives and vanishes, and then 
after swimming under water, bobs up in another 
place. But the Eagle is there also, and again the 
Duck dives; and this happens again and again. 
Then one of two things follows : either the Duck 
after a dive is drowned, or the Eagle goes off after 

a See ch. 21. 

3 2 5 


fJL€V dlTeGTTj €7T d'XAr)V dypaV, Tj Be ^OVGa TO 

dBees hrwr\x eTQ ' 1 avdis* 

34. IIAeW e^t tcov dvdpcoTrwv 6 kvkvos iv tols 
pbeyiorois' otBe t€ yap oirore tov ftiov to repp,a 
d(j)CKV€irac avrcp, koX puevroi Kal evSvjJLOJS <j)epeiv 
avro Trpoaiov vtto rrjs <j>vaea)s Aa^oav 1 e^et 

BcbpOV TO KaXXlGTOV 7T€7TLO'T€VK€ yap OTl pLTjBevoS 

dXyewov purjBe XvTTrjpov pbdreGTC Qav&Tcp. dvdpw- 
7Toc Be VTtep oi> ovk toaai BeSotKaoL 3 Kal rjyovvrai 
fjLeytGTOV elvai k<xk6v avTO* togovtov Be. dpa rta 
kvkvco TcepieGTiv evOvfilas, cos Kal eirl rfj Kara- 

GTpO<f>fj TOV filoV TOV G<j>€T€pOV 00€lV KOI OVa- 

KpoveGQat 2 olov iinKiqBeiov tl eavrcp 3 fieXos. 


Kal fieyaAot/jvxojs es Odvarov rrapeGKevaopbevov 6 
^vpnriBy}s vp,vet. rceiroiqKe yovv rrpos rrjv iavrov 
*/sv)(r)V Xeyovra avrov 

fad* els Oeovs puev evG€^rjS 3 or rjaO', del, 

(;£vOL<$ T €7rflpK€LS y OVO* €KafJbV€S els (fccXoVS, 

Kal ra 677t tovtols. ovkovv Kal 6 kvkvos fJueXcpBet 
rtva eTTLKyBetov iavTcp 4 pcovoav, e^oSta BiBovs 
rrjs drroBripilas ^ Oecov vpuvovs rj eiraivov oIkgiov 
rtva. fiapTVpel Be avTcp Kal 6 HojKpdTqs oti aoVt 
ov Xv7TOVjJLevos dAAd evdvpuovpuevos pbdXXov pvrjBe 
yap dyew G^oXijv ttot€ d>Bfj Kal fieXei tov Kara, 
rijs ifjvxV s e^ovra rt irpooavres Kal dXyeivov. 

EjX €L ° € a P a ° Kvt < vo s ov piovov rrpos tov uava- 
tov dvBpelojSi rjBrj Be Kal TTpos /xa^as. dBtKOjv pbev 
odv ovk apx€i, ota Brjrrov aaxf>pojv Kal TTeiraiBevpLe- 

1 Xafia>v. 2 avayT)pv€cr6<u V 2 . 


ON ANIMALS, V. 33-34 

other prey ; whereupon the Duck, with nothing to 
fear, swims once more upon the surface. 

34. The Swan has this advantage over men in ^e |wan 
matters of the greatest moment, for it knows when 
the end of its life is at hand, and, what is more, in 
bearing its approach with cheerfulness, it has received 
from Nature the noblest of gifts. For it is confident 
that in death there is neither pain nor sorrow. But 
men are afraid of what they know not, and regard 
death as the greatest of all ills. Now the Swan has 
so contented a spirit that at the very close of its life 
it sings and breaks out into a dirge, as it were, for 
itself. Even so does Euripides [jr. 311 N] sing of 
Bellerophon, prepared like a hero of high soul for 
death. For example, he has portrayed him address- 
ing his soul thus : 

' Reverent wast thou ever in life towards the 
gods ; strangers didst thou succour ; nor didst thou 
ever grow weary towards thy friends ' — 

and so on. So then the Swan too intones its own 
funeral chant, and either by hymns to the gods or 
by the rehearsal of its own praises it makes provision 
for its departure. Socrates also testifies [PI. Phaedo 
84 e] to the fact that it sings not from sorrow but 
rather from cheerfulness, for (he says) a man whose 
heart is vexed and sore has no leisure for song and 

Now death is not the only thing that the Swan 
faces with courage : it is not afraid of a fight. But 
though it will not be the first to do an injury, any 

3 2 7 


vos dvrjp, ra> Be dp^avn 1 ovre d<f>torarat ovre 
eiKei. ol pev odv opvcOes ol Xoittoi, elpiqvaZa 
avrois trpos avrovs Kal evairovha icrrw, 2 6 Be 
deros Kal ewl rovrov wppsqcre rroXXaKts, cos 
5 ApiaroreXrjs $y)Gi, Kal ovBeTTcoTrore eKparrjaeVy 
rjTTi]8r} Be del pur] piovov avv rfj poip^j rov kvkvov 
pLaxopuivov, dXXd /cat avv rfj BIkt) dp,vvop,ivov . 

35. e epcoBios ra oar pea eoQiew Beivos icrri, 
K<xl puepLVKora avrd Karairivety wGTrep ovV ol 
rreXeKaves rds /coy^aj. /cat ev rco KaXovpuevco 
rrprjyopewvi virodeppbaLvcov 6 epcpBios <f>vXdrrei rd 
oar pea' rd Be viro ttjs dXeas Bdararai, Kal 
€K€Lvo§ aiadavop,evo$ rd p,ev oarpaKa aVejuet, 
<j>vXdrrei Be rrjv adpKa } Kal e^et rpo<f>T}V dvaXioKcov 
} rfj rrjs Tretf/ecos Bwdpuei rd eaco irapeXQov oXokXtj- 

36. "Ovop,d eariv opviOos dareplasy Kal ndaaeve- 
rat ye ev rfj AlyvTrrco, Kal dvdpamov (j>ojvrjs 
erraiei. ei oe ns avrov oveioiQcov oovAov ewrot, o 
he opylCerai' Kal ei ri$ okvov KaXeaeiev avrov, 6 
Be fipevOverai Kal ayavaKrei, cos Kal is to dyevves 
oKQiTTTopievos Kal is dpylav evOvvopuevos . 

37. Et Kardx 01 TL $ ottov 1&vprp>atov /cat Xdfiobro 
rrjs vdpKTjs, evravBa Biqirov rd e£ avrrjs rrddos 
€K7T€<fievye . BpaKOvra Be OaXdrnov el avaairdaai 

1 ap£avTL kol emfiovXevovrc. 2 Schn : eiow. 

a * This is no Heron but some other bird ' (Thompson, Qh. 
birds, s.y.j. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 34-37 

more than a sober, educated man would be, yet it 
will not retire and give way before an aggressor. 
While all other birds are on terms of peace with the 
Swan, the Eagle has frequently attacked it, as 
Aristotle says [HA 610 a 1, 615 b 1], though it has 
never yet overcome it, but has always been defeated 
not only through the strength of the Swan in battle 
but also because in defending itself the Swan has 
justice on its side. 

35. The Heron is a great eater of oysters and The Heron 
swallows them when closed,^ as pelicans swallow 
mussels. And the Heron warms the oysters a little 

in what is called its ' crop ' and retains them there. 
Under the influence of the heat the oysters open, and 
the Heron becoming aware of this, disgorges the 
shells but retains the flesh ; and it lives by consuming 
entire, thanks to a strong digestion, all that passes 
down into it. ■ . * 

36. There is a bird called Asterias (starling?), 6 and JJJ^, 
in Egypt, if tamed, it understands human speech. 

And if anyone by way of insult calls it ' slave,' it 
gets angry ; and if anyone calls it ( skulker,' it takes 
umbrage and is annoyed, as though it was being 
jeered at for its low birth and rebuked for its indo- 

37 . If a man with the j uice of silphium on his hands The Torpedo 
seizes the Torpedo, he avoids the pain which it in- 
flicts. And should you attempt to draw the Great The Great 

' * Thompson (Gh. birds, s.v. dareplas) records Bittern as a 
common but unsatisfactory interpretation, but offers no other. 



rfj Se£t,a e9eXois> 6 Se ovx eifserai, dXXd /xa^et- 
rai 1 Kara Kpdros' el Se rfj dptarepa dvdyoc$% 
eiKei Kal edXcoKev, 

38. XdppuSos aKOva) rod MacraaXtcorov Xeyovros 
<f>iX6p,ovvov puev elvat rrjv d^SoVa, 17877 Se Kal 
<f>iX6So$;ov . ev yovv rats eprjpuLais orav aSr} -rrpds 
eavrrjv, drrXovv ro fxeXos Kal dvev KaraaKevrjs rrjv 
bpviv aSeiv orav Se dXco Kal rcov aKovovrcov pjq 
Siajxapravrf, iroiKiXa re dvapbeXireiv Kal raKepcos 
eXCrretv ro p,eXos. Kal "OpL7]pos Se rovro p,oi 
SoKei virawirreodai Xeycov 

cos 8' ore YlavSapeov Kovprj xXcopyjls drjScov 
KaXov aelSrjaw eapos veov IcrrapuevoLo , 
SevSpecov ev ireraXoiai Ka6e£opLev7) ttvkwolgw, 
7) re Oapua rpconcoaa ^eet 7roXv7]xea <f>a>vtfv, 

07817 pbivrov rives Kal TToXvSevKea (fxovrjv ypd- 
(f>ovcrtrr}v ttoikIXcos pLepLipL7)p,evr}v, cbs rrjv dSevKea 
rrjv ft-T^S' 0X009 is pblpuqoiv TtaparpaTretaav . 

39. Aiyei A-qpLOKpcros rcov £cocov puovov rov 
Xeovra €KTre7rrapLevoLs riKreadai rols o^OaXpLOLSy 
tjSt} rpoirov nvd reOvpLcopuevov Kal eg coSlvcov 
Spaaeiovrd n yewiKov. i<f>vXa£av Se dXXoi Kal 
KaBevSoov on Kivei rrjv ovpdv, evSeiKVvpievos cos 
to €ckos ore pirj rravrrj drpepuei, p,7]Se p/qv kvkXco- 
adpt,evos avrov Kal irepieXdcov 6 V7tvos KaOeiXev, 
coairep ovv Kal rcov t,cocov rd Xoirrd. rotovrov ri 
<j>i)Xdgavras AlyvTrrlovs virep avrov Kopmd^eiv 
<f>ao~l Xeyovras on Kpeirroov vttvov Xecov iarlv 

1 jLtaxerat. 2 ayois, 


ON ANIMALS, V. 37-39 

Weever from the sea with your right hand, it will not 
come but will %ht vigorously. But if you haul it up 
with your left hand, it yields and is captured. 

38. From a statement of Charmis of Massilia I 
learn that the Nightingale is fond of music, and even 
fond of fame. At any rate when it is singing to itself 
in lonely places, he says, its melody is simple and 
spontaneous. But in captivity when it has no lack of 
hearers it lifts up its voice, warbling and trilling its 
melting music. And Homer seems to me to hint as 
much when he says [Od. 19. 518] 

' And as when the daughter of Pandareus, the 
greenwood Nightingale, sings sweet at the first 
oncoming of spring, as she rests amid the thick 
leafage of the trees, and ever varying her note 
pours forth her full-throated music/ 
But there are those who write iroXvSevKea <f>covrjy, 
that is, ' variously imitating music,' just as dSevKea 
signifies ' unadapted for imitating.' 

39. Democritus asserts that the Lion alone among TfceLioa 
animals is born with its eyes open a and from the hour 

of birth is already to some extent angry and ready to 
perform some spirited action. And others have 
observed that even when asleep the Lion moves his 
tail, showing, as you might expect, that he is not 
altogether quiescent, and that, although sleep has 
enveloped and enfolded him, it has not subdued 
him as it does all other animals. The Egyptians, 
they say, claim to have observed in him something of 
this kind, asserting that the Lion is superior to sleep 
» See 4. 34. 



dypwrvwv del. ravrrj rot Kal rjXlcp aTTOKplveiv 
avrov avrovs 7re7rvofiao- Kal yap rot Kal rov 
yjXtov 9ea>v ovra <f>iXo7rovarrarov 77 dvw 1 rrjs yfj s 
opavBat 7) rrjv Karoo Trope lav levai fxrj r}avxd£ovra. 
"OfArjpov re fxdprvpa Alyvirnoi iirdyovrai^ Xeyovra 
rjeXtov r aKapavra. eart Be Trios' rjj pcofxrj Kal 
avveros 6 Xeaiv. rats yovv fiovalv i7n^ovXevec 
vvKrwp <f>oLrcov is rd avXia. "O^pos Be dpa 
-jjBeo Kal rovro Xeyoov 

fioes cos 2 

as re 3 Xewv i<f>6fir}oe (xoXcov iv vuktos dpuoXyco. 

Kal eWAijWt fiev vrro rijs dXKrjs Trdvas* filav Be 
itjajmduas eBet. 5 orav Be is Kopov ifjLTrXrjoQfj , 
fiovXerat p,ev ra\iievaaadai Kal is adOts, alBcos Be 
Icr^et avrov <j>povpelv irapapbivovra, cos rpo(j>rjs 
XV r€t Xipov BeBiora. ovkovv <nepixavoov ipmvel 
jxev rov Kad' eavrov daOfxaros, Kal rovrqo rrjv 
<f>vXaK7}v imrpeTrei, aTraXXdrreral ye p,7}v avros' 
™ Be dXXa f<3a r\Kovra Kal aladavofieva orov 
Xelijtavov ion to Kelpuevov, ov roXfia 7rpoodijsao9ai s 
•aAAa a7raAAaTT<=Tat BeBiora BoKetv avXav Kal 
rrepiKorrreiv ri rod cr<f>erepov fiavcXews. tw Be 
dpa el pev evB-qpla 6 yevoiro Kal eveppla, Xrjdrjv 
+rov rrpoorov Xa^dvei Kal cos ecoXov drcfxdoas 
drraXXdrrerai' el Be fjurj, cos iir olKetov 9-q- 
<xavpi<jp,a Trapaylverat. orav Be VTrepirXr} odfj, Kevol 
iavrov T^u^ta koI doirla, rj ad rrdXiv md^KO) 

1 Kara to r) avo>. & Roes w$ MSS omit. 

3 ws & ore. 

4 dvdaas. 

5 eSet* 6 avros Aeya 7TOL7)rr)s ravra. 



and for ever awake. And I have ascertained that 
it is for this reason that they assign him to the sun, 
for, as you know, the sun is the most hard-working 
of the gods, being visible above the earth or pursuing 
his course beneath it without pause. And the 
Egyptians cite Homer as a witness when he speaks 
of the ' untiring sun ' [II. 18. 239]. And in addition 
to his strength the Lion shows intelligence. For in- 
stance, he has designs upon cattle and goes to their 
folds by night. Now Homer was aware of this when 
he said[/Z. 11. 172]: 

* Like cattle which a lion has scared, coming in 
the dead of night.' 

And he strikes terror into them all by his strength, 
but seizes only one and devours it. And when he aad his prey 
has gorged himself, he wishes to preserve the re- 
mains for another occasion, yet he is ashamed to 
stay and watch over them, as though he were afraid 
of starving from want of food. Accordingly with 
jaws agape he breathes upon them and trusts to his 
breath to guard them while he himself goes on his 
way. But when the other beasts arrive and realise 
to whom the remains upon the ground belong, they 
do not venture to touch them but go their way for 
fear of seeming to rob and diminish anything that 
belongs to their king. Now if the Lion chances to 
be lucky and has good hunting, he forgets his former 
prize, disregards it as being stale, and goes away. 
Otherwise he returns to it as to a private store. And 
when he has eaten more than enough, he empties 
himself by lying quiet and abstaining from food, or 
alternatively he catches a monkey and eats some of ' 

€v8r)pia iripov. 



7T€piTVX(ov koX tovtov <f>ayd>v Kevovrai rrjv yaarepa 
tats €K€ivov Xdrrd^as crap^iv, rjv Se dpa Bt/ccuos 
o Aetov Kai 010$ 

dvop* itTafivvacrdcu,, ore res irporepos 1 x aA€7T WT)* 

rep yovv imovri dvQLoTarai <(/c<u> 2 rr)v dXKalav 
iinoelwv Kai iXvrrojv Kara, tcov irXevpcov etra 
iyetpet eavrov oyairep odv VTTodrjywv p,va)7rt. rov 
ye fjurjv fiaXovra fxev, ov rv^ovra Be rfj icrrj dfivvov- 
ptevos 3 (jyofieL jxiv, Xwrrei Se ovSe ev. rjfiepcoOels 
ye fjbrjv i£4rt, veapov irpaoraros eoTi Kai ivrvxelv 
rjhvSj Kai eon (^LXoTralarrjs s Kai tt&v 6 ti odv 
viropteveL rrpaova>s rep rpo<f>el x a P l C°P'€vo$. "Avvcov 
yovv Xeovra ei^e GKevaytoyov , Kai Bepevwqj Xecov 
Trpaos avvrjv, twv KOfijXOjrojv 4 Sta^epcov ovSe ev. 
i<f>al$pvv€ yovv rfj yXwrrrj 5 to TTpoocoirov avrrjs, 
Kai rds pvrtSas eXeawe, Kai rjv opLOTpdrreCos, 
Trpdeos re Kai evrdKTOJS eaOicov Kai dvOpcomKws. 
<Kai> 6 'Qvofxapxos he 6 'Kardvrjs rvpawos Kai 6 
KXeofievovs vlos avouvrovs etxov Xeovras. 

40. "Evajolas twos davptaarrjs rrjv rrdphaXtv 
{lereiXrjxevai (fiaalv, r)plv puev arropprjTOV, avrrj M 
otoe to TrXeoveKrrjfjba to OLKelov, Kai fidvrot Kai 
rd dXXa £<p a avveTrLoTarat tovto eKelvrj, Kai 

1 irpoTtpov. 2 K^Kaiy add. Schn. 

3 afivvofievos. 4 Pierson : KOfLfjidavrayv. 

5 yXwrrrj rfavxrj. 6 <(kch) add. H. 

a Hanno, Carthaginian general, 3rd cent. b.c. Cp. Plut. 
Mor. 799 E. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 39-40 

it, voiding and emptying his belly by means of its 

The Lion is after all upright and one to 

' defend himself against the man who should assail 
him first * [Horn. II. 24. 369 ; Od. 16. 72]. 

Thus, he faces his attacker and by lashing with his 
tail and winding it about his flanks rouses himself as 
though he were stimulating himself with a spur. 
And if a man shoot at him but miss him, he will 
defend himself by a fair return ; he will scare the 
man but do him no harm. If he has been domesti- 
cated since the time when he was a cub, he is ex- ^ e ^ ion 
tremely gentle and agreeable to meet, and is fond of 
play, and will submit with good temper to any treat- 
ment to please his keeper. For instance, Hanno a 
kept a Lion to carry his baggage ; a tame Lion was 
the companion of Berenice 6 and was no different 
from her tiring-slaves : for example, it would softly 
wash her face with its tongue and smooth away her 
wrinkles; it would share her table and eat in a 
sober, orderly fashion just like a man. And Ono- 
marchus, the Tyrant of Catana, and the son of 
Cleomenes c both had Lions with them as table- 

40. They say that the Leopard has a marvellous The Leopard 
fragrance about it. To us it is imperceptible, though 
the Leopard is aware of the advantage it possesses, and 
other animals besides share with it this knowledge. 

*> Which of the various queens named Berenice is here 
referred to, is uncertain ; if the queen of Ptolemy III, she 
lived c. 273-226 b.c. 

c Nothing more is known of these persons. 



dXloKeral ol 1 rov rporrov tovtov, r) irapBaXis 
Tpo<j>r}s Beopbevrj iavrrjv viroKpVTrreL rj Ao^i? vroXXfj 
fj <f>vXXdBi fiaOeta, Kal evrvxeiv earw acfxivrjs, 
jxovov Be avairvel. ovkovv ol vefipol Kal <^<u) 2 
BopKaBes Kal ol atyes ol dypioi 3 Kal ra rotavra 
rcov ^coayv <hs vtto twos tvyyos rrjs evcoBlas 
eXKerac, Kal ytverat 7rXr}crtov r) Be eKTrrjBa Kal 
ex^i to Otfpafia. 

41. TivvOdvo fxat ra>v fajcov rd fJ,rjpvKd£ovra 
rpets KoiklaSi Kal ovopLara avTa>v olkovco 

K€KpV<j)aXoV ixLVOV TjVVOTpOV* 07]7TLat Be Kal TevBt- 

Bes Bvo vi\LOVTai irpoftoGKioiv* ov yap tol 4 
X^lpov ovtcos 6vop,doai Kal €K tt}s ^petas" Kal e/c 
rov oxrfjJiaTOS eirapQevTa. Kal orav r\ ^et/xe^ta 
Kai kXvBow rerapaypuevos, al Be rcbv Trerpcov 
XapLpdvovrai rat? avrais rrpofioXais, Kal evwrat 
<bs ayKvpais Trdvv ey/cpaTcos, Kal daeioroL T€ Kal 
glkXvgtol fjbdvovcrcv etra el yevovro virevBia, 
d-noXvovai re iavrds Kal iXevdepovcri, Kal veovui 
7T(iXiv } elBvlai fidOrjfia ovk evKara^povrp-ov , ^etjuco- 
vos <f>vyr)v Kal €K to)v kwB^vwv aatTrjpiav. 

42. Et croc fiovXopbevto puaQeZv eari {xeXcrrcov 
ovofiara, ovk av ^aaKf]vaipLL ehreiv ooa Treirvo pbai. 
iyyepLoves KaXovvrat rives Kal dXXat aeiprjves Kal 
epyo<f>6pOL 5 rives Kal erepai 7rXdoriBes. NtKavBpos 
Be f ev<f>opeiv "f 6 rovs KT]<f>r]vds <f>r]Oi. irepl Be rrjv 

1 iKewr} . . . ot] tt} 7rapMXei Kal aAtoycerai €K€lvy{. 

2 <(at> add. H. 3 at atyes al ayptat. 

vhpo^opoi H. 

6 &<f>opeiv Post, vSpotfiopetv BeisJce, H, evitopeiv OSchn. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 40-42 

and the Leopard catches them in the following 
manner. When the Leopard needs food it conceals 
itself in a dense thicket or in deep foliage and is in- 
visible ; it only breathes. And so fawns and gazelles 
and wild goats and suchlike animals are drawn by the 
spell, as it were, of its fragrance and come close up. 
Whereat the Leopard springs out and seizes its prey. 

41 . I learn that ruminants have three a stomachs, Kuminants 
and their names, I gather, are KeKptyaXov (the second 
stomach, reticulum), exZvos (the third stomach, many- 
plies), and Tjvvorpov (the fourth stomach, abomasum). 

Cuttle-fish and Squids feed themselves with two Cuttle-fish 
' probosces.' (There is no harm in so styling them : ^ n d fc S 
their use and their form induce one to do so.) And 
in stormy weather when there is broken surf, these 
creatures grip the rocks with their tentacles and cling 
fast as with anchors, and there they stay^ safe from 
shock and sheltered from the waves. Later, when 
it grows calm, they let themselves go and are free 
again to swim about, having learnt what is by no 
means to be despised, viz., how to avoid a storm and 
to escape from danger. 

42. If it is your wish to learn the names of Bees, Bees, their 
I would not grudge you the knowledge that I have 
acquired. Some are called ' captains/ others 
' sirens/ 6 some again ' workers/ and others ' moul- 
ders/ And Nicander says [fr. 93] that the Drones 

a Cp. Arist. HA 507 b I ; Ael. has omitted to mention the 
KocXCa frtydXr], big stomach or paunch. 

b Thompson on Arist. HA 623 b 11 takes ' siren ' to be 
* some species of the solitary wasp, e.g. Ewnenes, Synagris, 

VOL. I. 




rd>v K.a7T7raBoKCOV yrjv avev K-qpLojv to p,eXi ras 
pLeXlrras epyd^eodal <f>acri 3 tto^v Be elvat rovro 
Kara ro eXaiov Xoyos ^X €l " * v Tp^^ovvri Be rij 

UoVTCKfj €K TTV^OV yiveaBai [liXl 7Ti7TV<Tjiai ) 

fiapv Be rrjv ocrfMTjV rovro etvai, Kal rroietv p^ev 
rovs vyiaivovras €K<j)povas, rovs Be i^mXrj'TTrovs is 
vyieiav irravdyeiv add is. iv MrjBta Be aTroard^eiv 
rcov BevBpcov clkovco piiXi, cos Evpwu'S^s 1 iv raj 
KiOatpcovl <f>r)crw eK rcov kX&Bcov yXvKeias orayovas 
drroppeiv. ylveaOai Be Kal iv ® patty) p,eXc €K rcov 
(f>vrcov 7]Kov<ja. iv Be Mvkovco pueXirra ov yiver at 3 
dXXa Kal (Je^coQevy 2 KopucrBeicra a7To9vqcrKei. 

43. Uepl rov ^Trraviv 7rorap,6v yiveodai to £cpov 
to [xovrffxepov ovrco KaXovpuevov 5 ApiaroreXr^s 
(f>7]al, rtKrofxevov fiev ap,a rep Kve<f>ei? a7ro6v7]<jKov 
Be irrl Bvop^as TjXiov rperropbivov. 

4:4:. "^X €C ^ < \ T< ^) 4 Brjypa rj otynia IwBes /cat 
rovs oBovras loxvpcos VTroXavOdvovras . rjv Be 
apa Bi]KriKov Kal <o> 5 6crp,vXo$ Kal 6 ttoXvttovs' 
Kal B&koi p,ev av odros vqirias fiiaiorepov, rod Be 
lov p^edLiqcriv fjrrov. 

6 Eu. rats Bok^is. 2 <e£a)0ev> add. E. 


<to> add, B. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 42-44 

. . . And they say that all over Cappadocia the Bees 
produce honey without combs, and the story goes Honey of 
that it is thick like oil. I am informed that atg^ 
Trapezus in Pontus honey is obtained from box-trees, 
but that it has a heavy scent and drives healthy 
people out of their senses, but restores the frenzied 
to health. I learn that in Media a honey drips from 
the trees, just as Euripides [Bacc. 714] says that on 
Cithaeron sweet drops flow from the boughs. In 
Thrace too I have heard that honey is produced from 
plants. On Myconus b there are no bees, and more- 
over if imported from outside they die. 

43. Aristotle says [HA 552 b 20] that on the banks The 

of the river Hypanis c there occurs a creature that ' Da y- fl y' 
goes by the name of ' day-fly/ * because it is born in 
the morning twilight and dies when the sun begins 
to set. 

44. The Cuttle-fish has a poisonous bite and teeth The 
that are concealed very deep within. It seems also Cutt ^ e " fis3: 
that the Osmylus * arid the Octopus are given to 
biting. And the Octopus has a more powerful bite 

than the Cuttle-fish, although it emits less poison. 

8 Ael. is copying [Arist.] Mir. 831 b 26 where the MSS read 

6 One of the Cyclades. 
c Mod. Boug. 

d ' A May-fly, probably . . . the large Ephemera longicauda 
Oliv,' (Thompson on Arist. loo. cit.), 

6 ' A kind of octopus with an unpleasant musky smell : 
Eledone moscliata ' (Thompson, Gk. fishes). ~ 

5 (6yaM.H. 



45. Tov avv tov aypiov (f>aat pur) TTporepov em 
two, </>€p€(7dai TTplv r] tovs x av XloSovtcls V7roQr)i;ai* 
fiaprvpei Se dpa /cat "Opbrjpos rovro Xiycav 

6ij£as Aev/coV oBovra juera yvapLTrrfjori, ydwcrcrw. 

Traxvveadai Se tov avv olkovoj fidXtara pur) Xovfie- 
vov, 1 dXXa iv rep fiopfiopep hiarpifiovrd re /cat 
VTpe<l>6p,€vov /cat ttivovtcl vBojp reSoXajfievov, /cat 
r)cn>XLq> kcu oriyrj uKorcoSearepa ^atpovra /cat 
Tpo<f>als ocrat, </>vcra)8icrr€pai re etcrt /cat V7TOTrXr}oai 
Svvavrat. /cat "Qprqpos Se eot/ce vttoStjXovv ravra. 
Trepl fjiev odv tov /caAtvSeto*0at avrovs 2 /cat 
<f>tXr}$€w rot? pVTrapojTipois TeXfiacrc . . . 3 Xeycov 
ave$ XapuaievvdSes' on Se ra> TeSoXcofievcp vSart, 
malvovrai . . . 4 t^crt 

fieXav vdojp 

Trtvovacu, rd 9* vtacri rpi^ei reOaXvlav aXoi(f>rjv. 

ore Se x ai P ovai vkotco hid tovtcov eAey^et 

Trerpr) vito yXa<f>vpfj edSov Bopeaj V7T* Icoyij. 

to Se (fivcratSes atvirrerat rrjs rpo<f>r)s orav Xdyrj 
fidXavov fji€vo€LK€a iaOUcv avTas. etSco? Se dpa 
v Opbif]pog cos" /cat to^atVerat /cat eVtTptjSet tcl /cpe'a 
v$ opebv tov 6r\Xvv y 7re7rot7?/ce tovs dppevas ZSta 
KaOevhovTas /cat Ta$ OrjXelas 18 la. iv HaXajMVi 
Se ^Aa>/>ou ctTou /cat A^tou Kop,covTos idv avs 

1 Aouojitevov. 2 avrov. 

3 Lacuna. 4 Lacuna. 

° The chief city in Cyprus. Eustathius on Horn. 0^. 18. 29 
says that there was a law in Cyprus permitting landowners to 
remove the teeth of any pig that they found foraging among 



45. They say that the Wild Boar does not attack The wild 
a man until he has whetted his tusks. And Homer Boar 
testifies to this when he says [IL 11. 416] 

' Having whetted the white tusk between his 
curved jaws.* 

And I learn that the Boar fattens himself chiefly 
by not washing but spending his time wallowing in 
the mud, drinking the turbid water, and revelling in 
the quiet and the darkness of his lair and in all the 
more inflating foods that can fill him up. And Homer 
appears to imply as much, for touching their wallow- 
ing and their fondness for the more muddy ponds ... 
when he says [Od. 10. 243] ' hogs that make their 
bed upon the ground/ And that they fatten them- 
selves upon turbid water ... he says [Od. 13. 409] 

' drinking black water, which fosters the rich fat on 

And that they delight in darkness he proves in the 
following words. [Od. 14. 533] : 

' They slumbered beneath a hollow rock under 
shelter from Boreas/ 

And he hints at the inflating quality of their food 
when he says [Od. 13. 409] that they eat ' the satisfy- 
ing acorn/ Now Homer knowing that the Boar 
grows thin and that his flesh wastes if he looks at the 
Sow, has described [Od. 14. 13] the Boars as sleeping 
in one place and the Sows in another. In Salamis a 
if a Sow breaks in and grazes the corn when green or 

their crops. So Irus threatens to knock out the teeth of 
Odysseus, disguised and unknown, whom he regards as an 
interloper in the palace in Ithaca. 



i^ireaovaa 1 aTTOKetpr}, vopps iorl TiaXapuvloov 
tovs oBovras eitrpLfiew avryjs. /cat rovro etvai to 
7ra/>' *Op,rjpqj avos Xrjifiorelprjs <f>aariv. ol Be 
eripcos voovcrt, /cat Xeyovai %Xa)pov olrov rrjv dp 
yevcrafJbdvTjv acrdeveXs €X etv TOV S oBovras. 

46. "ESa>/ce Be dpa rj cf>vcn$ rats kvctI rpavpud- 
rcov avriTToXov rroav. el Be eXpuvOes avras Ajj- 
noiev, 2 rod atrov ro KaXovp^evov Xrjiov eoOlovoai 
€KKpwovcrw avr&s. Xeyovrai Be. koI orav Becovrac 
T7)v yaorepa eKarepav Kevwcrai iroav rtvd ecrBUiv, 
/cat to p,ev n rrjs rpo^ijs to iTrmoXd^ov dvefiecv, 
ra Be Treptrrd KarooOev eKKpiveodai avrais <f>auw. 
evrevBev /cat to ovppLat^ew AlyvTrnoi Xiyovrai 
p,a6etv. TrepButes he. 3 /cat treXapyol rpcoOevres 
Kal </>drrai rr)v oplyavov, <bs Xoyos, Biarpdiyovdiv , 
etra rots rpavp.aoiv evriOevres aKovvrai ro crcofia 
/cat \hevroi </cat> 4 rrjs dvOpwrrcov larpiKrjs Beovrai 
ovBe ev. 

47. Ov Berjoopiai ivravQa pdprvpos Trpeofivri- 
pov, a Be avros eyvwv ipw. 5 aavpov rcop -)(Xa)ptbv 
puev V7repdyav s dBporepcov Be rrjv e^iv ovXXafiwv 
avTjp koI kevrpcp vreiroiriiiivcp ^oXkov Treipas 6 
€tTa rv(/>Xa)o , a$ rov aavpov /cat -^vrpav Kepapueav 
rQiV vemarl elpyaapbivojv BiarpYjvas irdw Xeirrais 
OTrais, <hs prj elpyew puev ro Trveyfia, ov pA]v 
eKeivcp 7tapao-)(eZv e/cSvati-', /cat yrjv ey%€a$ /cat 

1 Barnes : 7reaovaa. 2 Xvrrovai. 

3 re. 

4 <W> add. H. . ■ 


ON ANIMALS, V. 45-47 

a field of waving corn, there is a law of the Sala- 
minians that her teeth must be destroyed. And 
they say that the passage in Homer [Od. 18. 29] about 
* a sow that consumes the crops ' refers to this. 
Others take a different view and assert that when a 
Sow has tasted green com its teeth are weakened. 

46. It would appear that Nature has provided Nature's me- 
grass as a remedy for the wounds of Dogs. And if anS 3 for 
they are troubled with worms they get rid of them 

by eating ' standing ' corn, as it is called. And when 
they need to empty both stomachs they are said to 
eat some grass, and as much of their food as remains 
undigested they vomit up, while the remainder is 
excreted. It is from this source that the Egyptians 
are said to have learnt the practice of taking purges. 
But Partridges, Storks, and Ring-doves, when 
wounded are said to chew marjoram and then to 
spread it on their wounds and cure their body ; and 
they have no need at all of mans healing art. 

47. In this matter I shall have no need of any 
witness from antiquity but shall narrate what I 
myself have seen and know. 

A man captured a Lizard of the excessively green A Lizard, 
and unusually large species, and with a point made rl^k^'its 
of bronze he pierced and blinded the Lizard. And si $ ht 
after boring some very fine holes in a newly fashioned 
earthenware vessel so as to admit the air, but small 
enough to prevent the creature from escaping, he 

a The expression is used loosely to denote the stomach 
proper and the intestines, for the dog has but one stomach. 



fjiaXa evopocrov, Kal to Orjplov ipufiaXcov Kal vroav 1 
riva rjs ovk ewre to ovofxa real oaKrvXtov oihrjpov 2 
meTTOirniivov Kal <=x ovra XWov Vaydrr\v 3 coirep odv 
€V€LpyauTO yXvp^pua aavpos, ttjv pbkv yvrpav 
irrqXvyaaev, eWea ipuirXdaas cr^eta, <Lv a^pet 
a<f>payloa 3 i<f>* rjpidpas iwia. Kal rrjp iirl 
nacrous 4 d<j)avloras dvoiyei to gkevos, Kal eytoye 
elBov tov vavpov ipu^XiTrovra, Kal €VC07Tordrovs 5 

TOVS 6<f>9aAflOVS TOVS T€CO$ 7T€7Tr]pCOfJi€VOV9 €1^6. 

Kal tov 6 {Jl<ev, evOev rjpdOrjy ivravOa arreAuCTa/xev, 
SaKrvXiov Se £k<=ivov 6 dvrjp 6 ravra opdvas 
d<f>6aXfjLOLs dyaOov €(f>acrK€v etvai. 

48. 'E/i,ot $€ aiG^iGrov $ok€i, <L avOpamoi, 
<j>iXlav fiev rots C^ots vrpos aXXrjXa etvac, fjurj 
liovois rdi$ crvvvofjiocs avrwv fjurjSe p,7]V rots ofjuoye- 
viaiVj 7]&7) oe Kal rots ptrjoev irpoarfKOVcrC o<f>iat, 
Kara to koivov yivos* to£s yovv al£iv at ots 
<j>lXiai, irepLGrepa 8e 7Tp6$ rpvyova <f>iXia? <j>lXa 
Se aXAijXois 8 voovai cfrdrtai t€ Kal TrepSt/cey, 
dXKvova Se Kal KTjpvXov rroOovvre dXXrjXco TrdXau 
ta/xev, Koptovrjv re ipcpoi<p <f>lXa voetv Kal Xdpov 
ra> KaXovfievcp koXoico Kal Iktwco apiriqv, noXe- 
fjbovcri Se alcLviov ttoXciiqv Kal aairovhov cos eiTrelv 
KOpcoval re Kal yXavKes' 7roXipnoi 0€ apa elcrlv 
lktlvos re Kal Kopai;, Kal 7rvpaXXls trpos rpvyova, 
Kal fipivBos Kal Xdpos? trdXw re 6 ^AoopeiW vpos 

1 <ek8v(jlv . . . 7roav] . e/cSucnv, to drjpiov ifx^aXoiv /cat yrjv 
viroxias koX ft. €. kol iroav. 

2 Ges : GL$T)povv. 3 (pUav) cr<J>p. ? H. 
4 irdcrais rrjv iwdrrjv. 5 evaiTroripovs- 

6 to. 7 treptarepa . . . ^t'A^. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 47-48 

heaped some very moist earth into it and put the 
Lizard inside together with a certain herb, of which 
he did not divulge the name, and an iron ring with 
a bezel of lignite engraved with the figure of a lizard. 
After stamping nine seals upon the vessel he then 
covered it up, removing one seal daily for nine days. 
And when he had destroyed the last seal of all he 
opened the vessel, and I myself saw the Lizard 
having its sight and its eyes, which till then had been 
blinded, seeing perfectly well. And we released the 
Lizard on the spot where it had been captured, and 
the man who had done these things asserted that that 
ring of his was good for the eyes.. 

48. It fills me with shame, you human beings, to f^^, 
think of the friendly relations that subsist between 

and enmities 

animals, not only those that feed together nor even 
those of the same species, but even between those 
that have no connexion through a common origin. 
For instance, Sheep are friends with Goats ; there is 
friendship between Pigeon and Turtle-dove ; Ring- 
doves and Partridges entertain friendly feelings to- 
wards one another ; we have long known that the 
Halcyon and the Ceryl desire each other ; that the 
Crow is friendly disposed towards the Heron, and the 
Sea-mew towards the Little Cormorant, as it is called, 
and the Shearwater towards the Kite. But there is 
war everlasting and without truce, so to say, between 
Crows and Owls. Enemies too are the Kite and the 
Raven, the Pyrallis and the Turtle-dove, the Bren- 
thus a and the Sea-mew, and again the Greenfinch( ?) 
a Unknown water-bird. Perh. the ' Avocet,' Gossen § 187. 

9 Ges : irdypos. 



rpvyova, Kal alyviriol kcll deroi, Kal kvkvol Kal 
BpaKOvres, Kal irpos fiovfiaXtBas Kal ravpovs 1 
Xeovres. £)(6 terra 2 Be apa iXe<j)as Kal Spatccov 
rjv, Kal 7Tpos duTTiSa 6 lyyevp,oyv 3 6 Be aiyiBos rep 
ovep' 6 p,ev yap (byK-qaaro, prjywrai Bk rep 
alylOip ra cbd, Kal ol veorrol eKTrLiTTovcriv dreXeis* 
6 Be Tipbuypwv rols reKvois irrnrvfia rcov ova>v rols 
ekKeai, Kal iaOlei avrd. p,iaei Be dXwirqt; KipKov 
Kal ravpos KopaKa, Kal 6 avQos 3 rov lttttov. 
Xprj Be elBevai rov TreiraiBevpuevov Kai p,rjBev 
fxaTrjv aKOvovra on Kal BeXcbls (fraXXawr} Bid^opos, 
Adj3paK€$ ye pur)v Kearpevm, puvpatvai Be yoyypois, 
Kal dXXa aAAots. 

49. At dpKTOi rcov Orjparcov rovs is 4 crrofxa 
ireuovras Kal to Trvevpua is eavrovs coaavras 
6a<f)p7]adp,€vat, cbs veKpovs TrapaXipbTtavovai, Kal 
BoKeZ rovro to C<p ov veKpov fiBeXuTTeadai,. pnuovoc 
Be kol ol fives rovs iv rals eavrcov BiaLrais Kal 
KaraBpopbais diroOavovras , Kal puevroi <(«:at> 5 
X^XiBcov eK/SaAAet x^XiBova veKpdvf p,vpp,y]Ke$ Be, 
Kal eKeivois €K<f)opds veKpcov fxeXetv Kal KaQaipeiv 
rovs a<f>erepovs ^pa/xotj? rj ao<j>cordrrj <f>vcns 
eBajKev, €7rel Kal rovro lBlov rcov dXoycov, ra 
ofioyevrj re Kal 6p,ocbva redvecora rcov 6tf>6aXp,tov 
d-nochepew Qarrov. Xeyovai Be AIBiottlov Xoyoi 
alfjuvXtas re Kal Kopurrov ^XX'qviKov dyevaroi on 
apa iXetpavra Oeacrdfievos eXecbas veKpov ovk dv 
TrapeXQoi pur) rrj TTpofioaKtBi yrjv dpvadfxevos Kal 

1 Kal ravpovs del B (1876). 2 ej&iorov. 

8 Ges : dvBios* 4 em Sckn. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 48-49 

and the Turtle-dove, the Aegypius and the Eagle, 
Swans and Water-snakes(?), a and Lions are the 
enemies of Antelopes and Bulls. The bitterest hate 
exists between the Elephant and the Python, 6 be- 
tween the Asp and the Ichneumon, between the Blue 
Tit and the Ass, for directly the Ass brays the Blue 
Tit's eggs are smashed and the young ones are spilt, 
still imperfect. And so to avenge its offspring the 
Blue Tit leaps upon the Ass's sore places and feeds 
on them. The Fox detests a Falcon and the Bull a 
Raven, and the Buff-backed Heron the Horse. And 
an educated man who attends to what he hears 
should know that the Dolphin is at feud with the 
Whale, the Basse too with the Mullet, and the Moray 
with the Conger Eel, and so on. 

49. When Bears have sniffed at hunters who have Animals' 
fallen on their face and knocked the breath out of fead bodies 
themselves, they leave them for dead, and it seems 
that these creatures are disgusted by a dead body. 
Mice also hate those that die in their holes and lurking- 
places; and a Swallow too ejects a dead Swallow 
from its nest. Ants also, thanks to the supreme 
wisdom of Nature, are careful to carry away dead 
bodies and to cleanse their nests, for it is character- 
istic of brute beasts that, when one of their own 
species and kind has died, they speedily remove it 
out of sight. And Ethiopian histories, which are 
untainted by the pretentious plausibility of the 
Greeks, tell us that if one Elephant sees another The 
lying dead, it will not pass by without drawing up 

and its dead 

« See Arist. HA 602 b 25. h Lit. 4 dragon.' 

5 <W> add. H. 

vekpav Kal iiiXvrrat. 



€7Tif$aX<Lv y (bs oaiav Tiva dTropprjTOP vtrep rrj$ 
</>vaea)s rfjs Koivrjs iKTeXajv 1 etvai yap to fxrj 
Bpaaat tovto evayis. dvoxp^} 8e ot Kal KXdtov 
€7rt/?aAeti^ Kal wntioi to kowov drrdvTwv TeAo? 
pJr\ arijuaoraff. d<j>iKTai Be Xoyos T^ua? /cat 

€K€lVOS. OTCLV iX4<f>aVTe$ aTtodvqGKCOOW €K TpaV- 

jxaTtov 77 ftXrjOevTes iv TroXifia) 77 iv Biqpa iraBovTes 
tovto, Tfjs ttocls rrjs TrapaTvxovoyjs rj ttjs kovccds 
Trjs €.v ttoglv dveX6p,evoi y is tov ovpavov dvafiXi- 
TTOVCFl KCtl fidXXoVGt Tt TO)V Trpo€ipr\\x,iviov Kal 
<f>0)vfj T?J &(f>€T€pa KWVpOVTal T€ Kal TTOTVLCOVTai, 

a>a7T€p odv tovs Beovs {j,apTvp6p,€voi icfS ots 


50. "I8ta Si dpa tG>v Ccvojv Kal TavTrj 2 8977701; 
KaTayv&vai rrapeuTi. tov$ yovv opvecs tovs 
r}9d§as Kal tovs iv rroal rpe^op^ivovs re /cat 
e^erafo/xeVous' opwjjiev lttttovs Kal ovovs Kal fiovs 
Kal KapuijXovs BappovvTas' et Se /cat iX4(f>avTL ttov 
TTpdcp Kal rjpLepq) GWTp£<f>oiVTo 3 ol 8e ovk 6ppu)$ov- 
gw } aAAa /cat St s avTWV CKetvcov epxovTat. 97877 
Se dXtKTpvoves Kal iirl ra vaira avrcov dvarriTOv- 
Tat* togovtov avTois tov BdpGovs rrepUaTi Kal 
tov aoeovs. irroLav ok avTois €vtIBt]gl Kal 8eo$ 
luxvpov yaXrj 7TapaSpapLOvaa. Kal fjLVKrjcreajv puiv 
Kal oyKrjaecDV ov TtoiovvTai wpav 3 Kpl^acrav 8e 
dpa fiovov 7T€^pt/cacrt tt)v TrpoeLprjfievrjv. yr\ v & v 
8e Kal 3 kvkvow 4 /cat GTpovBwv twv fieydXtov 77 
rt 97 ovSiv <f>povTiCovatv 3 tepa/ca Be ^pa^vraTov 5 
ovTa dppwBovaiv. 6 8e dXeKTpvdjv aaas <f>ofieZ 


1 etcreXcov koX (f>evycov dyos. 

ON ANIMALS, V. 4 9~5° 

some earth with its trunk and casting it upon the 
corpse, as though it were performing some sacred and 
mysterious rite on behalf of their common nature ; 
and that to fail in this duty is to incur a curse. It is 
enough for it even to cast a branch upon the body ; 
and with due respect paid to the common end of all 
things the Elephant goes on its way. 

And there has reached us also the following story. ^y™s 
When Elephants are dying of wounds, stricken either ep an 
in battle or in hunting, they pick up any grass they 
may find or some of the dust at their feet, and looking 
upwards to the heaven, cast some of these objects in 
that direction and wail and cry aloud in indignation 
in their own language, as though they were calling 
the gods to witness how unjustly and how wrongfully 
they are suffering. 

1 50 (i). By the following cases also, I think, one may Confidence 
recognize traits peculiar to animals. For instance, Animals 
we see domestic fowls that are reared at the feet, and 
have experience, of horses, asses, cows, or camels, 
showing no fear of them. And if they are fed along 
with, say, a tame and gentle elephant, they are not 
afraid but even move about among those creatures. 
And cockerels even fly up on to their backs, such are 
their resulting courage and freedom from fear. But 
they are fluttered and terrified if a marten runs by. 
To the lowing of cattle or the braying of an ass they 
pay no attention ; but a marten has but to chatter 
and they tremble. For geese, swans, and ostriches 
they care little or nothing, but are in terror of a hawk 
although it is very small. With its crowing a cock 

2 ravra. 3 T€ Kat '* 

4 Beiske : kvvwv. 5 fipaxyrepov. 



fiev Xeovra, dvaipet Be fiaoikiaKOV ov purjv cj>€pet 1 
ovre aiXovpovs ovre Iktlvovs . at Be Trepiorepal 
aercov puev KXayyrjv Kal yvTrcov Oappovcri, KipKcov 
e /cat aAiaerwv ovKen. 

'H Be TTOipJVT) 2 KOI 6 €pL(j)OS KCLI 7T(LXlOV 7TGLV €7U 

ras prqrpwas OrjXds ep^erat yevvrfievTa f napaxpv\p<a s 
Kal fiivroL Kal twv ovBdroyv Gir&vra ifXTrcrrXarat' 
7ToXv7Tpay{JLOV€L Be to T€Kov ovBe ev, dXXd eGTrjKev. 
viTTia Be TrapafidXXei ras OrjXds rots f$pe<j>eoi ra 
a^tfoVoSa rravra, Xvkoc Kal Kvves Kal Xeacvat 
Kal TrapBdXets. 

51. UoXv<f>a)v6raTa Be ra faia Kal 7ToXv</>6oyya 

0)5 &V €L7TOLS ^VCIS dl!Te<f)7JVeV , 3 <X>G7T€p OVV Kal 

rovg dvOpaiTTOvs. 6 yovv HiKvBi]s dXXcos cj>9eyyeraL 
Kal 6 *lvB6$ aAAcos^ Kal 6 AlQLoifs €^€i <j>a>vriv 
(7Vfji(f>vd 4: Kal oi SaKcu* <f>a>vr} Be 'EAAas dXAy), Kal 
'Pajjaata clXXtj. ovto) rot Kal ra £wa dXXo dXAws 
irpoierai tov avyyevij Trjs yXwrrrjs fjx° v Te KaL 
iff6<f>ov to p,ev yap fipvx&Tat, fMVKarat Be aXXo, 
Kal xpepLeTiapua dXXbv Kal oyKTjms ^aAAou)-/ 
aAAov pXrjx^OjJLos T€ Kal ^Kacr/xos", 6 Kal tlgl fiev 
wpvypLos, rial Be vXaypos <f>i\ov 9 Kal dXXcp 7 
dppdt^ew KXayyal Be 8 Kal pot^oi Kal Kpcyfxol 
Kal <LBal Kal fxeXwBlat Kal rpavXiafxol Kal puvpia 
erepa Btopa rfjs <j>vaea)$ IB La row £Vpa>v aAAa 

52. 'Ava TTjv x^P av T V V A-lyvirrlav dcrmBes 
(fxxjXevovat, tov NecXov TrXrjalov etrl rij$ oxOrjs 
eKarepas. Kal tov [lev dXXov xpdvov <f>iXox<x>povcri 

1 od <j>epei fjurjv. 2 Abresch : Xl^vrj. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 50-52 

scares a lion and is fatal to a basilisk, and yet it 
cannot endure cats or kites. And pigeons are not - 
afraid at the cry of eagles and vultures, but they are 
at the cry of falcons and of sea-eagles. 

(ii). The lamb, the kid, and every foal directly it is Animals 
born goes for its dam's teats and sucks the dugs until their young 
it is full. And the parent shows no concern but 
stands still. Whereas all animals with parted toes, 
wolves, hounds, lions, leopards, lie down to give their 
young suck. 

51. Nature has made animals with an immense The various 

. , « tp -1 -1 sounds made 

variety 01 voice and 01 speech,, as it were, even as sne by animals 
has men. For instance, the Scythian speaks one 
language, the Indian another; the Ethiopian has a 
natural language, so too have the Sacae; the. lan- 
guage of Greece and that of Rome are dhTerent. 
And so it is with animals : each has a different way 
of producing the tone and the sound natural to its 
tongue. Thus, one roars, another lows, a third 
whinnies, <(another> brays, yet another baas and 
bleats ; while to some howling is customary, to others 
barking, and to another snarling. Screaming, 
whistling, hooting, singing, warbling, twittering, 
and countless other gifts of Nature are peculiar to 
different animals. 

52. In the Egyptian countryside Asps have their |^}f and 
holes by the Nile on either bank. Most of the time avoid the 
they stay round about their <lurking-places> and are gg° g of fcte 

3 av€(jyr]vev. 4 av^vi}. 

5 <aAAou> add. Gow. 

6 fiyKaafios, Kal Sta^opa <$>BiyiMura* 

7 7x5 <JAAa>. 8 re Kal. 



koX dyaTTCoaiv . . <L$ ras olKcas ras acf>erepas 
ol avBpomoi- fxeXXovros Se rod TrorapLov Kara rrjv 
capav rrjv Sipetov 2 dvaTrXeiv^ irpo rpiaKovrd ttov 
rjfieptov at 7TpoeLprjfi€vaL darrlSes pberoiKi^ovrai is 
rd a7Ta)T€pci) rov NetAou ^copia, Kal rovs o^dovs 
rovs vrrepexovras ioepTrovot, Kal fjbivroL Kal rd 
o<f>cov avrcov eKyova hrdyovrai, Scopov rovro iStov 
Xaxovaat irapd rijs <f)VG€tos elhevai TrorapLov 
rooovrov Kal ovrws ipyariKov rrjv ava irav eros 
emS^fttW, Kal rr)v i£ avrov KardXrji/flv re Kal 
Xvp/qv <f>vXdrreo8ai. Kal at ^eAtovat Se Kal ol 
KapKivot Kal ol KpoKoStXoL rd cod Kara rr)v copav 
rrjv avrr)v p,€raKOfil£ovcriv is ra dfiara rep rro~ 
rafico Kal dvecj>iKra' Kal ivrevOev 17877 Xoyl£ovrai 
ol ivrvyxdvovres rots rcov 7Tpoet,pr}p,evtov coots 6 
NetAos" dveXQcbv is ttoctov iirapSevoeL 4 a<j>Loi rrjv 

53. Ot lttttol ol rrordpLioi rov NeiAov pbdv elm 
rp6</>ifM0L' orav 8e ra Aijta ivaKfid^rj Kal Satv ol 
ardxves ifavdol, ovk apyovrai Tvapaxprjfxa KeLpetv 
avrovs Kal iaQUw, aKXd rrapafxelfiovres etjcoBev 
to Xrjiov aroxd^ovrai rroaov avrovs ifiTrXfjarei 5 
fxdrpov, etra Xoyiodpuevoi ro drtoxp^ov othLoiv 
ifX7TL7rrovcTi Kal dvaxcopovoiv iirl ir68a e^m7rAa/x€- 
voi s to pevfia rod Trorafxov Kara vwrov Xafiovres. 
7T€(/)tXoa6(firjrat Se dpa rovro avrots, tva el rives 
rcov yecopycov iirloiev dpuvvovpLevoif ol Se €K rov 
pdorov is ro vScop KaraSpafjueXv ex oiev > tovs 
7ToXefj,lovs dvriTrpooto7TOV$ , aXXd ovk omcrdev ol 
Ittttoi odroi SoKevovres ? 

1 Lacuna : <tJ7roSpojaas> conj. H. 


ON ANIMALS, V. 52-53 

as attached to them as human beings are to their 
own homes. But when in the summertime the river 
threatens to overflow, the aforesaid Asps emigrate 
some thirty days beforehand to districts further 
away from the Nile and creep into bluffs above the 
river, and, what is more, bring their young with 
them : they have received from Nature this special 
gift of being able to foretell the annual visitation of 
a river so mighty and so active, and to guard against 
being overtaken and destroyed by it. And at the 
same season turtles and crabs and crocodiles transfer 
their eggs to spots which the river cannot touch or 
reach. Hence those who come across the eggs of 
the aforesaid creatures calculate to what extent the 
Nile will rise and irrigate their land. 

53. Hippopotamuses are nurslings of the Nile, and T ^ e a ^P°- 
when the crops are ripe and the ears are yellow they po amus 
do not forthwith begin to graze and eat them but pass 
along outside the crop and calculate what area will 
satisfy them ; and then, having reckoned how much 
will be enough, they fall to, and as they fill them- 
selves they withdraw backwards, keeping the river 
behind them. Now this move they have cleverly 
devised so that, should any farmers attack them in 
self-defence, they can run down into the water with 
complete ease, on the look out for enemies in front 
of them but not looking behind them. 

2 Anon, : tt}V to. Oepeiav A, rwv 0ei<av other MSS. 

3 avavrXw, dvaxOeiaai Kal (bOovptvai xmo re irX^dovs vbaros 
Kai tcov €Tf]aLoiv dvefuav. 

4 Eeishe: efra dphevaei. 

e aiivvopevot. 7 Qes i Bokovvtss. 



54. 'Ev rfj Mavpovcrca yfj al iraphdXeis ' rocs 
TTidrjKois ov Kara to Kaprepov ovhe ottcqs av 
k'xaxnv a\f<fjs re Kal pcopurjs emridevrai. 1 to he 
alriov, ov x<*>povviv opudae, dXXd anoBiSpdo-Kov&Lv 
avras Kal eirl ra hevhpa dvadeovcri Kal eKel 
KdOrjvrat, rrjv eKelvwv imfiovXrjv (f>vXarr6fievoi. 
rjv he dpa 17 rrdphaXcs Kal rov iridriKov hoXepwre- 
pov. ocas yovv in avrots iraXap,arat re Kal 
paurei rds irayas. orrov 7rXfj9o$ rrt6i]Kcov Kadrjv- 
rai } evravOa eXOovaa eavrrjv vireppiijse rco hevhpoo, 
Kai Kelrai Kara rov Bairehov virrla, Kal rrjv p,ev 
yaurepa hicoyKOiae, wap^e he rd crKeXrj, toj he 
6cf>9aXfi<h Karifxvoe, mefet ye purjv 2 to aa9p,a, 
Kal Kelrai veKpd 8-77. ol he avayQev rrjv e-^lar^v 
Ihovres reBvdvai vopul^ovaiv avrr\v s Kal o pdXiara 
fiovXovrai, rovro Kal olovr at. ov firjv Qappovaiv 
rjhrj, dXXd rteipav KaQiaai, Kal earvv 97 rreTpa, eva 
eavrwv rov BoKovvra dheeararov 3 Karairepi- 
rrovm 3 ftaoaviuovra Kal KaravKexjs6p,evov to rrjs 
rraphdXews irddos. 6 he Kareiutv ov 7TavreXoos 
dSerjs, dXXd oXtyov Karahpapidiv etra vrrecrrpeiffev, 
rod (f>6fiov dvaarecXavros avrov Kal KarrjXOe 
rrdXiVy Kal TrXrjalov yevopuevos dvexcLprjae, Kal 
VTrearpexfjev avdis, Kal rw 6<f>daXpLd> KarecrKeiftaro, 
Kal to TTvev\ia 4 el pueBLiqcriv igijravev. rj he 
drpefiovaa Kal pudXa eyKparcos evrLQrjaiv oi to 
Kara fxiKpd dhees. irpoaeXBovros he Kal irapapbi- 
vovros d-rraOovs Kal ol pierecopoi TrldrjKOL Oappovow 
rjhr), Kal Karahpap^ovres eK re eKelvov rov hivhpov 
Kai rdjv oXXojv oaa ttX^glov rraparre^vKev s dBpooi 



54. In Mauretania Leopards do not attack Mon- JgJgJ^ 
keys with force nor with all the strength and power eys 
at their command, the reason being that the Monkeys 
do not face them but escape from them and run up 
trees and sit there on guard against the designs of 
the Leopards. Yet it seems that after all the Leo- 
pard is craftier than the Monkey, for such designs 
and traps does it contrive for the Monkeys. It comes 
to the place where a gathering of Monkeys is seated, 
throws itself down beneath a tree, lies on the ground 
on its back, inflates its belly, relaxes its legs, closes 
both eyes, and even holds its breath, and lies there 
like one dead. And the Monkeys looking down upon 
their most hated enemy, fancy it to be dead; and 
what they most fervently desire, that they believe. 
For all that, they do not as yet take courage but make 
an experiment, and the experiment is this : they send 
down one of their number whom they regard as the 
most fearless to test and to scrutinise the state of the 
Leopard. So the Monkey descends not altogether 
unafraid; but after running down a little way he 
turns back, fear causing him to retreat. And a second 
time he descends and having approached, withdraws ; 
and a third time he returns and observes the Leo- 
pard's eyes and examines it to see if it is breathing. 
But the Leopard, by remaining motionless with the 
utmost self-control, inspires a gradual fearlessness in 
the Monkey. And since it approaches and remains 
close by and takes no harm, the Monkeys up aloft also 
now gather courage and run down from that particu- 
lar tree and from all others that grow near by, and 
assembling in a mass encircle the Leopard and dance 

7rvei;jLta re Kal to aadfia. 



yevopbevoi irepiepyovral re /cat Trepi^opevovmv 
avrrjv. etra epbTrrjSijoravres avrfj /cat eirifidvres 
KareKVpLOTTjaav /cat Karoyp-)(r\aavro Keprofxov rtva 
/cat TndiqKOis TTpiirovoav opyr^uw^ Kal ttolklXws 
evvfiplaavres , rjv ex ovcriv <l>s irrl veKpa %a/>av /cat 
rjBovrjv ifxaprvpavro. r) Be vrripLewe rravra, etra 
orav eworjar) KeKpbrjKevac vtto re rijs ^opetas 
avrovs koX tyjs vfipecas, aSoKrjrcos dvaTrrjSrjaacra 
Kal iaOopovcra 2 tov$ puev rots 6w$;i Sieirjve, tov$ 
Be rocs oBovcrt SieoTrdoaro, /cat rrjv e/c rcov 
TToXejjtsLcov rravdoivlav re /cat travBaiolav d<f>9o» 
vojrara ex €l > rXrjpLovojs Be e^etv 3 /cat Kaprepcos 
/cat yevviKws i) <f>vvis KeXevei 4 rrjv rrdpBaXiv 
virep rod rG>v TroXepLtojv evvfipiadvrwv TrepiyeveaBai 
KapreptKwrara evaOXovoav /cat p,rj Beop^evrjv elTrelv 
rerXaOi Br) KpaBLrj. 6 ye p,r)v rod Aaeprov eavrov 
i£eKaXvipev oXLyov Trpo rod Kaipov, rrjv e/c rcov 
7raiBcaKcbu it/Spiv pur) <f>epa>v. 

55. 'Ei> rots 1 'IvSot? ol eXe<f>avres, orav rc rwv 
BevBpojv avroppL^ov dvayKa^OiOiv avrovs ol 'I^Sot 
iKatrdcrcu, ov rrporepov epLrrqB&aw 5 ovSe ernx^- 
povo-L rep epyep rrplv r] Staa-etaat avro /cat StaoTce- 
ijsaaQai, apd ye 6 dvarpaTTrjvac otov re icrnv rj 
rravreXws dBvvarov, 

56. At ev Hivpois eXa<f>oi ylvovrac puev ev opeat 
pueyurroLSy *Ap,avtp re Kal At/JdVa> /cat Kap/x^Aar 
orav Se fiovXrjQatai, rrepaiooaaadai rrjv ddXarrav, 
errl rds f]6vas dj>tKvodvrai r) dyeXr} 3 /cat avapLe- 

1 Ges : opxqoTLK-qv. 2 eKQopovaa* 


ON ANIMALS, V. 54-56 

round it. Then they leap upon it and turn somer- 
saults on its body and by dancing in triumph a dance 
appropriate to monkeys, and by a variety of insults 
testify to the joy and delight they feel over the sup- 
posed corpse. But the Leopard submits to all this 
until it realises that the Monkeys are tired by their 
dancing and their insolence, when it leaps up un- 
expectedly and springs at them. And some it 
lacerates with its claws, others it tears to pieces with 
its teeth, and enjoys without stint the ample and 
sumptuous banquet provided by its enemies. It is 
Nature that bids the Leopard endure with heroic 
fortitude, so that it may rise superior to the insults 
of its enemies, bearing up with the utmost patience 
and finding no need to say ' endure, my heart ' 
[Horn. Od. 20. 18]. Indeed the son of Laertes was 
within an ace of revealing himself prematurely 
through being unable to tolerate the insults of the 

55. In India Elephants, when compelled by the The 

n . j. j n j 14. Elephant 

natives to pull up some tree, roots and all, do not 
immediately attack it and begin the task, until they 
have shaken it and have tested it thoroughly to see 
whether in fact it can be overturned, or whether that 
is utterly impossible. 

56. The Deer of Syria are born on the highest P ee £ h c e r °f a " 
mountains, on Amanus, on Libanus, and on Carmel. , 
And when they want to cross the sea the herd goes 

down to the beaches and waits until the wind drops ; 

5 Jac : e/c-. 

6 « ye apa or d apa ye. 



vovat tov TTvevfxaros rrjv ^Otacv, 1 /cat rjvtKa aV 
ataOcovrai irpdov avro /cat ^av^ov Kara7rviov i 
nqviKavra emBappovac tw 7reAayet. veovat Se 
Kara orolxov, /cat d^XrjXcov ex oVTa h ra yeVeta at 
€7rofjb€vac tcov 7rp07]yovp,eva)v rfj 6a<f>vi €7repel8ov~ 
car 7] . . ,. 2 reAeurata Se yevofievrj ttJ rrpoadev 
em Tracrais iavrrjv eTravaTravaacra etra ovpayei. 
ariXkovrat, Se €ttI ttjv Kvirpov iroQcp T'rjs ttocls 
tt}s e/cet* Aeyerat yap arat fiadeta /cat voids' 
ayaOas 7ra/>e^ew. 3 /cat XeyovaL ye Kwr/>tot evyecov 
oIk€lv %a)pov, /cat rat? Alymrriwv dpovpats 
roXfiwaiv avTiKplveiv rds" aferepas. eAa^ot 
/cat erepat ri^Se tt^f y^tv a7roSet/cwvTat. at youv 
'HTretpcortSes 1 es rrjv KepKvpav Stan^ovrat, aWt- 
TropfffjLot Se aAA^Aat? atSe elaiv. 

1 <j>vaw. 

2 Lacuna : iy <Se ^yovfxcvq irpoodev, orav Kafir) ,y reAeuTaia 
Jactjxmp. Opp. (7^». 2. 225, Max. Tyr. 12. 3. ' 

3 «rxe«\ 



and as soon as they observe that there is a favourable 
and gentle breeze, then they brave the open sea. And 
they swim in single file, holding on to one another, 
the ones behind supporting their chins on the rumps 
of those in front . . .« takes the last place m the 
line, and resting itself upon the one next m front 
of it in the whole troop, brings up the rear. And 
they make for Cyprus in their longing for the mea- 
dows there, for they are said to be deep and to afiord 
excellent pasture. The Cypriots indeed claim that 
they live in a fertile country, and venture to compare 
their arable land with that of Egypt. And there 
are Deer from other countries too which show this 
same capacity for swimming. For example, the Deer 
of Epirus swim across to Corcyra: the two countries 
face each other across a strait. 

« Some words have been lost; following Jacobs's suggested 
filling of* the lacuna we may translate : * When the one that 
has been leading hitherto begins to tire, it drops back to tne 
end of the file, and, etc*